Seoul the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea. With surrounding Incheon metropolis and Gyeonggi province, Seoul forms the heart of the Seoul Capital Area. Seoul is ranked as the fourth largest metropolitan economy in the world and is larger than London and Paris. Strategically situated on the Han River, Seoul's history stretches back over two thousand years, when it was founded in 18 BCE by the people of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the city was designated the capital of Korea under the Joseon dynasty. Seoul is surrounded by a mountainous and hilly landscape, with Bukhan Mountain located on the northern edge of the city; as with its long history, the Seoul Capital Area contains five UNESCO World Heritage Sites: Changdeok Palace, Hwaseong Fortress, Jongmyo Shrine and the Royal Tombs of the Joseon Dynasty. More Seoul has been a major site of modern architectural construction – major modern landmarks include the N Seoul Tower, the 63 Building, the Lotte World Tower, the Dongdaemun Design Plaza, Lotte World, Trade Tower, COEX, the IFC Seoul.
Seoul was named the 2010 World Design Capital. As the birthplace of K-pop and the Korean Wave, Seoul received over 10 million international visitors in 2014, making it the world's 9th most visited city and 4th largest earner in tourism. Today, Seoul is considered a leading and rising global city, resulting from the South Korean economic boom - referred to as the Miracle on the Han River - which transformed it into the world's 7th largest metropolitan economy with a GDP of US$635.4 billion in 2014 after Tokyo, New York City and Los Angeles. International visitors reach Seoul via AREX from the Incheon International Airport, notable for having been rated the best airport for nine consecutive years by the Airports Council International. In 2015, it was rated Asia's most livable city with the second highest quality of life globally by Arcadis, with the GDP per capita in Seoul being $39,786. Inhabitants of Seoul are faced with a high cost of living, for which the city was ranked 6th globally in 2017.
Seoul is an expensive real estate market, ranked 5th in the world for the price of apartments in the downtown center. With major technology hubs centered in Gangnam and Digital Media City, the Seoul Capital Area is home to the headquarters of 15 Fortune Global 500 companies, including Samsung, LG, Hyundai. Ranked sixth in the Global Power City Index and Global Financial Centres Index, the metropolis exerts a major influence in global affairs as one of the five leading hosts of global conferences. Seoul has hosted the 1986 Asian Games, 1988 Summer Olympics, 2002 FIFA World Cup, more the 2010 G-20 Seoul summit; the city has been known in the past by the names Wiryeseong, Hanseong, Keijō. During Japan's annexation of Korea, "Hanseong" was renamed "Keijō" by the Imperial authorities to prevent confusion with the hanja'漢', which refers to Han people or the Han dynasty and in Japanese is a term for "China", its current name originated from the Korean word meaning "capital city", believed to have descended from an ancient word, which referred to Gyeongju, the capital of Silla.
Ancient Gyeongju was known in documents by the Chinese-style name Geumseong, but it is unclear whether the native Korean-style name Seorabeol had the same meaning as Geumseong. Unlike most place names in Korea, "Seoul" has no corresponding hanja. On January 18, 2005, the Seoul government changed its official Chinese name from the historic Hancheng, still in common use, to Shou'er. Settlement of the Han River area, where present-day Seoul is located, began around 4000 BCE. Seoul is first recorded as the capital of Baekje in the northeastern Seoul area. There are several city walls remaining in the area. Pungnaptoseong, an earthen wall located southeast Seoul, is believed to have been at the main Wiryeseong site; as the Three Kingdoms competed for this strategic region, control passed from Baekje to Goguryeo in the 5th century, from Goguryeo to Silla in the 6th century. In the 11th century Goryeo, which succeeded Unified Silla, built a summer palace in Seoul, referred to as the "Southern Capital".
It was only from this period. When Joseon replaced Goryeo, the capital was moved to Seoul, where it remained until the fall of the dynasty; the Gyeongbok Palace, built in the 14th century, served as the royal residence until 1592. The other large palace, constructed in 1405, served as the main royal palace from 1611 to 1872. After Joseon changed her name to the Korean Empire in 1897, Hwangseong designated Seoul; the city was surrounded by a massive circular stone wall to provide its citizens security from wild animals and attacks. The city has grown beyond those walls and although the wall no longer stands, the gates remain near the downtown district of Seoul, including most notably Sungnyemun and Heunginjimun (commonly known as Dong
Ministry of Education (South Korea)
The Ministry of Education is a cabinet-level division of the government of South Korea. It was created on March 22, 2013, its headquarters are in the Sejong Regional Government Complex in Sejong City. It was located in the Central Government Complex in Jongno District, Seoul. Ministry of Education Ministry of Education
Park Chung-hee was a South Korean politician and general who served as the President of South Korea from 1963 until his assassination in 1979, assuming that office after first ruling the country as head of a military dictatorship installed by the May 16 coup in 1961. Before his presidency, he was the chairman of the Supreme Council for National Reconstruction from 1961 to 1963 after a career as a military leader in the South Korean army. Park's coup brought an end to the interim government of the Second Republic and his election and inauguration in 1963 ushered in the Third Republic. Seeking to bring South Korea into the developed world, Park began a series of economic policies that brought rapid economic growth and industrialization to the nation that became known as the Miracle on the Han River. South Korea became one of the fastest growing nations during the 70s as a result. Although popular during the 60s by the 70s as growth began to slow Park's popularity started wane resulting in a close victory during the 1971 South Korean presidential election.
Following this in 1972, Park declared martial law and amended the constitution into a authoritarian document called the Yushin Constitution. Formally, the pretense was. In actuality, its effect was tantamount to an abolishment of the former Constitution -- creating a new one in an effort to legitimize the new Fourth Republic. Although economic growth enjoyed a resurgence during this time, political opposition and dissent was repressed and Park had complete control of the Media and Military. Park survived several previous attempts to kill him, including two operations associated with North Korea. Following the student uprising known as the Bu-Ma Democratic Protests, Park was assassinated on 26 October 1979 by his close friend Kim Jae-gyu, the director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency, at a safe house in Seoul. Cha Ji-chul, chief of the Presidential Security Service, was fatally shot by Kim. Kim and his many accomplices were captured, tried and executed as Choi Kyu-hah became Acting President pursuant to the Yushin Constitution's Article 48.
Major General Chun Doo-hwan amassed sweeping powers after his Defense Security Command was charged with investigating the assassination, first taking control of the military and the KCIA before installing another military junta and assuming the presidency in 1980. Whether the assassination was spontaneous or premeditated is something that remains unclear today -- the motivations of Kim Jae-gyu are still debated. Economic growth continued throughout the 80s after Park's death and the country democratized. Presidents included people arrested under Park's regime. Park has been ranked by the public as the greatest South Korean president but he still remains a controversial figure in modern South Korean political discourse and among the South Korean populace in general for his dictatorship and undemocratic ways. While some credit him for sustaining the Miracle on the Han River, which reshaped and modernized South Korea, others criticize his authoritarian way of ruling the country and for prioritizing economic growth and contrived social order at the expense of civil liberties.
In 2012 the Park Chung-hee Presidential Library and Museum was opened. On 25 February 2013, his eldest daughter, Park Geun-hye, became the first female president of South Korea, she was impeached and removed from office on 10 March 2017 as a result of an influence-peddling scandal. On 6 April 2018, Park's daughter was sentenced to 24 years in prison for corruption. Park was born on 14 November 1917, in Gumi, North Gyeongsang in Korea under Japanese rule, to parents Park Sung-bin and Bek Nam-eui, he was two sisters in a poor Yangban family. Intelligent and ambitious, Park's hero from his boyhood on was Napoleon, he expressed much disgust that he had to grow up in the poor and backward countryside of Korea, a place, not suitable for someone like himself; those who knew Park as a youth recalled that a recurring theme of his remarks was his wish to "escape" from the Korean countryside. As someone who had grown up under Japanese rule, Park expressed his admiration for Japan's rapid modernization after the Meiji Restoration of 1867 and for Bushido, the Japanese warrior code.
As a youth, he won admission to a teaching school in Daegu and worked as a teacher in Mungyeong-eup after graduating in high school, but was a mediocre student. Following the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the ambitious Park decided to enter the Changchun Military Academy of the Manchukuo Imperial Army, with help from Imperial Japanese Army Colonel Arikawa. During this time, he adopted the Japanese name Takagi Masao, he graduated top of his class in 1942 and was recognized as a talented officer by his Japanese instructors, who recommended him for further studies at the Imperial Japanese Army Academy in Japan. After graduating third in the class of 1944, Park was commissioned as a lieutenant into the Imperial Army of Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet-state, served during the final stages of World War II as aide-de-camp to a regimental commander, he changed his name again from Takagi Masao to Okamoto Minoru in order to engage in intelligence activities against Korean guerrillas operating in the region.
The Japanese used Korean turncoats to suppress Korean armed resistance. Park returned to Kore
Kaesong is a city in North Hwanghae Province in the southern part of North Korea, a former Directly Governed City and the capital of Korea during the Taebong kingdom and subsequent Goryeo dynasty. The city is near the Kaesong Industrial Region close to the border with South Korea and contains the remains of the Manwoldae palace. Called Songdo while it was the ancient capital of Goryeo, the city prospered as a trade centre that produced Korean ginseng. Kaesong now functions as the DPRK's light industry centre. During the Japanese occupation from 1910 to 1945, the city was known by the Japanese pronunciation of its name, "Kaijō". Between 1945 and 1950, Kaesong was part of South Korea and under its control; the 1953 Korean Armistice Agreement left the city under North Korean control. It is the only city to have changed hands from South to North Korean control as a result of the armistice agreement. Due to the city's proximity to the border with South Korea, Kaesong has hosted cross-border economic exchanges between the two countries as well as the jointly run Kaesong Industrial Region.
As of 2009, the city had a population of 192,578. The earliest archaeological signs of habitation in the Kaesong area date from the Neolithic. Artifacts such as Jeulmun pottery, stone ware, stone axes have been excavated from Osongsan and Kaesong Nasong, the double-walled fortress of Kaesong; as Kaesong has been occupied by various states throughout centuries, its name has changed. It was in the realm of Mahan confederacy, was referred to as Busogap during the rule of Goguryeo. Before the strength of Baekje was retreated to the southwest of Jungnyeong, Mungyeong Saejae, Asan Bay in 475, the area had been a part of Baekje for about 100 years. However, it became a territory of Silla in 555, the 16th year of Jinheung of Silla's reign, its name was changed to Song'ak-gun during the period. According to the Samguk Sagi, when a castle was built in the site in 694, the third year of Hyoso of Silla's reign, Kaesong was referred to as "Song'ak". Therefore, it is assumed. Silla began to decline in late 9th century, a period of rival warlords ensued.
In 898, Kaesong fell under the hand of Gung Ye, the founder of his short-lived state and became a part of Goryeo in 919 by its founder, Wang Geon, enthroned as Taejo of Goryeo. Taejo established the capital in the south of Song'ak, incorporated Kaesong into Song'ak under the name of "Gaeju". In 919, Kaesong became the national capital. In 960, the 11th year of Gwangjong of Goryeo's reign, the city was renamed Gaegyeong, in 995, the 14th year of Seonjong of Goryeo's reign, it was elevated to "Gaesong-bu"; the Gaeseong-bu is a combined term of Song'ak-gun, Gaesong-gun, different from the region of the pre-1945 Gaesong-ri, Seo-myeon, Kaepung-gun. In 1010, the first year of Hyeonjong of Goryeo's reign, the palace and houses were burnt down during the second conflict in the Goryeo–Khitan War, so in 1018, Gaesong-bu was relegated for the "bu" system, became to govern the three hyeon unites of Jeongju and Gangeum. In the late 12th century, there was instability in the countryside. A slave named Manjǒk led a group of slaves who gathered outside Kaesong in 1198.
The revolt plot was suppressed by Choe Chung-heon. When Yi Songgye overthrew Goryeo in 1392 and established the Joseon as Taejo of Joseon, he moved the Korean capital from Kaesong to Hanyang in 1394. Kaesong remained a part of Gyeonggi Province until the Korean War; when Korea was partitioned at the 38th parallel after World War II, Kaesong was on the southern side of the line. However, the battle of Kaesong-Munsan was won by the Korean People's Army in the first days of the Korean War; the city was recaptured by UN Forces on 9 October 1950 during the pursuit of the KPA that followed the successful Inchon landings. UN Forces abandoned the city 16 December 1950 during the withdrawal to the Imjin River following the Chinese People's Volunteer Army intervention in the war. Kaesong would remain under Chinese/North Korean control until the end of the war. Ceasefire negotiations began in Kaesong on 10 July 1951, but were moved to Panmunjom on 25 October 1951; the Korean Armistice Agreement signed on 27 July 1953 recognised North Korean control over Kaesong making it the only city to change control from South Korea to North Korea as a result of the war.
Postwar Kaesong and the part of Kyonggi Province that came to be occupied was organized into "Kaesong Region". In 1955, Kaesong became a "Directly Governed City". In 2002, Kaesŏng Industrial Region was formed from part of Kaesong. In 2003, the remaining part of Kaesong became part of North Hwanghae Province; the city is close to the Demilitarized Zone that divides South Korea. Located in the center of Korea, Kaesong is the southernmost city of North Korea, it is bordered by Kaepung, Changpung and Kumchon counties. Kanghwa Island of Incheon Municipality lies just south, beyond a narrow channel, it covers an area of 1,309 km ², the urban district is surrounded by Pongmyong mountains. The city center surrounds the much smaller Mt. Janam, on, located the city's iconic Kim Il Sung statue. In the northern part of Kaesong, the end of the Ahobiryŏng range creates the northernmost border of Kaesong City; this range consists of Mts. Chŏnma, Sŏnggŏ, Suryong, Chesŏk, Ogwan. With the exception of the mountainous northeastern region, most areas of Kaesong consist of low h
Korean reunification refers to the potential unification of North Korea and South Korea into a single Korean sovereign state. The process towards reunification was started by the June 15th North–South Joint Declaration in June 2000, was reaffirmed by the Panmunjom Declaration for Peace and Unification of the Korean Peninsula in April 2018. In the Panmunjom Declaration, the two countries agreed to work towards a peaceful reunification of Korea in the future, the joint statement of the United States President Donald Trump and North Korean Chairman Kim Jong-un at the Singapore Summit in June 2018. Prior to World War I and Japan's annexation of Korea, all of Korea was unified as a single state for centuries, known as the Goryeo and Joseon dynasties, the last unified state, the Korean Empire. After World War II and beginning in the Cold War, Korea was divided into two countries along the 38th parallel. North Korea was administered by the Soviet Union in the years following the war, with South Korea being managed by the United States.
In 1950, North Korea invaded the South, beginning the Korean War, which ended in stalemate in 1953. Since the end of the Korean War, reunification has become more of a challenge as the two countries have grown to be divergent at a steady pace. However, in the late 2010s, relations between North and South Korea have warmed somewhat, beginning with North Korea's participation at the 2018 Winter Olympics in Pyeongchang County, Gangwon Province, South Korea; the current division of the Korean Peninsula is the result of decisions taken at the end of World War II. In 1910, the Empire of Japan annexed Korea, ruled over it until its defeat in World War II; the Korean independence agreement occurred on 1 December 1943, when the United States and Great Britain signed the Cairo Declaration, which stated: "The aforesaid three powers, mindful of the enslavement of the people of Korea, are determined that in due course Korea shall become free and independent". In 1945, the United Nations developed plans for trusteeship administration of Korea.
The division of the peninsula into two military occupation zones was agreed – a northern zone administered by the Soviet Union and a southern zone administered by the United States. At midnight on 10 August 1945, two army lieutenant colonels selected the 38th parallel as a dividing line. Japanese troops to the North of this line were to surrender to the Soviet Union and troops to the South of this line would surrender to the United States; this was not intended to result in a long-lasting partition, but Cold War politics resulted in the establishment of two separate governments in the two zones in 1948 and rising tensions prevented cooperation. The desire of many Koreans for a peaceful unification was dashed when the Korean War broke out in 1950. In June 1950, troops from North Korea invaded South Korea. Mao Zedong encouraged the confrontation with the United States and Joseph Stalin reluctantly supported the invasion. After three years of fighting that involved both Koreas and United Nations forces led by the U.
S. the war ended with an armistice agreement at the same boundary. Despite now being politically separate entities, the governments of North and South Korea have proclaimed the eventual restoration of Korea as a single state as a goal. After the "Nixon Shock" in 1971 that led to détente between the United States and China, in 1972 the North and South Korean governments made a 7 · 4 South and North Korea Joint Statement that a representative of each government had secretly visited the capital city of the other side and that both sides had agreed to a North-South Joint Communiqué, outlining the steps to be taken towards achieving a peaceful reunification of the country: Unification shall be achieved through independent Korean efforts without being subject to external imposition of interference. Unification shall be achieved through peaceful means, not through the use of force against each other; as a homogeneous people, a great national unity shall be sought above all, transcending difference in ideas and systems.
In order to ease tensions, foster an atmosphere of mutual trust between the South and the North, the two sides have agreed not to slander or defame each other, not to undertake armed provocations whether on a large or small scale, to take positive measures to prevent inadvertent military incidents. The two sides, in order to restore severed national ties, promote mutual understanding, expedite independent peaceful unification, have agreed to carry out various exchanges in many fields such as culture and science; the two sides have agreed to cooperate positively with each other to seek early success of the North-South Red Cross talks, which are underway with the fervent expectations of the entire people. The two sides, in order to prevent the outbreak of unexpected military incidents and to deal directly and with problems arising between the North and the South, have agreed to install a direct telephone line between Seoul and Pyongyang; the two sides, in order to implement the aforementioned agreed upon items, to solve various problems existing between the North and the South, to settle the unification problem on the basis of the agreed upon principles for unification of the Fatherland, have agreed to establish and operate a North-South Coordinating Committee co-chaired by Director Yi Hurak and Director Kim Yong-ju.
The two sides convinced that the aforementioned agreed upon items correspond with the common aspirations of the entire people, who are anxious to see an early unification of the Fatherland, hereby solemnly pledge before the entire Ko
Fair Trade Commission (South Korea)
The Korea Fair Trade Commission is South Korea's regulatory authority for economic competition. It was established in 1981 within the Economic Planning Board; the establishing law was Fair Trade Act, Law No. 3320, December 31, 1980. In 1994, the Fair Trade Commission and its secretariat were separated from the Economic Planning Board as an independent vice ministerial-level, central administrative organization. In 1996, the status of the KFTC Chairman was elevated from vice-ministerial to ministerial level; the original KFTC had five commissioners from 1981 to 1990. This was increased to seven commissioners from 1990 to 1997. Since 1997 the KFTC has had nine commissioners, which includes a Chairman, a Vice-Chairman, three other standing commissioners. There are four non-standing commissioners; the KFTC is supported in its work by a secretariat. The current KFTC Chairman is Kim Sang-jo, known as the “chaebol sniper”. Apart from the MRFTA, the KFTC enforces the following statutes: Law No. 3922, December 31, 1986.
Fair Labelling and Advertising Act, Law No. 5814, February 5, 1999. Omnibus Cartel Repeal Act, Law No. 5815, February 5, 1999. Door-to-Door Sales Act, Law No. 4481, December 31, 1991. Installment Transactions Act, Law No. 4480, December 31, 1991. Fair Subcontract Transactions Act, Law No. 3799, December 31, 1984. Fair Franchise Transactions Act, Law No. 6704, May 13, 2002. Consumer Protection in Electronic Commerce Act, Law No. 6687, March 30, 2002. On December 7, 2005, the KFTC reached the decision to order Microsoft Corporation and Microsoft Korea, inter alia, to unbundle certain tied products, including Windows Media Player and MSN Messenger, to impose surcharges amounting to 33 billion won for violation of the Monopoly Regulation and Fair Trade Act, including the abuse of market dominant position provision. On October 16, 2007, the Associated Press reported that Microsoft has stopped appealing the December 2005 decision and has withdrawn the appeal. On February 28, 2011, the KFTC declared, "Through a meeting held from February 23rd through the 25th, we have decided to take appropriate action against the following 15 online music-related companies: SK Telecom, LOEN Entertainment, KT, KT Music, Mnet Media, Neowiz Bugs, Sony Music Entertainment Korea, Universal Music, Warner Music Korea, Yejun Media, Pony Canyon Korea, S.
M. Entertainment, SBS Contents Hub, King Pin Entertainment, Direct Media." The FTC alleged that the companies decided to rig the market once non-DRM digital songs were allowed to be downloaded, starting May 2008. Non-DRM songs allow for infinite downloads, which led companies to discontinue products and certificates that catered to non-DRM songs. Thirteen of the companies listed above stopped distributing songs to services which offered infinite downloads, thus rigging the market. A representative of the FTC revealed, "In order to block competition coming from smaller businesses, the companies listed above rigged their own prices. By rigging the prices in compliance with one another, they placed great harm on the consumers and other businesses in the industry. Indeed, by equalizing the prices of their products, they've made the music industry believe that such a phenomenon was permanent, they have set up a blockade against the production of products that fit in different price categories. This is a violation of the consumer's right of choice."
The representative continued, "With this action, we hope that consumers will be able to spend less in order to enjoy a greater diversity of products. This is the first action being taken for the online music industry. No one is free when prices are rigged, so we hope other companies support this effort." The fines for each company are: SK Telecom LOEN Entertainment KT KT Music Mnet Media Neowiz Bugs Sony Music Entertainment Universal Music Warner Music Korea Five of the above companies will be formally accused of their crimes. LOEN Entertainment's CEO Shin Won-soo, KT Music's CEO Kim Min-wook and Mnet Media's CEO Kim Sung-soo will be prosecuted separately. Competition law Competition policy Competition regulator Consumers' Association Consumer protection Official English language website of the KFTC Official KFTC English Decision in Microsoft Case PDF Microsoft wants to drop antitrust appeal in South Korea
Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs (South Korea)
The Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs is a government ministry of South Korea which handles veterans. It was established in August 1961 as the Soldiers' Affairs Agency. July 5, 1961 – Act for Establishment of Military Relief Administration enacted May 12, 1962 – Veterans Office Military Relief Office was renamed to Veterans Office, branch office became regional offices, 25 local agencies were upgraded to district offices January 1, 1985 – Veterans Affairs Agency became Ministry of Patriots and Veterans Affairs, regional offices became regional veterans offices or branch veterans offices, Veterans Committee 4.19 Cemetery Management Office was created February 19, 1993 – The posts of Director-Generals of Veterans Policy and Veterans Promotion were created January 28, 1995 – 4.19 Cemetery Management Office was created September 14, 2002 – City-administered 5.18 cemetery Office and 3.15 cemetery Office were transferred to MPVA and two cemeteries’ level was elevated to national cemetery from municipal cemetery May 24, 2004 – The Veterans Bureau was newly established to help veterans make a smoother transition to civilian life May 18, 2005 – The Independence Hall was transferred to MPVA from Ministry of Culture and Tourism January 26, 2006 – The National Daejeon Cemetery was transferred to MPVA from Ministry of Defense January 14, 2007 – Veterans Centers in Seoul, Daejeon were created July 7, 2011 – Veterans Center in Gyeonggi was created Ministries of South Korea Korean homepage English homepage