The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Imperial General Headquarters
The Imperial General Headquarters was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime. In terms of function, it was equivalent to the United States Joint Chiefs of Staff and the British Chiefs of Staff Committee; the Imperial General Headquarters was established by Imperial Decree 52 on 22 May 1893 under the auspices of creating a central command for both the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff Office and the Imperial Japanese Navy General Staff. The Emperor of Japan, defined as both Head of State and the Generalissimo of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces according to the Meiji Constitution of 1889 to 1945, was the head of the Imperial General Headquarters, was assisted by staff appointed from the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy; the Imperial General Staff Headquarters was independent of the civilian government of the Empire of Japan, including the Cabinet and the Prime Minister of Japan.
Prime Minister Itō Hirobumi was allowed to attend meetings by the express order of Emperor Meiji during the First Sino-Japanese War. However, Prime Minister Katsura Taro, despite his military background, was denied entry to meetings during the subsequent Russo-Japanese War. After the Lugouqiao Incident in July 1937, Imperial Decree 658 of 18 November 1937 abolished the original Imperial General Headquarters, immediately re-constituted under Military Decree 1, which gave the new Imperial General Headquarters command authority over all military operations during peacetime situations as well as wartime situations. In November 1937, to bring the chiefs of Army and Navy into closer consultation with his government, Emperor Hirohito established a body known as the Imperial General Headquarters-Government Liaison Conference within Imperial General Headquarters; the Liaison Conferences were intended to assist in integrating the decisions and needs of the two military sections of Imperial General Headquarters with the resources and policies of the rest of the government.
Reaching agreement between the Army and Navy on strategic planning was difficult. When agreement was reached on an important strategic issue, the agreement was reduced to writing in a document called a Central Agreement and signed by both Chiefs of Army and Navy General Staffs; the final decisions of Liaison Conferences were formally disclosed and approved at Imperial Conferences over which Emperor Hirohito presided in person at the Tokyo Imperial Palace. During the Pacific War, after the firebombing of Tokyo, the Imperial General Headquarters relocated to an underground facility in the mountains outside Nagano. With the surrender of Japan, the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers ordered the Imperial General Headquarters abolished on 13 September 1945. Imperial General Headquarters Navy Sections; the Army Section comprised the Chief of Army General Staff and his chief of Army Operations, the Army Minister. The Navy Section comprised Chief of Navy General Staff, his chief of Navy Operations, the Navy Minister.
In addition, the Inspector-General of Military Training, whose rank was on-par with that of the Chiefs of the General Staff, the Aide-de-camp to the Emperor of Japan were members. Middle-ranking officers of Army and Navy General Staff, Army and Navy Ministry, met from time to time at middle-level liaison or study conferences to discuss Japan's strategic war plans, plans requiring cooperation between the two armed services, outside of the formal meeting in the presence of the Emperor. Relations between the Japanese Army and Navy were never cordial, marked by deep hostility; the Army saw the Soviet Union as Japan's greatest threat and for the most part supported the Hokushin-ron concept that Japan's strategic interests were on the Asian continent. The Navy looked across the Pacific Ocean and saw the United States as the greatest threat, for the most part supported the Nanshin-ron concept that Japan's strategic interests were in Southeast Asia and the Pacific islands. Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan, was defined as the Head of State and the Generalissimo of the Imperial Japanese Armed Forces according to the constitution of 1889.
During World War II, the leadership of the Imperial General Headquarters consisting of the following: Chief of the Army General Staff Kotohito Kan'in Hajime Sugiyama Hideki Tōjō Yoshijirō Umezu Chief of the Navy General Staff Hiroyasu Fushimi Osami Nagano Shigetarō Shimada Koshirō Oikawa Soemu Toyoda Minister of War Hajime Sugiyama Seishirō Itagaki Shunroku Hata Hideki Tōjō Korechika Anami Minister of the Navy Mitsumasa Yonai Zengo Yoshida Koshirō Oikawa Shigetarō Shimada The majority of these troops were stationed in China, Japan and Korea. This includes some 61 divisions, 59 brigades, 51 air squadrons. Only a fraction of Japan's military, 11 to 14 divisions and the South Seas Detachment, were available for the December 1941 operations in South-East Asia and the Pacific. Imperial General Headquarters IJA General Staff General Affairs Bureau Organization and Mobilization Department Training Department 1st Bureau Operations Department Defence Department 2nd Bureau Europe and the Americas Department China Department Russia/Soviet Union Department Intelligence Department 3rd Bureau Transport Department Communications Department 4th Bureau Military History Department Strategy and Tactics Department General Staff College Land Survey D
Prince Yamagata Aritomo known as Yamagata Kyōsuke, was a Japanese field marshal in the Imperial Japanese Army and twice Prime Minister of Japan. He was one of the main architects of the political foundations of early modern Japan. Yamagata Aritomo can be seen as the father of Japanese militarism. Yamagata was born in a lower-ranked samurai family from Hagi, the capital of the feudal domain of Chōshū, he went to Shokasonjuku, a private school run by Yoshida Shōin, where he devoted his energies to the growing underground movement to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate. He was a commander in the Kiheitai, a paramilitary organization created on semi-western lines by the Chōshū domain. During the Boshin War, the revolution of 1867 and 1868 called the Meiji Restoration, he was a staff officer. After the defeat of the Tokugawa, Yamagata together with Saigō Tsugumichi was selected by the leaders of the new government to go to Europe in 1869 to research European military systems. Yamagata like many Japanese was influenced by the striking success of Prussia in transforming itself from an agricultural state to a leading industrial and military power.
He accepted Prussian political ideas, which favored military expansion abroad and authoritarian government at home. On returning he was asked to organize a national army for Japan, he became War Minister in 1873. Yamagata energetically modernized the fledgling Imperial Japanese Army, modeled it after the Prussian Army, he began a system of military conscription in 1873. As War Minister, Yamagata pushed through the foundation of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff, the main source of Yamagata's political power and that of other military officers through the end of World War I, he was Chief of the Army General Staff in 1878–1882, 1884–85 and 1904-1905. Yamagata in 1877 led the newly modernized Imperial Army against the Satsuma Rebellion led by his former comrade in revolution, Saigō Takamori of Satsuma. At the end of the war, when Saigo's severed head was brought to Yamagata, he ordered it washed, held the head in his arms as he pronounced a meditation on the fallen hero, he prompted Emperor Meiji to write the Imperial Rescript to Soldiers and Sailors, in 1882.
This document was considered the moral core of the Japanese Army and Naval forces until their dissolution in 1945. Yamagata was awarded the rank of field marshal in 1898, he showed his leadership on military issues as acting War Minister and Commanding General during the First Sino-Japanese War. He was the political and military ideological ancestor of the Hokushin-ron as he traced the first lines of a national defensive strategy against Russia after Russo-Japanese War. Yamagata was one of the group of seven political leaders called the genrō, who came to dominate the government of Japan; the word can be translated senior statesmen. The genrō were a subset of the revolutionary leaders who shared common objectives and who by about 1880 had forced out or isolated the other original leaders; these seven men led Japan for many years, through its great transformation from an agricultural country into a modern military and industrial state. All the genrō served at various times as cabinet ministers, most were at times prime minister.
As a body, the genrō had no official status, they were trusted advisers to the Emperor. Yet the genrō made collectively the most important decisions, such as peace and war and foreign policy, when a cabinet resigned they chose the new prime minister. In the twentieth century their power diminished because of deaths and quarrels among themselves, the growing political power of the Army and Navy, but the genrō clung to the power of naming prime ministers up to the death of the last genrō Prince Saionji in 1940. Yamagata and Itō Hirobumi were long the most prominent of the seven, after the assassination of Itō in 1909, Yamagata dominated the genrō, but Yamagata held a large and devoted power base in the officers of the army and the militarists. He became the towering leader of Japanese conservatives, he profoundly distrusted all democratic institutions, he devoted the part of his life to building and defending the power the political power, of the army. During his long and versatile career, Yamagata held numerous important governmental posts.
In 1882, he became president of the Board of Legislation and as Home Minister he worked vigorously to suppress political parties and repress agitation in the labor and agrarian movements. He organized a system of local administration, based on a prefecture-county-city structure, still in use in Japan today. In 1883 Yamagata was appointed to the post of Lord Chancellor, the highest bureaucratic position in the government system before the Meiji Constitution of 1889. Yamagata became the third Prime Minister of Japan after the creation of the Cabinet of Japan from December 24, 1889 to May 6, 1891, he became the first prime minister who had to share power with a partially-elected Imperial Diet under the Meiji Constitution that took effect in 1890. During his first term, the Imperial Rescript on Education was issued. In order to pass a budget for fiscal 1891, he had to negotiate with a liberal majority in the House of Representatives, the elected lower house of the Diet. Yamagata became Prime Minister for a second term from November 8, 1898 to October 19, 1900.
In 1900, while in his second term as Prime Minister, he ruled that only an active military officer could serve
Prince Matsukata Masayoshi was a Japanese politician and the 4th and 6th Prime Minister of Japan. Matsukata was born into a samurai family in Satsuma Province. At the age of 13, he entered the Zoshikan, the Satsuma domain's Confucian academy, where he studied the teachings of Wang Yangming, which stressed loyalty to the Emperor, he started his career as a bureaucrat of the Satsuma Domain. In 1866, he was sent to Nagasaki to study western science and surveying. Matsukata was regarded by Ōkubo Toshimichi and Saigō Takamori, who used him as their liaison between Kyoto and the domain government in Kagoshima. Knowing that war was coming between Satsuma and the Tokugawa, Matsukata purchased a ship available in Nagasaki for use in the coming conflict; this ship was given the name Kasuga. The leaders of Satsuma felt the ship was best used as cargo vessel and so Matsukata resigned his position as captain of the ship he had purchased. Just a few months the Kasuga did become a warship and it fought in the Boshin War against the Tokugawa ships.
At the time of the Meiji Restoration, he helped maintain order in Nagasaki after the collapse of the Tokugawa bakufu. In 1868, Matsukata was appointed governor of Hita Prefecture by his friend Okubo, the powerful minister of the interior for the new Meiji government; as governor Matsukata instituted a number of reforms including road building, starting the port of Beppu, building a successful orphanage. His ability as an administrator was noted in Tokyo and after two years he was summoned to the capital. Matsukata moved to Tokyo in 1871 and began work on drafting laws for the Land Tax Reform of 1873–1881. Under the new system: a taxpayer paid taxes with money instead of rice taxes were calculated based on the price of estates, not the amount of the agricultural product produced, tax rates were fixed at 3% of the value of estates and an estate holder was obliged to pay those taxes; the new tax system was radically different from the traditional tax gathering system, which required taxes to be paid with rice varied according to location and the amount of rice produced.
The new system took some years to be accepted by the Japanese people. Matsukata became Lord Home Minister in 1880. In the following year, when Ōkuma Shigenobu was expelled in a political upheaval, he became Lord Finance Minister; the Japanese economy was in a crisis situation due to rampant inflation. Matsukata introduced a policy of fiscal restraint that resulted in what has come to be called the "Matsukata Deflation"; the economy was stabilized, but the resulting crash in commodity prices caused many smaller landholders to lose their fields to money-lending neighbors. Matsukata established the Bank of Japan in 1882; when Itō Hirobumi was appointed the first modern-day Prime Minister of Japan in 1885, he named Matsukata to be the first Finance Minister in his cabinet. Matsukata sought to protect Japanese industry from foreign competition, but was restricted by the unequal treaties; the unavailability of protectionist devices benefited Japan in the long run, as it enabled Japan to develop its export industries.
The national government tried to create government industries to produce particular products or services. Lack of funds forced the government to turn these industries over to private businesses which in return for special privileges agreed to pursue the government's goals; this arrangement led to the rise of the zaibatsu system. Matsukata served as finance minister in seven of the first nine cabinets, led the Finance Ministry for 15 of the 20-year period from 1881 to 1901, he is believed to have had significant influence on drafting Articles 62–72 of the Meiji Constitution of 1890. Matsukata followed Yamagata Aritomo as Prime Minister from May 6, 1891, to August 8, 1892, followed Ito Hirobumi as Prime Minister from September 18, 1896, to January 12, 1898, during which times he concurrently held office as finance minister. One issue of his term in office was the Black Ocean Society, which operated with the support of certain powerful figures in the government and in return was powerful enough to demand concessions from the government.
They received promises of a strong foreign policy from the 1892 Matsukata Cabinet. Matsukata successively held offices as president of the Japanese Red Cross Society, privy councillor, member of the House of Peers, Lord Keeper of the Privy Seal of Japan, he was given the title of prince and genrō. In 1902 he visited Europe, he arrived in London from New York in late April. During his stay, he was received in audience by King Edward VII at Buckingham Palace on 2 May 1902, received an honorary degree from the University of Oxford the following month. In July he visited St Petersburg before returning to Japan. Incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia article Count Marquess Duke Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers Collar of the Order of the Chrysanthemum Matsukata was named an Honorary Knight Grand Cross of Order of St Michael and St George in November 1902. D. C. L. University of Oxford - June 1902, during a visit to the United Kingdom Matsukata had many children and grandchildren.
It is said. Matsukata's son, Kōjirō Matsukata led a successful business
Count Katsu Yasuyoshi, best known by his nickname Katsu Kaishū, was a Japanese statesman and naval engineer during the late Tokugawa shogunate and early Meiji period. Kaishū was a nickname, he went through a series of given names throughout his life. He was called Awa from his title Awano-kami during the late Tokugawa shogunate and changed his name to Yasuyoshi after the Meiji Restoration. Katsu Kaishū rose to occupy the position of commissioner in the Tokugawa navy, he is known for his role in the surrender of Edo. Born Katsu Yoshikuni in March 12, 1823 in Edo to a low-ranking retainer of the Tokugawa shōgun, his father, Katsu Kokichi, the subject of the autobiography, Musui's Story, was the ill-behaved head of a minor samurai family. As a youth whose given childhood name as Katsu Rintarō, he studied Dutch and European military science, was appointed translator by the government when European powers attempted to open contact with Japan. Katsu developed the reputation as an expert in western military technology.
Under the advice of Dutch naval officers, Katsu served as head naval cadet at the Nagasaki Naval Academy between 1855 and 1859. In 1860, Katsu served as captain of the warship Kanrin-maru, to escort the first Japanese delegation to San Francisco, California, en route to Washington, DC, for the formal ratification of the Harris Treaty; the Kanrin Maru, built by the Dutch, was the first Japanese vessel to sail to the Western world. Kaishū remained in San Francisco for nearly two months, observing American society and technology. Following his return to Japan, Katsu held a series of high-ranking posts in the Tokugawa navy, arguing before government councils in favor of a unified Japanese naval force led by professionally trained officers in disregard of promotion and assignment due to hereditary status. During his command as director of the Kobe Naval School, the institute would become a major source of activity for progressive thinking and reformists between 1863 and 1864. In 1866, Katsu was appointed negotiator between the bakufu forces and the anti-shogunal domain of Chōshū, served as chief negotiator for the Tokugawa bakufu, ensuring a peaceful and orderly transition of power in the Meiji Restoration.
Although sympathetic to the anti-Tokugawa cause, Katsu remained loyal to the Tokugawa bakufu during the Boshin War. After the collapse of the Tokugawa forces in late 1867, Katsu negotiated the surrender of Edo castle to Saigō Takamori on 11 April 1868. Katsu relocated to Shizuoka after the new Imperial government took control of the shogun's former capital, renamed Tokyo, he returned to government service as Vice Minister of the Imperial Japanese Navy in 1872, followed by first Minister of the Navy from 1873 until 1878. As Katsu Yasuyoshi, he was the most prominent of the former Tokugawa retainers who found employment within the new Meiji government, was sangi between 1869 and 1885 who did not come from one of the four paramount domains. Although his influence within the navy was minimal, as the Navy was dominated by a core of Satsuma officers, Katsu served in a senior advisory capacity on national policy. During the next two decades, Katsu served on the Privy Council and wrote extensively on naval issues.
In 1887, he was elevated to the title of hakushaku in the kazoku peerage system. Katsu recorded his memoirs in the book Hikawa Seiwa. In 1891, through a connection of Tsuda Sen, the father of Tsuda Ume, Katsu Yasuyoshi purchased a plot of land at Senzoku-ike kôen, built his retirement home there. Following his death in 1899, he was buried with his wife Tami near the site of their home, on the shores of Senzoku Pond, in what is today Senzoku-ike kôen in Tokyo. Translated from the corresponding article in the Japanese Wikipedia Count Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Fourth rank Senior fourth rank Third rank Senior third rank Junior Second rank Senior second rank Hillsborough, Romulus. Samurai Revolution: The Dawn of Modern Japan Through the Eyes of the Shogun's Last Samurai. Tuttle, 2013. Jansen, Marius B.. Sakamoto Ryoma and the Meiji Restoration. Princeton: Princeton University Press. OCLC 413111 Katsu, Kokichi. Musui's Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai University of Arizona Press, 1988.
Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5.
Count Kuroda Kiyotaka known as Kuroda Ryōsuke, was a Japanese politician of the Meiji era. He was the second Prime Minister of Japan from April 30, 1888, to October 25, 1889. Kuroda was born to a samurai-class family serving the Shimazu daimyō of Kagoshima, Satsuma Domain, in Kyūshū. In 1862, Kuroda was involved in the Namamugi incident, in which Satsuma retainers killed a British national who refused to bow down to the daimyo's procession; this led to the Anglo-Satsuma War in 1863. After the war, he went to Edo where he studied gunnery. Returning to Satsuma, Kuroda became an active member of the Satsuma-Chōshū joint effort to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate; as a military leader in the Boshin War, he became famous for sparing the life of Enomoto Takeaki, who had stood against Kuroda's army at the Battle of Hakodate. Under the new Meiji government, Kuroda became a pioneer-diplomat to Karafuto, claimed by both Japan and the Russian Empire in 1870. Terrified of Russia's push eastward, Kuroda returned to Tokyo and advocated quick development and settlement of Japan's northern frontier.
In 1871 he traveled to Europe and the United States for five months, upon returning to Japan in 1872, he was put in charge of colonization efforts in Hokkaidō. In 1874, Kuroda was named director of the Hokkaidō Colonization Office, organized a colonist-militia scheme to settle the island with unemployed ex-samurai and retired soldiers who would serve as both farmers and as a local militia, he was promoted to lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army. Kuroda invited agricultural experts from overseas countries with a similar climate to visit Hokkaidō, to provide advice on what crops and production methods might be successful. Kuroda was dispatched as an envoy to Korea in 1875, negotiated the Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876. In 1877, he was sent as part of the force to suppress the Satsuma Rebellion. In 1878, he became de facto leader of Satsuma Domain following the assassination of Ōkubo Toshimichi. Shortly before he left office in Hokkaidō, Kuroda became the central figure in the Hokkaidō Colonization Office Scandal of 1881.
As part of the government's privatization program, Kuroda attempted to sell the assets of the Hokkaidō Colonization Office to a trading consortium created by some of his former Satsuma colleagues for a nominal price. When the terms of the sale were leaked to the press, the resultant public outrage caused the sale to fall through. In 1881, Kuroda's wife died of a lung disease, but on rumors that Kuroda had killed her in a drunken rage, the body was exhumed and examined. Kuroda was cleared of charges. In 1887, Kuroda was appointed to the cabinet post of Minister of Commerce. Kuroda Kiyotaka became the 2nd Prime Minister of Japan, after Itō Hirobumi in 1888. During his term, he oversaw the promulgation of the Meiji Constitution. However, the vexing issue of Japan's inability to secure revision of the unequal treaties created considerable controversy. After drafts of proposed revisions drawn up his foreign minister Ōkuma Shigenobu became public in 1889, Kuroda was forced to resign. Kuroda served as Minister of Communications in 1892 under the 2nd Ito Cabinet.
In 1895 he became a genrō, chairman of the Privy Council. Kuroda died of a brain hemorrhage in 1900 and Enomoto Takeaki presided over his funeral ceremonies, his grave is at the Aoyama Cemetery in Tokyo. From the corresponding Japanese Wikipedia article Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun Count Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun with Paulownia Flowers Grand Cordon of the Order of the Chrysanthemum List of Ambassadors from Japan to South Korea Auslin, Michael R.. Negotiating with Imperialism: The Unequal Treaties and the Culture of Japanese Diplomacy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01521-0; the Making of Modern Japan. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 9780674003347. Emperor of Japan: Meiji and His World, 1852–1912. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-12340-2. Japan encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Japanese Political History Since the Meiji Renovation 1868–2000. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9780312239145.