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Ministry of the Presidency

The Ministry of the Presidency, Relations with the Cortes and Democratic Memory is the department of the Government of Spain which assures the link between the different Ministries and the Prime Minister and is responsible for the relations between the Government and the Parliament. In this sense, it is responsible for coordinating the matters of institutional relevance; as a supportive department of the Prime Minister, it assumes the functions of giving material, economic and personnel support and, in general, as many others of this nature require the Premier and the bodies dependent on the Office of the Prime Minister. The MPR is responsible for authorizasing the use of the flag, the coat of arms and other national symbols. At the same time, the Presidency Minister exercises the functions of secretary of the Council of Ministers, signing the minutes of each meeting of the Council as Minister-Secretary of the Council of Ministers; the Ministry's official budget for 2019 is € 614.23 million.

The background of the coordination work of the different areas of governmental action exercised by the current Ministry of the Presidency can be track down in the resolution of 30 November 1714, under the reign of Philip V, the Cabinet Council was created. For the establishment of the Council of Ministers would have to wait more than 100 years, until the Royal Decree of November 19, 1823, under the reign of Ferdinand VII, it is at this time that the embryo of a ministerial coordination function and the Secretariat of the Government can be glimpsed, with the establishment of a book where the agreements of the Council would be written, which fell to the Ministers themselves. Despite this, some gestures announced the future birth of a support structure for the Prime Minister, which would lead to an independent Ministry. Thus, by Royal Decree of 30 September 1851, a Directorate-General was created that assisted the President of the Council of Ministers in the management of overseas affairs, that would be the embryo of the future Ministry of the Presidency.

It was created, the position of the Assistant Secretary of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, however in its origins had no relationship with the functions of Secretariat of the Government until 1871. At the beginning of the 1890s, the structure of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Presidency was remodeled, assigning functions of relationship with the constitutional bodies and with regard to appointments and dismissals. In the 20th century, the position became known as the Administrative Office of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers, recovering that of Assistant Secretary of the Presidency of the Council of Ministers by virtue of the Royal Decree of 4 February 1930; this designation kept under the Second Republic. It is that time, the figure without specific functions, performs tasks as different as those derived from being the Technical Secretariat for Morocco and Colonies and for the National Tourist Board. Under the Franco regime was confirmed by Decree of August 11, 1939 the existence of the Assistant Secretary of the Presidency, Luis Carrero Blanco was appointed it.

According to the Law of 22 December 1948, the Office of the Assistant Secretary was a special Department that would be in charge of the General Policy and Coordination services. It would be in 1951, through the Decree-Law of July 19 when the Assistant Secretary of the Presidency was given the rank of Minister and with the Legal Regime of the State Administration Act it was granted to it the function of Secretariat of the Government, as well as preside over the Commissions of Undersecretaries. During the 1950s and 1960s, the Ministry of the Presidency was the driving force behind the administrative reforms underway. In 1957 he was assigned the Official State Gazette, the Office of Economic Coordination and Programming was created within the scope of the General Technical Secretariat of the Ministry and it was centralized the competencies in the area of civil servants, with the creation of the Center for the Training and Improvement of Civil Servants, the Superior Commission for Personnel and the Directorate-General for the Civil Service.

In 1967 it coincided for the first time the positions of Minister of the Presidency and Deputy Prime Minister, in this case in the person of Luis Carrero Blanco. This circumstance would be repeated in the future in the cases of Alfonso Osorio, Francisco Álvarez-Cascos, Mariano Rajoy, Javier Arenas, María Teresa Fernández de la Vega, Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría and Carmen Calvo. In spite of the existence of an entire Office since 1951 at the service of the Minister-Undersecretary of the Presidency, the Ministry was created by a Law of 2 January 1974. In 1976 it assumed the National Statistics Institute, the Directorate-General for Territorial Action and Environment and the National Geographic Institute; the most relevant responsibilities assumed during this period were those derived from the relations between the executive branch and the legislative branch because of the parliamentary system created by the Constitution of 1978. For th

Ardscoil √Čanna

Ardscoil Éanna was a secondary school in Crumlin, Ireland. It was established in 1939 by James J. O’Byrne, interned in Frongoch in Wales for his role in the Easter Rising in 1916, Margaret Pearse, sister of Patrick Pearse, who had founded Scoil Éanna in Ranelagh in 1908, it moved to Franshaw House, in the early 1940s. It was the oldest school in the Crumlin area and one of only fifteen schools in Ireland under lay Catholic control; the last principal, Étaín Ní Mhórdha, was a granddaughter of the founder, while the Board of Management was chaired by his daughter and the school owner, Reiltín Ní Bhroin sister Eibhlín Ní Bhroin. Until a fire in 2006, Ardscoil Éanna had a primary school, in the form of prefabs. Ardscoil Éanna secondary school closed its doors on 3 June 2016. There were five principals in Ardscoil Éanna's 70-year history: James J. O'Byrne. Hollywood actor Gabriel Byrne, who returned as a teacher of Spanish and History in the school, attended Ardscoil Éanna as a student in the 1950s and 1960s.

Byrne returned for the school's 70th anniversary celebrations where he was guest of honour among the 400 attendees. Johnny Murphy Abbey stage actor and Joey the lips in the Roddy Doyle Movie the Commitments was a past pupil. Ardscoil Éanna website 70th Anniversary photos


Crossmyloof is an area on the south side of Glasgow situated between the districts of Pollokshields and Shawlands in Scotland. The name is derived from Gaelic Crois Mo Liubha, Saint lieu's Cross. According to local belief, the name is reputed to be derived from its location on the route taken by Mary, Queen of Scots to the site of the Battle of Langside. A fortune-teller may have offered to tell the queen her fate if she would "cross her loof with silver"; the original village of Crossmyloof was situated in the north-western corner of Cathcart parish and was formed around the junction of what are now Pollokshaws Road and Langside Avenue. Crossmyloof was a small hamlet which grew in prominence when Neale Thomson opened a large bakery there in 1847; some remnants of this industrial past still endure. A bakery building behind the tenement known as Camphill Gate on Pollokshaws Road still stands, there is still a road named Baker Street, where once stood the Alexander "Greek" Thomson-designed workers' cottages.

The main street in Crossmyloof was Cathcart Place, now part of Pollokshaws Road between the Langside Avenue/Minard Road junction and Shawlands Cross at the junction with Kilmarnock Road and Moss-side Road. A pub has occupied the Langside Avenue corner from the early 19th century: the Corona Bar, built there in 1912, carries a claim to have been established in 1817. Crossmyloof was little more than the main street until the late Victorian era, when Minard Road was opened up and the area around Waverley Gardens was built. For twenty years the tenements in Norham Street and Frankfort Street looked out on open countryside, dotted with ancient cottages, separating them from the Waverley Park area of Shawlands until the Waverley Scheme was constructed by Glasgow Corporation on the land opened up when Moss-side Road was formed to build Shawlands Academy. In 1818 Crossmyloof was described as the most populous village in Cathcart parish. Although till "remarkable chiefly for being a resort of vagrants", the writer was happy to report that the village had now become more respectable from an increase in the number of its inhabitants, who now amounted to around 500.

The remarks were a little premature, because in November 1820 two members of a band of armed ruffians who robbed a house in Crossmyloof were hanged in front of the Jail in the Saltmarket. The attack took place at the home of Dr Robert Watt, the author of the four volume Bibliotheca Britannica, who had died of overwork, the previous year, his terrified widow had her gold rings wrenched off her fingers. She is reported as having hastily left Crossmyloof for the safety of a home in Hutchesontown; when the Rev James Smith wrote his account of Cathcart parish in 1840, he used the name Westfield for the village and gave the number of families as 124 and the total population as 587 persons. At this period the villagers were cotton handloom weavers; the only remaining woollen weaver was William AIgie, assisted by his seven children, three of whom wove woollen cloth, four of whom worked in cotton. Two elderly women, Mary Sinclair, a muslin flowerer, Margaret Wotherspoon, a muslin tambourer, were the last of the skilled embroideresses in the village.

There were a few shopkeepers, a blacksmith, several brassfounders and tinsmiths and William Ferguson, a lithographic engraver. By 1851 the population had risen to 939 persons; the rise was accounted for by the establishment of the Crossmyloof Bakery in 1847 by Neale Thomson of Camphill. The following year James Muirhead moved his Cart Forge from its original site in the Skin Mill Yard at Pollokshaws to larger premises at Crossmyloof, where he produced axles for railway wagons; the Cart Forge was situated between Baker Street, where Thomson's workforce was housed, the Pollokshaws Road. Although most of the villagers lived along the Pollokshaws Road there was another small community in the area between Titwood Road and Moss-side Road; this area was known as Langside Valley and contained a few villas and cottages and several orchards and nurseries. This was where Glaswegians carne in the summer to enjoy healthy surroundings. An advertisement in the Glasgow Courier of 25 February 1802 offers two "neat" lodgings at the village of Westfield for renting as summer quarters for "genteel families" from the city, who would find the houses well adapted for their use with the convenience of good water and a "neat" plot of ground.

The villa owners included James Smellie, a retired cooper who occupied the house called Langside Valley, William Jaffrey, an accountant and notary public and owner of Campvale House. Springhill House was the residence of Henry Murphy, a pawnbroker and hat manufacturer in the Bridgegate; the house became Springhill Academy with William Cairns and William Christie as joint headmasters. Archibald McAuslan was the local surgeon and physician, the community included a group of customs officers with the titles of outdoor officer, running officer, clerk and locker; when Hugh MacDonald passed through Crossmyloof on one of his Rambles in 1851, he found that the weavers of Crossmyloof and Strathbungo, like their neighbours on the hill above at Langside, were "celebrated growers of tulips, pansies and other floricultural favourites" and met at their florist clubs to examine choice flowers and discuss the best means of rearing them to perfection. Of these "bloom worshippers", MacDonald writes: There are some sharp-sighted people who are said to see further into a millstone than their neighbours.

For the truth of the saying we shall not venture to vouch.


The Molidae comprise the family of the molas or ocean sunfishes, unusual fish whose bodies come to an end just behind the dorsal and anal fins, giving them a "half-fish" appearance. They are the largest of the ray-finned bony fish, with the ocean sunfish Mola mola and southern sunfish, Mola alexandrini, both recorded at up to 4.6 m in length and 2,300 kg in weight. Molidae have the fewest vertebrae of any fish, with only 16 in Mola mola, they completely lack all caudal bones, most of their skeletons are made of cartilage. No bony plates occur in the skin, which is, however and dense like cartilage and is rough, they lack swim bladders. Molids swim by using their anal and dorsal fins. To steer, they squirt a strong jet of water out of their gills, they can make minor adjustments in the orientation of the anal fin or the dorsal fin so as to control the amount of force it produces and the angle at which the force is produced. In this respect, they use. Molids are said to be able to produce sound by grinding their pharyngeal teeth, which are long and claw-like.

Typical of a member of Tetraodontiformes, their teeth are fused into a beak-like structure, making it impossible for them to close their mouths. Despite this, they feed on soft-bodied animals, such as jellyfish and salps, although they take small fish or crustaceans. Molids have been filmed interacting with other species. Since molids are susceptible to skin parasites, they make use of cleaner fish. A molid in need of cleaning will locate a patch of floating algae or flotsam, home to halfmoons; the molid signals a readiness for cleaning by swimming vertically with its head near the surface of the water, waits for the smaller cleaner fish to feed on the parasite worms. The molid may break the surface of the water with its dorsal fin and beak to attract the attention of a gull or similar seabird; the seabird will dig worms and other stubborn parasites out of the molid's skin. The known fossil history of this genus extends back to the Eocene with the genus Eomola containing the species E. bimaxillaria Tyler and Bannikov, 1992 known from the Upper Eocene of the North Caucasus.

The fossil genus Austromola containing one species, A. angerhoferi Gregorova, Harzhauser & Kroh, 2009, is known from the Lower Miocene Ebelsberg Formation near Pucking, Austria. This species was a resident of the Paratethys Sea and is estimated to have reached a length around 320 cm. At least one fossil species of Mola, M. pileata, is known from the Upper and Middle Miocene of Europe with a possible second species known from the Lower Miocene of North Carolina, United States. The genus Ranzania has five known fossil species: R. grahami Weems, 1985 and R. tenneyorum Weems, 1985, both from the Middle Miocene Calvert Formation of Virginia, USA. Only five extant species in three extant genera are described: Ocean sunfish Southern ocean sunfish, has been recognized as a senior synonym of Mola ramsayi, the "bump-head sunfish" Hoodwinker sunfish Slender sunfish Sharptail mola

Bayburt (electoral district)

Bayburt is an electoral district of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. It elects one member of parliament to represent the province of the same name for a five-year term, using the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system. However, since it has only one seat, election is de-facto first-past-the-post. Population reviews of each electoral district are conducted before each general election, which can lead to certain districts being granted a smaller or greater number of parliamentary seats. Bayburt elected two Members of Parliament between 1999 and 2007. However, with population growth not keeping up with the rest of the country, Bayburt became Turkey's only single-member electoral constituency for the 2011 general election. Ülkü Gökalp Güney won the most votes in the 2002 general election and joined the AKP in order to contest the 2007 general election

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013

The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013 known as The Lokpal Act, is an anti-corruption Act of Indian Parliament in India which "seeks to provide for the establishment of the institution of Lokpal to inquire into allegations of corruption against certain important public functionaries including the Prime Minister, cabinet ministers, members of parliament, Group A officials of the Central Government and for matters connecting them". The Bill was tabled in the Lok Sabha on 22 December 2011 and was passed by the House on 27 December as The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Bill, 2011, it was subsequently tabled in the Rajya Sabha on 29 December. After a marathon debate that stretched until midnight of the following day, the vote failed to take place for lack of time. On 21 May 2012, it was referred to a Select Committee of the Rajya Sabha for consideration, it was passed in the Rajya Sabha on 17 December 2013 after making certain amendments to the earlier Bill and in the Lok Sabha the next day. It received assent from President Pranab Mukherjee on 1 January 2014 and came into force from 16 January.

The Bill was introduced in the parliament following massive public protests led by anti-corruption crusader Anna Hazare and his associates. The Bill is one of the most discussed and debated Bills in India, both by the media and the People of India at large, in recent times; the protests were named among the "Top 10 News Stories of 2011" by the magazine Time. The bill received worldwide media coverage. In 2011, India ranked 95th in the Corruption Perceptions Index of Transparency International. A recent survey estimated that corruption in India had cost billions of dollars and threatened to derail growth. India lost a staggering $462 billion in illicit financial flows due to tax evasion and corruption post-Independence, according to a report released by Washington-based Global Financial Integrity. Retired Supreme Court judge Pinaki Chandra Ghose was appointed as the first Lokpal of India by a committee consisting of Prime Minister Narendra Modi and Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi and Loksabha speaker Sumitra Mahajan and Eminent Jurist Mukul Rohatgi on 17 March 2019.

The term Lokpal was coined in 1963 by Laxmi Mall Singhvi, a member of parliament during a parliamentary debate about grievance mechanisms. The Administrative Reforms Commission headed by Morarji Desai submitted an interim report on "Problems of Redressal of Citizen's Grievances" in 1966. In this report, ARC recommended the creation of two special authorities designated as'Lokpal' and'Lokayukta' for redress of citizens' grievances; the word was derived from the Sanskrit words "Lok" and "Pala", meaning'Caretaker of People'. Maharashtra was the first state to introduce Lokayukta through The Maharashtra Lokayukta and Upa-Lokayuktas Act in 1971. Presently, there are no Lokayuktas in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh and Kashmir, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tamil Nadu, Tripura; the Lokpal bill was first introduced in the Lok Sabha in 1968. The version enacted in 2013 was from a draft prepared in 2010; the bill is an implementation of the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988. Eleven parliamentary panels have been formed to discuss the Lokpal bill.

The 2010 draft was created by the United Progressive Alliance to create an Ombudsman tasked with tackling political corruption. The draft was circulated to various ministries for their review, it provided a mechanism for filing complaints against ministers and MPs. However, civil society groups were not and rejected it as a toothless body with only recommendatory powers. Hazare started an indefinite hunger strike on 5 April 2011 to pressure the government to create an ombudsman with the power to deal with corruption in public places as envisaged in the Jan Lokpal Bill; the fast led to nationwide protests in support. The fast ended on 9 one day after the government accepted his demands; the government issued a gazette notification on the formation of a joint committee, consisting of government and civil society representatives, to draft the legislation. A Joint Drafting Committee was established, consisting of five ministers and five members of the civil society; the chairman of the Joint Drafting Committee was Pranab Mukherjee.

The Committee set 30 June 2011 as the deadline to complete the drafting process. The Committee lasted for about ninety minutes. Team Anna presented their version of the bill with a slight modification relating to the selection panel to choose the Lokpal and its members. Under the revised proposal, the Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition in the Lok Sabha were replaced with the Rajya Sabha chairman and the Lok Sabha Speaker; the meeting was recorded and the Committee claimed that decisions would be made available to the general public. HRD Minister and Committee member Kapil Sibal, said that both the sides were keen that the new Bill should be introduced in the Monsoon session, which would begin early July; the Committee met as planned on 2 May 2011. The meeting was termed "very good" and with "no difference of opinion" between the panel members. Sibal said that the meeting discussed the document presented by the civil society members. Prashant Bhushan said, "The meeting was to discuss the basic principles behind the Jan Lokpal Bill.

The discussion was on essential features and reasons of the bill which have been prepared according to the main provisions of the UN Convention against Corruption. All signatories of the United Nations Convention against Corruption have to pass this kind of law." In May 2011, the Indian Government had ratified two UN Conventions – the United Nations Convention against Corruption and the United Nations Convention against Transnational