Minivan is an American car classification for vehicles designed to transport passengers in the rear seating row, with reconfigurable seats in two or three rows. The equivalent terms in British English are multi-purpose vehicle, people carrier and people mover. Minivans have a'one-box' or'two-box' body configuration, a higher roof, a flat floor, a sliding door for rear passengers, high H-point seating. Compared with a full-size van, minivans are now based on a passenger car platform and have a lower body; some early versions, such as the Ford Aerostar utilized the compact-sized Ranger pickup truck platform. The largest size of minivans is referred to as'Large MPV' and became popular following the introduction of the 1984 Renault Espace and Dodge Caravan; these have platforms derived from D-segment passenger cars or compact pickups. Since the 1990s, the smaller Compact MPV and Mini MPV sizes of minivans have become popular. If the term'minivan' is used without specifying a size, it refers to the largest size.
The term minivan originated in North America in order to differentiate the smaller passenger vehicles from full-size vans, which were simply called'vans'. The first known use of the term minivan was in 1959, however it was not until the 1980s that the term became used; the 1936 Stout Scarab is regarded as the first minivan. The passenger seats in the Scarab were moveable and could be configured for the passengers to sit around a table in the rear of the cabin. Passengers exited the Scarab via a centrally-mounted door; the DKW Schnellaster— manufactured from 1949 to 1962— featured front-wheel drive, a transverse engine, flat floor and multi-configurable seating, all of which would become characteristics of minivans. In 1950, the Volkswagen Type 2 adapted a bus-shaped body to chassis of a small passenger car; when Volkswagen introduced a sliding side door to the Type 2 in 1968, it had the prominent features that would come to define a minivan: compact length, three rows of forward-facing seats, station wagon-style top-hinged tailgate/liftgate, sliding side door, passenger car base.
The 1956-1969 Fiat Multipla had many features in common with modern minivans. The Multipla had a rear engine and cab forward layout. In the late 1970s, Chrysler began a development program to design "a small affordable van that looked and handled more like a car." The result of this program was the 1984 Plymouth Voyager. The Voyager debuted the minivan design features of front-wheel drive, a flat floor and a sliding door for rear passengers; the badge-engineered Dodge Caravan was released in for the 1984 model year, was sold alongside the Voyager. The term minivan came into use in comparison to size to full-size vans. In 1984, The New York Times described minivans "the hot cars coming out of Detroit," noting that "analysts say the mini-van has created an new market, one that may well overshadow the... station wagon."In response to the popularity of the Voyager/Caravan, General Motors released the 1985 Chevrolet Astro and GMC Safari badge-engineered twins, Ford released the 1986 Ford Aerostar.
These vehicles used a traditional rear-wheel drive layout, unlike the Voyager/Caravan. By the end of the 1980s, demand for minivans as family vehicles had superseded full-size station wagons in the United States. During the 1990s, the minivan segment underwent several major changes. Many models switched to the front-wheel drive layout used by the Voyager/Caravan minivans, for example Ford replaced the Aerostar with the front-wheel drive Mercury Villager for 1993 and the Ford Windstar for 1995; the models increased in size, as a result of the extended-wheelbase versions of the Voyager and Caravan which were in 1987. An increase in luxury features and interior equipment was seen in the Eddie Bauer version of the 1988 Ford Aerostar, the 1990 Chrysler Town & Country and the 1990 Oldsmobile Silhouette; the third-generation Plymouth Voyager, Dodge Caravan and Chrysler Town & Country — released for the 1996 model year — were available with an additional sliding door on the drivers side. The highest selling year for minivans was in 2000.
However, in the following years, the increasing popularity of sport utility vehicles began to erode sales of minivans. North American sales of the Volkswagen Transporter ceased in 2003. Ford exited the segment in 2006, when the Ford Freestar was cancelled, Chrysler discontinued its short-wheelbase minivans in 2007 and General Motors exited the segment in 2009 with the cancellation of the Chevrolet Uplander, it has been suggested that the lesser popularity of minivans is due to the minivan's image as a vehicle for older, domestically-oriented drivers. In 2013, sales of the segment reached 500,000. Despite the declining sales for the segment in the late 2000s, several European brands launched minivans in the North American market; the Volkswagen Routan was sold from 2009-2013. In 2010, Ford began North American sales of the European-built Ford Transit Connect Wagon. North American sales of the Mercedes-Benz Vito began in 2016. However, the Nissan Quest and Mazda MPV were both discontinued in 2016.
The five highest
Klang Parade is a shopping complex in Klang, Malaysia with anchor tenants such as Econsave, Golden Screen Cinemas and Peninsula College. Mini anchors include Kamdar, Dynasty Dragon, E-Digital, Mr DIY, Next Food Junction, Brands Outlet, Original Classics; as of March 2019, the mall's net lettable area of 675,407 sq. ft. and it is reported to be 98.6% tenanted. Klang Parade was established in 1995, it was operated by the Lion Group. The mall was sold to ARA Asia Dragon Fund in 2012 and was closed between July 2013 and January 2014 for a major refurbishment.. It is now managed by ARA Asset Management Limited; the mall underwent major refurbishment in 2013 and was reopened in 2014 with a total built-up area of 1,704,610 sq ft. The newly refreshed family-centric venue doubles as a massive event space, which has played host to a variety of events such as the annual Shuddup N’ Dance competitions attended by local and regional street dancers. International Property Award Klang's Best Managed Facilities for the Disabled Award 2018 Klang's Cleanest Public Toilet Award 2018 Klang Parade is managed by ARA Asset Management Limited, a premier global integrated real assets fund manager.
As at 30 June 2019, Gross Assets Managed by ARA Group and its Associates is more than S$83 billion across over 100 cities in 23 countries. Klang Parade is accessible via the following 96 Seranas and Smart Selangor bus services. Stations serving the mall are located at both sides of Jalan Pekan Baru. T713 - Hentian Klang - Klang Parade, Jalan Meru - Hentian Klang KLG2 - SRJK Kong Hoe, Jalan Batu Tiga Lama - Kawasan Perniagaan Jalan Pekan Baru - SRJK Kong Hoe, Jalan Batu Tiga Lama The mall will be connected to the Bandar Utama–Klang line via BK19 Jalan Meru station; the construction of the Bandar Utama–Klang line is scheduled to be completed in 2020. Ipoh Parade 1 Mont Kiara Citta Mall Klang Parade Peninsula College
Anuranan is the directorial debut by Bengali filmmaker Aniruddha Roy Chowdhury. The film premiered at the 2006 International Film Festival of India. Anuranan explores the relationships of two married couples, the impacts and consequences of their relationships. Rahul, a creative and sensitive individual, arrives at a lonely hill station in Sikkim to help build a new holiday resort; the friendship between the two couples and Nandita and Amit and Preeti, paves the way for a deeper bond between Rahul and Preeti. Towards the end of the movie, this "anuranan" between the two is misunderstood by society, including Amit; this misunderstanding intensifies when Rahul dies, leaving Nandita lonely. The fact that the love between Rahul and Nandita was pure does not prevent Nandita from falling prey to the rumors as well. All the four main characters are depicted as lonely. 2008 – 54th National Film Awards, Winner 2008 – Santa Cruz Film Festival, Emerging Filmmaker Award Rahul Bose as Rahul Rituparna Sengupta as Nandita Raima Sen as Preeti Rajat Kapoor as Amit Haradhan Bandopadhyay as Nandita's Father Dolly Basu as Preeti's mother Mithu Chakraborty as Nandita's sister Barun Chanda as Mr Guha Jacqui Dawson as Roda Laura Price as Victoria Peter Wear as Rahul's boss in London The film was shot on location in India and the UK.
Director Aniruddha Roy-Chowdhury describes the scenery of the hill station in the mountains as making the Kanchenjunga "the third character" in the movie. The film features music composed by tabla player Tanmoy Bose. "Yeh Gagin" – Rituparna Sengupta, Rahul Bose, Rashid Khan, Anushua Chowdhurry "Bahi Bahikisi" – Rajarshi Chatterjee "Mere Pritam" – Kartik Das Baul Anuranan on IMDb Telegraph India Interview with Rajat Kapoor