Saint Paul, Minnesota
Saint Paul is the capital and second-most populous city of the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of 2017, the city's estimated population was 309,180. Saint Paul is the county seat of Ramsey County, the smallest and most densely populated county in Minnesota; the city lies on the east bank of the Mississippi River in the area surrounding its point of confluence with the Minnesota River, adjoins Minneapolis, the state's largest city. Known as the "Twin Cities", the two form the core of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 16th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents. Founded near historic Native American settlements as a trading and transportation center, the city rose to prominence when it was named the capital of the Minnesota Territory in 1849; the Dakota name for Saint Paul is "Imnizaska". Though Minneapolis is better-known nationally, Saint Paul contains the state government and other important institutions. Regionally, the city is known for the Xcel Energy Center, home of the Minnesota Wild, for the Science Museum of Minnesota.
As a business hub of the Upper Midwest, it is the headquarters of companies such as Ecolab. Saint Paul, along with its twin city, Minneapolis, is known for its high literacy rate; the settlement began at present-day Lambert's Landing, but was known as Pig's Eye after Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant established a popular tavern there. When Lucien Galtier, the first Catholic pastor of the region, established the Log Chapel of Saint Paul, he made it known that the settlement was now to be called by that name, as "Saint Paul as applied to a town or city was well appropriated, this monosyllable is short, sounds good, it is understood by all Christian denominations". Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago. From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibwe, they called the area I-mni-za ska dan for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
In the Menominee language it is called Sāēnepān-Menīkān, which means "ribbon, silk or satin village", suggesting its role in trade throughout the region after the introduction of European goods. Following the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, US Army officer Zebulon Pike negotiated 100,000 acres of land from the local Dakota tribes in 1805 to establish a fort; the negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. Fort Snelling was built on the territory in 1819 at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations; the 1837 Treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U. S. Government. Taoyateduta moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Fur traders and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands.
Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. By the early 1840s, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern. In 1841, Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel. In 1847, a New York educator named Harriet Bishop moved to the area and opened the city's first school; the Minnesota Territory was formalized in Saint Paul named as its capital. In 1857, the territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move.
On May 11, 1858, Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason; the area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East." Industrialist James J. Hill constructed and expanded his network of railways into the Great Northern Railway and Northern Pacific Railway, which were headquartered in Saint Paul. Today they are collectively part of the BNSF Railway. On August 20, 1904, severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing USD $1.78 million in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge. In the 1960s, during urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown.
The city contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a built landscape. From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo Neighborhood was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities; the annual
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
An ice age is a long period of reduction in the temperature of the Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers. Earth is in the Quaternary glaciation, known in popular terminology as the Ice Age. Individual pulses of cold climate are termed "glacial periods", intermittent warm periods are called "interglacials", with both climatic pulses part of the Quaternary or other periods in Earth's history. In the terminology of glaciology, ice age implies the presence of extensive ice sheets in both northern and southern hemispheres. By this definition, we are in an interglacial period—the Holocene; the amount of heat trapping gases emitted into Earth's Oceans and atmosphere will prevent the next ice age, which otherwise would begin in around 50,000 years, more glacial cycles. In 1742, Pierre Martel, an engineer and geographer living in Geneva, visited the valley of Chamonix in the Alps of Savoy. Two years he published an account of his journey.
He reported that the inhabitants of that valley attributed the dispersal of erratic boulders to the glaciers, saying that they had once extended much farther. Similar explanations were reported from other regions of the Alps. In 1815 the carpenter and chamois hunter Jean-Pierre Perraudin explained erratic boulders in the Val de Bagnes in the Swiss canton of Valais as being due to glaciers extending further. An unknown woodcutter from Meiringen in the Bernese Oberland advocated a similar idea in a discussion with the Swiss-German geologist Jean de Charpentier in 1834. Comparable explanations are known from the Val de Ferret in the Valais and the Seeland in western Switzerland and in Goethe's scientific work; such explanations could be found in other parts of the world. When the Bavarian naturalist Ernst von Bibra visited the Chilean Andes in 1849–1850, the natives attributed fossil moraines to the former action of glaciers. Meanwhile, European scholars had begun to wonder. From the middle of the 18th century, some discussed ice as a means of transport.
The Swedish mining expert Daniel Tilas was, in 1742, the first person to suggest drifting sea ice in order to explain the presence of erratic boulders in the Scandinavian and Baltic regions. In 1795, the Scottish philosopher and gentleman naturalist, James Hutton, explained erratic boulders in the Alps by the action of glaciers. Two decades in 1818, the Swedish botanist Göran Wahlenberg published his theory of a glaciation of the Scandinavian peninsula, he regarded glaciation as a regional phenomenon. Only a few years the Danish-Norwegian geologist Jens Esmark argued a sequence of worldwide ice ages. In a paper published in 1824, Esmark proposed changes in climate as the cause of those glaciations, he attempted to show. During the following years, Esmark's ideas were discussed and taken over in parts by Swedish and German scientists. At the University of Edinburgh Robert Jameson seemed to be open to Esmark's ideas, as reviewed by Norwegian professor of glaciology Bjørn G. Andersen. Jameson's remarks about ancient glaciers in Scotland were most prompted by Esmark.
In Germany, Albrecht Reinhard Bernhardi, a geologist and professor of forestry at an academy in Dreissigacker, since incorporated in the southern Thuringian city of Meiningen, adopted Esmark's theory. In a paper published in 1832, Bernhardi speculated about former polar ice caps reaching as far as the temperate zones of the globe. In 1829, independently of these debates, the Swiss civil engineer Ignaz Venetz explained the dispersal of erratic boulders in the Alps, the nearby Jura Mountains, the North German Plain as being due to huge glaciers; when he read his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft, most scientists remained sceptical. Venetz convinced his friend Jean de Charpentier. De Charpentier transformed Venetz's idea into a theory with a glaciation limited to the Alps, his thoughts resembled Wahlenberg's theory. In fact, both men shared the same volcanistic, or in de Charpentier's case rather plutonistic assumptions, about the Earth's history. In 1834, de Charpentier presented his paper before the Schweizerische Naturforschende Gesellschaft.
In the meantime, the German botanist Karl Friedrich Schimper was studying mosses which were growing on erratic boulders in the alpine upland of Bavaria. He began to wonder. During the summer of 1835 he made some excursions to the Bavarian Alps. Schimper came to the conclusion that ice must have been the means of transport for the boulders in the alpine upland. In the winter of 1835 to 1836 he held. Schimper assumed that there must have been global times of obliteration with a cold climate and frozen water. Schimper spent the summer months of 1836 at Devens, near Bex, in the Swiss Alps with his former university friend Louis Agassiz and Jean de Charpentier. Schimper, de Charpentier and Venetz convinced Agassiz that there had been a time of glaciation. During the winter of 1836/37, Agassiz and Schimper developed the theory of a sequence of glaciations, they drew upon the preceding works of Venetz, de Charpentier and on their own fieldwork. Agassiz appears to have been familiar with Bernhardi's paper at that time.
At the beginning of 1837, Schimper coined the term "ice age" for the period of the glaciers. In July 1837 Ag
Eagan is a city in Dakota County, United States. The city is south of Saint Paul and lies on the south bank of the Minnesota River, upstream from the confluence with the Mississippi River. Eagan and nearby suburbs form the southern portion of Minneapolis–St. Paul; the population of Eagan was 64,206 at the 2010 census and ranked as Minnesota's 11th largest city. The sixth largest suburb in the metro area, Eagan is predominantly a commuter town for Minneapolis and Saint Paul, it was settled as an Irish farming community and "Onion Capital of the United States". The largest growth in Eagan took place following the relocation and expansion of Highway 77 along with the construction of the new six-lane bridge over the Minnesota River in 1980 and the completion of the final Interstate 35E freeway section southbound from Minnesota State Highway 110 in Mendota Heights to the area where it joins 35W in Burnsville in the mid-1980s, its northern border is along Interstate 494. Its southern border is about a mile south of Cliff Road.
Its eastern border runs along Minnesota State Highway 3. The western border runs along the South bank of Minnesota River; the city's influence in the region grew when the companies Northwest Airlines and Thomson West established their headquarters. Eagan was named for Patrick Eagan, the first chairman of the town board of supervisors, he farmed a 220-acre parcel of land near the present-day town hall. Eagan and his wife Margaret Twohy emigrated from Tipperary, Ireland to Troy, New York, where they married in 1843, they arrived in Mendota around 1853–54, before settling in the Eagan area. The city was visited by the "20th hijacker" of the September 11, 2001 attacks, Zacarias Moussaoui, before the attacks. Moussaoui attempted to complete flight training school, but was refused service by local resident Tim Nelson. In 2012, Money Magazine ranked Eagan the 14th best place to live in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 33.43 square miles, of which 31.12 square miles is land and 2.31 square miles is water.
Interstate Highway 35E, Interstate Highway 494, Minnesota Highways 13, 55, 77, 149 are six of Eagan's main routes. The Eagan Core Greenway is an ongoing project to preserve Eagan's environmentally sensitive green space, with particular emphasis on Patrick Eagan Park and a two-mile greenway connecting the park with Lebanon Hills Regional Park; as of the census of 2010, there were 64,206 people, 25,249 households, 16,884 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,063.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 26,414 housing units at an average density of 848.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 81.5% White, 5.6% African American, 0.3% Native American, 7.9% Asian, 1.7% from other races, 3.0% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.5% of the population. There were 25,249 households of which 35.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.3% were married couples living together, 9.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.1% were non-families.
25.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.54 and the average family size was 3.10. The median age in the city was 36.8 years. 25.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.9 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 63,557 people, 23,773 households, 16,427 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,967.6 people per square mile. There were 24,390 housing units at an average density of 755.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.03% White, 3.41% African American, 0.26% Native American, 5.31% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.96% from other races, 1.93% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.24% of the population. There were 23,773 households out of which 41.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.9% were married couples living together, 8.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.9% were non-families.
23.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.23. In the city, the population was spread out with 30.0% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 38.2% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, 4.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.7 males. According to the 2000 census, median household income was $67,388. Males had a median income of $52,029 versus $35,641 for females; the per capita income for the city was $30,167. About 1.9% of families and 2.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 4.8% of those age 65 or over. Mesaba Airlines, Regional Elite Airline Services, Universal Cooperatives and Buffets, Inc. are headquartered in Eagan. Northwest Airlines had its headquarters in Eagan. After Northwest merged with Delta, the Northwest headquarters was disestablished.
Todd Klingel, president of the Minneapolis Regional Chamber of Commerce, said that losing Northwest, a Fortune 500 company, would be "certainly a blow." He added, "But it'
South Dakota is a U. S. state in the Midwestern region of the United States. It is named after the Lakota and Dakota Sioux Native American tribes, who compose a large portion of the population and dominated the territory. South Dakota is the seventeenth largest by area, but the fifth smallest by population and the 5th least densely populated of the 50 United States; as the southern part of the former Dakota Territory, South Dakota became a state on November 2, 1889 with North Dakota. Pierre is the state capital and Sioux Falls, with a population of about 187,200, is South Dakota's largest city. South Dakota is bordered by the states of North Dakota, Iowa, Nebraska and Montana; the state is bisected by the Missouri River, dividing South Dakota into two geographically and distinct halves, known to residents as "East River" and "West River". Eastern South Dakota is home to most of the state's population, the area's fertile soil is used to grow a variety of crops. West of the Missouri, ranching is the predominant agricultural activity, the economy is more dependent on tourism and defense spending.
Most of the Native American reservations are in West River. The Black Hills, a group of low pine-covered mountains sacred to the Sioux, are in the southwest part of the state. Mount Rushmore, a major tourist destination, is there. South Dakota has a temperate continental climate, with four distinct seasons and precipitation ranging from moderate in the east to semi-arid in the west; the state's ecology features species typical of a North American grassland biome. Humans have inhabited the area for several millennia, with the Sioux becoming dominant by the early 19th century. In the late 19th century, European-American settlement intensified after a gold rush in the Black Hills and the construction of railroads from the east. Encroaching miners and settlers triggered a number of Indian wars, ending with the Wounded Knee Massacre in 1890. Key events in the 20th century included the Dust Bowl and Great Depression, increased federal spending during the 1940s and 1950s for agriculture and defense, an industrialization of agriculture that has reduced family farming.
While several Democratic senators have represented South Dakota for multiple terms at the federal level, the state government is controlled by the Republican Party, whose nominees have carried South Dakota in each of the last 13 presidential elections. Dominated by an agricultural economy and a rural lifestyle, South Dakota has sought to diversify its economy in areas to attract and retain residents. South Dakota's history and rural character still influence the state's culture. South Dakota is in the north-central United States, is considered a part of the Midwest by the U. S. Census Bureau; the culture and geography of western South Dakota have more in common with the West than the Midwest. South Dakota has a total area of 77,116 square miles, making the state the 17th largest in the Union. Black Elk Peak named Harney Peak, with an elevation of 7,242 ft, is the state's highest point, while the shoreline of Big Stone Lake is the lowest, with an elevation of 966 ft. South Dakota is bordered to the north by North Dakota.
The geographical center of the U. S. is 17 miles west of Castle Rock in Butte County. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is between Allen and Kyle, 1,024 mi from the nearest coastline; the Missouri River is the longest river in the state. Other major South Dakota rivers include the Cheyenne, Big Sioux, White Rivers. Eastern South Dakota has many natural lakes created by periods of glaciation. Additionally, dams on the Missouri River create four large reservoirs: Lake Oahe, Lake Sharpe, Lake Francis Case, Lewis and Clark Lake. South Dakota can be divided into three regions: eastern South Dakota, western South Dakota, the Black Hills; the Missouri River serves as a boundary in terms of geographic and political differences between eastern and western South Dakota. The geography of the Black Hills, long considered sacred by Native Americans, differs from its surroundings to such an extent it can be considered separate from the rest of western South Dakota. At times the Black Hills are combined with the rest of western South Dakota, people refer to the resulting two regions divided by the Missouri River as West River and East River.
Eastern South Dakota features higher precipitation and lower topography than the western part of the state. Smaller geographic regions of this area include the Coteau des Prairies, the Dissected Till Plains, the James River Valley; the Coteau des Prairies is a plateau bordered on the east by the Minnesota River Valley and on the west by the James River Basin. Further west, the James River Basin is low, flat eroded land, following the flow of the James River through South Dakota from north to south; the Dissected Till Plains, an area of rolling hills and fertile soil that covers much of Iowa and Nebraska, extends into the southeastern corner of South Dakota. Layers deposited during the Pleistocene epoch, starting around two million years ago, cover most of eastern South Dakota; these are the youngest rock and sediment layers in the state, the product of several successive periods of glaciation which deposited a large amount of rocks and soil, known as till, over the area. The Great Plains cover most of the western two-thirds of South Dakota.
West of the Missouri Rive
New Ulm, Minnesota
New Ulm is a city in Brown County, United States. The population was 13,522 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Brown County. Located in the triangle of land formed by the confluence of the Minnesota River and the Cottonwood River, the city is home to the Minnesota Music Hall of Fame, the Hermann Heights Monument, Martin Luther College, Flandrau State Park, the August Schell Brewing Company. New Ulm is the episcopal. U. S. Highway 14 and Minnesota State Highways 15 and 68 are three of the main routes in the city; the city was founded in 1854 by the German Land Company of Chicago. The city was named after the city of Neu-Ulm in the state of Bavaria in southern Germany. Ulm and Neu-Ulm are sister cities, with Ulm being situated on the Baden-Württemberg side and Neu-Ulm on the Bavarian side of the Danube river. In part due to the city's German heritage, it is a center for brewing in the Upper Midwest, home to the August Schell Brewing Company. In 1856, the Settlement Association of the Socialist Turner Society helped to secure the city's future.
The Turners originated in Germany in the first half of the nineteenth century, promoted with the slogan, “Sound Mind, Sound Body.” Their clubs combined gymnastics with debates about the issues of the day. Following the Revolutions of 1848, substantial numbers of Germans emigrated to the United States. In their new land, Turners formed associations throughout the eastern and western states, making it the largest secular German American organization in the country in the nineteenth century. Following a series of attacks by nativist mobs in major cities such as Chicago and Louisville, a national convention of Turners authorized the formation of a colony on the frontier. Intending to begin a community that expressed Turner ideals, the Settlement Association joined the Chicago Germans who had struggled here due to a lack of capital; the Turners supplied that, as well as hundreds of colonizers from the east who arrived in 1856. As a representation of Turner ideals, the city plan reflected; the German Land Company hired Christian Prignitz to complete a new plan for New Ulm, filed in April 1858.
This master plan for New Ulm expressed a grand vision of the city’s future. At the heart of the community stood blocks reserved for Turner Hall, the county courthouse, a public school, representing the political and educational center of the community; the westernmost avenues were named after American heroes George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine—the latter three noted for their freethinking philosophies. Members obtained the means to support themselves — in harmony with nature — through the distribution of four-acre garden lots located outside of the residential area. Historian Dennis Gimmestad wrote, “The founders’ goals created a community persona that sets New Ulm apart from the Minnesota towns founded by land speculators or railroad companies.... The New Ulm founders aspired to establish a town with a defined philosophical and social character.” In the Dakota War of 1862, the city was attacked twice by Dakota warriors from a nearby reservation on the Minnesota River to the west.
Retreating behind barricades that protected the city center, local citizens fought back, supported by volunteer militia who arrived from other towns to support the city's defense. Much of the town outside the barricades was burned. On July 15, 1881, New Ulm was struck by a large tornado that killed 6 and injured 53. Between the outbreak of World War I in 1914 and U. S. entry into the conflict, the citizens of New Ulm followed events in Europe, with the local newspapers sometimes printing news from relatives and friends in Germany. In an unofficial referendum in early April 1917, local voters opposed war by a margin of 466 to 19; as President Woodrow Wilson prepared his Declaration of War, a Brown County delegation arrived in Washington, D. C. to voice its opposition to that action. On the national level, the Wilson administration organized an active campaign to suppress antiwar fervor, joined on the state level by Minnesota Governor James Burnquist; the Minnesota Commission of Public Safety was granted broad powers to protect the state and assist in the war effort.
Specific actions taken by the commission included surveillance of alleged subversive activities, mobilization of opposition to labor unions and strikes, pursuit of draft evaders, registration and monitoring of aliens. Given the German heritage of New Ulm and state agents began to visit the city soon after America’s entry into the conflict, filing reports to offices in Washington and St. Paul. Locally, several business and civic leaders joined in efforts to root out antiwar fervor. On July 25, 1917, when a massive rally, attended by 10,000 people, was held on the grounds of Turner Hall to, as a flier stated, “enter a protest against sending American soldiers to a foreign country.” Speakers included Louis Fritsche, Albert Pfaender, city attorney and former minority leader of the Minnesota House of Representatives, Adolph Ackermann, director of Dr. Martin Luther College, F. H. Retzlaff, a prominent businessman. Federal and state agents mingled through the crowd. A month Governor Burnquist removed Fritsche and Pfaender from their positions, while the Commission of Public Safety pressured the college to fire Ackermann.
These blows divided the community — on one side, many residents took the removals as an attack on the city’s heritage and traditions. Albert Pfaender was the son, Fritsche, the son-in-law, of the city’s principal founder, Wilhelm Pfaender. On the other side, prominent local businessmen, including flour mill managers, feared economic repercussi
Eden Prairie, Minnesota
Eden Prairie is an edge city 12 miles southwest of downtown Minneapolis in Hennepin County, the 12th-largest city in the State of Minnesota. It is the 7th-largest suburb in the Twin Cities, with a population of 60,797 at the 2010 census; the city is on the north bank of the Minnesota River, upstream from its confluence with the Mississippi River. Eden Prairie is an affluent suburb with a mixed-income city model, it is home to 7,213 firms and regional parks, conservation areas and recreational facilities. There are walking trails around Purgatory Creek and Staring Lake, the Minnesota River Bluffs Regional Trail; the city has more than 170 miles of multi-use trails, 2,250 acres of parks, 1,300 acres of open space. It is home to the headquarters of SuperValu, C. H. Robinson Worldwide, SABIS, MTS Systems Corporation, it contains the Eden Prairie Center and is the hub for SouthWest Transit, providing public transportation to three adjacent suburbs. KMSP and WFTC are based in Eden Prairie. Eden Prairie and nearby suburbs form the southwest portion of Minneapolis–Saint Paul, the 15th-largest metropolitan area in the United States, with about 3.6 million residents.
Eden Prairie has been one of Money magazine's "Best Places to Live" in America since 2006. In 2017, eleven Eden Prairie students scored perfect ACT test scores. For most of its existence, Eden Prairie has been a slow-growing, pastoral village on the far southwest fringes of the Twin Cities. Between 1880 and 1960, Eden Prairie’s population only grew from about 739 to 2,000. Native Americans were the first to live in the area; the land was part of the Great Dakota Nation, but when the Ojibwa arrived from the Great Lakes region, the tribes began to clash over the land. The Ojibwa were armed with knives and guns traded to them by white settlers and fur traders, after years of bloody warfare the Ojibwa had forced the Dakota to give up all their land east of the Mississippi River, north of the Crow Wing River, land which did not include what is now Eden Prairie. On May 25, 1858, a battle was fought between the Dakota and the Ojibwa in the southern part of Eden Prairie, just north of the Minnesota River, an area referred to as Murphy's Ferry.
The Ojibwa people wished to "avenge the murder" of one of their people committed the previous fall by the Dakota. The Ojibwa had 200 warriors, the Dakota somewhere between 60 and 70, but the Dakota proved victorious, wounding the young Chief of the Ojibwa tribe; the tribes continued to fight over territory well into the 1860s after the "Sioux Uprising" of 1862, when most of the Dakota people were removed from Minnesota. Among the notable Native Americans who lived in the Eden Prairie area was Chief Shoto. Born into the band of Chief Wabash, he went on to be the chief of the Red Wing Dakota tribe for 15 years, leaving them and becoming Chief of the "Little Six" band of Dakota until the uprising in 1862, during which he became a scout for Governor Sibley from 1862 to 1870, returning to the Little Six band in 1872, he died in 1899 at the age of 99 at his home in Eden Prairie. In 1851, a treaty opened land west of the Mississippi River to settlement allowing pioneers to settle in what is now Eden Prairie.
Many early farmhouses are left in the town, can be found on the National Register of Historic Places. One of these early settlers was John Cummins, an Irish-born immigrant who built what is now referred to as the "Cummins-Phipps-Grill House" with his wife Mattie in 1880. Manuscripts indicate that John Cummins was an avid and respected horticulturist and farmer; the Cummins family sold this property to the Phipps family 1908. Eden Prairie's town board held its first meeting in a log schoolhouse on May 11, 1858, the same day Minnesota became a state. Eden Prairie's farming community grew over the years. Flying Cloud Airport was the first sign of big development in 1946; the 1960s and 1970s were decades of growth for the city's parks and recreation system. In the mid-1970s, the community gained a higher profile with the addition of Interstate Highway 494 and the Eden Prairie Shopping Center. Eden Prairie became a village in 1962, a statutory city in 1974. A popular lake in Eden Prairie is Staring Lake, named for Jonas Staring, who built the first house by the lake.
Named "Eden" in 1853 by a Mrs. Elliot, she chose this name because of her admiration of the "beautiful prairie" that occupies the southern portion of the town. Eden Prairie is 11 miles southwest of Minneapolis along the northern side of the Minnesota River. Interstate 494, U. S. Highways 169 and 212, Minnesota State Highway 5 are four of the city's main routes. Eden Prairie's land consists of rolling hills and bluffs overlooking the Minnesota River, with zones of prairie and mixed forests. Eden Prairie has great parks such as Staring Lake Park and Bryant Lakes Regional Park with trails for running & biking. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 35.19 square miles, of which 32.45 square miles is land and 2.74 square miles is water. Eden Prairie "attracts a diverse crowd" from many income groups. Eden Prairie is the home of the affluent gated community Bearpath, yet the community vibe of citizens in Eden Prairie is a sense of working, community-minded residents with kids together in the schools and afterschool activities, such as the Youth Sports Program.
Minnesotans in general have a Midwest sense of middle class community and have never embraced ga