Minnesota Historical Society
The Minnesota Historical Society is a nonprofit educational and cultural institution dedicated to preserving the history of the U. S. state of Minnesota. It was founded by the territorial legislature in 1849 a decade before statehood; the Society is named in the Minnesota Constitution. It is headquartered in the Minnesota History Center in downtown St. Paul. Although its focus is on Minnesota history it is not constrained by it, its work on the North American fur trade has been recognized in Canada as well. MNHS holds a collection of nearly 550,000 books, 37,000 maps, 250,000 photographs, 225,000 historical artifacts, 950,000 archaeological items, 38,000 cubic feet of manuscripts, 45,000 cubic feet of government records, 5,500 paintings and drawings. MNopedia: The Minnesota Encyclopedia, is since 2011 an online "resource for reliable information about significant people, places and things in Minnesota history", funded through a Legacy Amendment Arts and Cultural Heritage Fund grant and administered by the Minnesota Historical Society.
The Minnesota Historical Society operates 31 historic sites and museums, 26 of which are open to the public. MNHS manages 14 sites directly and 10 in partnerships where the society maintains the resources and provides funding. Five sites are being held for preservation but are closed to public access, two are self-guided sites with interpretive signage. Seven of the sites are National Historic Landmarks and 16 others are on the National Register of Historic Places. Seven sites lie within Minnesota state parks, three are elements of the Mississippi National River and Recreation Area. "Journals and other documents of the Minnesota Historical Society". Minnesota Historical Society / Internet Archive. Retrieved November 24, 2012; these publications are described in more detail in an online format, at the MHC's own Digital History Books page Minnesota Historical Society Placeography – wiki operated by the Minnesota Historical Society This article incorporates text from MNopedia, licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License
A buttress is an architectural structure built against or projecting from a wall which serves to support or reinforce the wall. Buttresses are common on more ancient buildings, as a means of providing support to act against the lateral forces arising out of the roof structures that lack adequate bracing; the term counterfort can be synonymous with buttress, is used when referring to dams, retaining walls and other structures holding back earth. Early examples of buttresses are found on the Eanna Temple, dating to as early as the 4th millennium BCE. In addition to flying and ordinary buttresses and masonry buttresses that support wall corners can be classified according to their ground plan. A clasping or clamped buttress has an L shaped ground plan surrounding the corner, an angled buttress has two buttresses meeting at the corner, a setback buttress is similar to an angled buttress but the buttresses are set back from the corner, a diagonal buttress is at 45 degrees to the walls; the gallery below shows top-down views of various types of buttress supporting the corner wall of a structure.
Retaining wall Cathedral architecture Pilaster
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2, it is the country's most populated comune, it is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio, along the shores of the Tiber; the Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been defined as capital of two states. Rome's history spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology dates the founding of Rome at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied sites in Europe; the city's early population originated from a mix of Latins and Sabines.
The city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom, the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire, is regarded by some as the first metropolis. It was first called The Eternal City by the Roman poet Tibullus in the 1st century BC, the expression was taken up by Ovid and Livy. Rome is called the "Caput Mundi". After the fall of the Western Empire, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages, Rome fell under the political control of the Papacy, in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance all the popes since Nicholas V pursued over four hundred years a coherent architectural and urban programme aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world. In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Italian Renaissance, the birthplace of both the Baroque style and Neoclassicism. Famous artists, painters and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city.
In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic. Rome has the status of a global city. In 2016, Rome ranked as the 14th-most-visited city in the world, 3rd most visited in the European Union, the most popular tourist attraction in Italy, its historic centre is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. The famous Vatican Museums are among the world's most visited museums while the Colosseum was the most popular tourist attraction in world with 7.4 million visitors in 2018. Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics, Rome is the seat of several specialized agencies of the United Nations, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization, the World Food Programme and the International Fund for Agricultural Development; the city hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni, Enel, TIM, Leonardo S.p. A. and national and international banks such as Unicredit and BNL.
Its business district, called EUR, is the base of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, financial services. Rome is an important fashion and design centre thanks to renowned international brands centered in the city. Rome's Cinecittà Studios have been the set of many Academy Award–winning movies. According to the founding myth of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves, the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king, Romulus. However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was derived from Rome itself; as early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain: from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn has the same root as the Greek verb ῥέω and the Latin verb ruo, which both mean "flow". There is archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from 14,000 years ago, but the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic and Neolithic sites.
Evidence of stone tools and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral settlements on the Palatine Hill built above the area of the future Roman Forum. Between the end of the bronze age and the beginning of the Iron age, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village. However, none of them had yet an urban quality. Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed through the aggregation of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine; this aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level, which allowed the establishment of secondary and tertiary activities. These in turn boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy; these developments, which according to archaeological ev
United States Capitol dome
The United States Capitol dome is the dome situated above the United States Capitol which reaches upwards to 288 feet in height and 96 feet in diameter. The dome was designed by Thomas U. Walter, the fourth Architect of the Capitol, constructed between 1855 and 1866 at a cost of $1,047,291; the dome is not stone, but rather cast iron painted to appear to be made of the same stone as the main capitol building. It is two domes, one inside the other, the total weight is 14.1 million pounds. The iron for the dome was cast by the foundry of Janes, Kirtland & Company, owned by Adrian Janes in the Bronx, New York; the dome marks the origin on Washington, D. C. street maps. The origin of the first dome began with the Capitol design contest sponsored by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson, at the behest of President George Washington, in 1792; the winner of the contest, Doctor William Thornton, called for a dome in his original design for the building. Most vividly, Thornton drew upon the Roman Pantheon for inspiration with the Neoclassical dome and associated portico.
Thornton's replacement, Benjamin Henry Latrobe, the second Architect of the Capitol, altered Thornton's design plan on the exterior by adding an octagonal drum to visually separate the bottom of the dome from the top of the building's pediment. The third Architect of the Capitol, Charles Bulfinch, altered the exterior profile of the plans still further by increasing the dome's height, which he wrote was at the insistence of the President and Congress. In 1822, Bulfinch requested funds for the construction of the center of the building, President Monroe signed off on an appropriation of $120,000; this included the building of a double-dome structure, a stone and wooden interior dome to rise 96 feet above the rotunda floor, a wooden exterior dome covered in copper that would rise to 140 feet. Set at the crown of the exterior dome was an oculus 24 feet wide, which provided illumination to the rotunda floor below. Bulfinch completed the project in 1823. For more than two decades, the green copper dome of the Capitol greeted visitors to the nation's capitol, until the 1850s.
Due to the growth of the United States and the expansion and addition of new states, the size of the United States Congress had grown accordingly and pushed the limits of the capacity of the Capitol. Under the guidance of the fourth Architect of the Capitol, Thomas U. Walter, extensions were built onto the south wings of the building. In the process, the new, longer building made the original Bulfinch dome appear aesthetically displeasing. Congress, after lobbying by Walter and Montgomery C. Meigs, passed legislation to build a bigger dome in 1855; the current cast iron dome of the United States Capitol is the second dome to sit above the building. Plans began in May 1854 to build a new cast-iron dome for the United States Capitol, sold on the aesthetics of a new dome, as well as the utility of a fire-proof one. Influenced by the great domes of Europe, Walter paid particular attention to the Pantheon of Paris, St Paul's Cathedral in London and St. Peter's Basilica in Rome, as well as the more recent Saint Isaac's Cathedral in Saint Petersburg, one of the first domes with an iron frame, by Auguste de Montferrand.
William Allen, Historian of the Capitol, described Walter's first design as... a tall, ellipsodial dome standing on a two-story drum with a ring of forty columns forming a peristyle surrounding the lower half of the drum. The upper part of the drum was enriched with decorated pilasters upholding a bracketed attic. Crowning the composition was a statue standing on a slender, columned tholus... Walter drafted a seven-foot drawing of the aforementioned design and displayed it in his office, where it drew the excited attention of members of Congress in 1854. A year on March 3, 1855, President Franklin Pierce signed off on the appropriation of $100,000 to build the dome. Construction began after some practical changes to the original design in September of that year with the removal of the dome raised by Charles Bulfinch. A unique scaffold was built inside the rotunda, designed to keep weight away from the weak center area of the floor, a crane was set within to run on a steam-powered engine. Over the next 11 years, the dome designed with an interior dome and exterior dome rose over the nation's capitol.
By December 2, 1863, Walter was able to set the Statue of Freedom atop the dome. This was not accomplished until after Walter had been forced to revise the design of the dome to handle the statue, delivered taller and heavier than requested. Yet, the man who designed the dome did not see its total completion, because Thomas Walter resigned in 1865, his replacement, Edward Clark, assumed the role of finishing the last aspects of the dome. Just over a month in January 1866, Constantino Brumidi—who had been hired to paint a fresco on a platform above the interior dome's oculus—removed the scaffolding used during his work on the Apotheosis of Washington; this signaled the end of construction for the United States Capitol dome. Some 8,909,200 pounds of iron were used in the construction that ran 11 years. Inside, the interior dome rises to 180 feet over the rotunda floor, outside, the exterior dome ascends to 288 feet including the height of the Statue of Freedom; the total cost of the dome was valued at $1,047,291 (equivalent to $14.5 m
Governor of Minnesota
The Governor of Minnesota is the chief executive of the U. S. state of Minnesota, leading the state's executive branch. Forty people have been governor of Minnesota, though there were three governors of Minnesota Territory. Alexander Ramsey, the first territorial governor served as state governor several years later. State governors are elected to office by popular vote, but territorial governors were appointed to the office by the United States president; the current governor of Minnesota is Tim Walz of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party. Similar to the U. S. President, the governor has veto power over bills passed by the Minnesota State Legislature; as in most states, but unlike the U. S. President, the governor can make line-item vetoes, where specific provisions in bills can be stripped out while allowing the overall bill to be signed into law; the governor of Minnesota must be 25 years old upon assuming office, must have been a Minnesota resident for one year before the election. Since a 1958 amendment to the Minnesota Constitution governors are elected to four-year terms, with no limits on the number of terms they may serve.
The governor has a cabinet consisting of the leaders of various state departments. The governor appoints these department heads, other than the head of the Department of Military Affairs and the chairs of the Metropolitan Council and the Metropolitan Sports Facilities Commission, are called commissioners. Cabinet members include: The Minnesota Governor's Residence is located in Saint Paul, at 1006 Summit Avenue. List of Minnesota gubernatorial elections List of Lieutenant Governors of Minnesota Minnesota Secretary of State Minnesota Attorney General Minnesota State Auditor Minnesota State Treasurer Politics of Minnesota Website of the governor and lieutenant governor Minnesota Constitution, Article V
The Taj Mahal is an ivory-white marble mausoleum on the south bank of the Yamuna river in the Indian city of Agra. It was commissioned in 1632 by the Mughal emperor, Shah Jahan, to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal, it houses the tomb of Shah Jahan, the builder. The tomb is the centerpiece of a 17-hectare complex, which includes a mosque and a guest house, is set in formal gardens bounded on three sides by a crenellated wall. Construction of the mausoleum was completed in 1643 but work continued on other phases of the project for another 10 years; the Taj Mahal complex is believed to have been completed in its entirety in 1653 at a cost estimated at the time to be around 32 million rupees, which in 2015 would be 52.8 billion rupees. The construction project employed some 20,000 artisans under the guidance of a board of architects led by the court architect to the emperor, Ustad Ahmad Lahauri; the Taj Mahal was designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1983 for being "the jewel of Muslim art in India and one of the universally admired masterpieces of the world's heritage".
It is regarded by many as the best example of Mughal architecture and a symbol of India's rich history. The Taj Mahal attracts 7–8 million visitors a year and in 2007, it was declared a winner of the New7Wonders of the World initiative; the Taj Mahal was commissioned by Shah Jahan in 1631, to be built in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal, a Persian princess who died giving birth to their 14th child, Gauhara Begum. Construction started in 1632, the mausoleum was completed in 1643, while the surrounding buildings and garden were finished five years later; the imperial court documenting Shah Jahan's grief after the death of Mumtaz Mahal illustrates the love story held as the inspiration for the Taj Mahal. The Taj Mahal incorporates and expands on design traditions of Persian and earlier Mughal architecture. Specific inspiration came from successful Timurid and Mughal buildings including the Gur-e Amir, Humayun's Tomb, Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb, Shah Jahan's own Jama Masjid in Delhi. While earlier Mughal buildings were constructed of red sandstone, Shah Jahan promoted the use of white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones.
Buildings under his patronage reached new levels of refinement. The tomb is the central focus of the entire complex of the Taj Mahal, it is a large, white marble structure standing on a square plinth and consists of a symmetrical building with an iwan topped by a large dome and finial. Like most Mughal tombs, the basic elements are Persian in origin; the base structure is a large multi-chambered cube with chamfered corners forming an unequal eight-sided structure, 55 metres on each of the four long sides. Each side of the iwan is framed with a huge pishtaq or vaulted archway with two shaped arched balconies stacked on either side; this motif of stacked pishtaqs is replicated on the chamfered corner areas, making the design symmetrical on all sides of the building. Four minarets frame one at each corner of the plinth facing the chamfered corners; the main chamber houses the false sarcophagi of Shah Jahan. The most spectacular feature is the marble dome; the dome is nearly 35 metres high, close in measurement to the length of the base, accentuated by the cylindrical "drum" it sits on, 7 metres high.
Because of its shape, the dome is called an onion dome or amrud. The top is decorated with a lotus design which serves to accentuate its height; the shape of the dome is emphasised by four smaller domed chattris placed at its corners, which replicate the onion shape of the main dome. The dome is asymmetrical, their columned bases provide light to the interior. Tall decorative spires extend from edges of base walls, provide visual emphasis to the height of the dome; the lotus motif is repeated on guldastas. The dome and chattris are topped by a gilded finial which mixes traditional Persian and Hindustani decorative elements; the main finial was made of gold but was replaced by a copy made of gilded bronze in the early 19th century. This feature provides a clear example of integration of traditional Persian and Hindu decorative elements; the finial is topped by a typical Islamic motif whose horns point heavenward. The minarets, which are each more than 40 metres tall, display the designer's penchant for symmetry.
They were designed as working minarets— a traditional element of mosques, used by the muezzin to call the Islamic faithful to prayer. Each minaret is divided into three equal parts by two working balconies that ring the tower. At the top of the tower is a final balcony surmounted by a chattri that mirrors the design of those on the tomb; the chattris all share the same decorative elements of a lotus design topped by a gilded finial. The minarets were constructed outside of the plinth so that in the event of collapse, a typical occurrence with many tall constructions of the period, the material from the towers would tend to fall away from the tomb; the exterior decorations of the Taj Mahal are among the finest in Mughal architecture. As the surface area changes, the decorations are refined proportionally; the decorative elements were created by applying paint, stone inlays or carvings. In line with the Islamic proh
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups