Minor-planet moon

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243 Ida and its moon Dactyl
Three images of (66391) and its orbiting moon
Animation of (357439)Animation of (136617), a trinary asteroid

A minor-planet moon is an astronomical object that orbits a minor planet as its natural satellite. It is thought that many asteroids and Kuiper belt objects may possess moons, in some cases quite substantial in size. Discoveries of minor-planet moons (and binary objects, in general) are important because the determination of their orbits provides estimates on the mass and density of the primary, allowing insights of their physical properties that is generally not otherwise possible.[1]

The first modern era mention of the possibility of an asteroid satellite was in connection with an occultation of the bright star Gamma Ceti by the asteroid 6 Hebe in 1977. The observer, amateur astronomer Paul D. Maley, detected an unmistakable 0.5 second disappearance of this naked eye star from a site near Victoria, Texas. Many hours later, several observations were reported in Mexico attributed to the occultation by 6 Hebe itself. Although not confirmed, this documents the first formally documented case of a suspected companion of an asteroid.[2] As of November 2018, there are 344 minor planets known to have moons.[3]

Terminology[edit]

In addition to the terms satellite and moon, the term "binary" (binary minor planet) is sometimes used for minor planets with moons, and "triple" for minor planets with two moons. If one object is much bigger it can be referred to as the primary and its companion as secondary. The term double asteroid is sometimes used for systems in which the asteroid and its moon are roughly the same size, while binary tends to be used independently from the relative sizes of the components. When binary minor planets are similar in size, the Minor Planet Center (MPC) refers to them as "binary companions" instead of referring to the smaller body as a satellite.[4] A good example of a true binary is the 90 Antiope system, identified in August 2000.[5] Small satellites are often referred to as moonlets.[1][6]

Discovery milestones[edit]

As of November 2018, there are 334 minor planets with 362 known satellites.[3] These consist of:

# of Systems Orbital class Listing Description
70 Near-Earth objects list Three systems with two satellites: 3122 Florence, (136617) 1994 CC, and (153591) 2001 SN263.
27 Mars-crossing asteroids list One system with two satellites: 2577 Litva.
155 Asteroid belt list Eight systems with two satellites: 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 107 Camilla, 130 Elektra, 216 Kleopatra, and 3749 Balam.
5 Jupiter trojans list
2 Centaurs list Both systems in the form of ring systems that are likely contained by shepherd moons.
87 Trans-Neptunian objects list Two systems with two satellites: 47171 Lempo and Haumea; one system with five satellites: Pluto.[3][7]
Total of 334 systems with 362 moons and 2 systems with 4 rings

Prior to the era of the Hubble Space Telescope and space probes reaching the outer Solar System, attempts to detect satellites around asteroids were limited to optical observations from Earth. For example, in 1978, stellar occultation observations were claimed as evidence of a satellite for the asteroid 532 Herculina.[8] However, later more-detailed imaging by the Hubble Telescope did not reveal a satellite, and the current consensus is that Herculina does not have a significant satellite.[9] There were other similar reports of asteroids having companions (usually referred to as satellites) in the following years. Also, a letter in Sky & Telescope magazine[citation needed] at this time pointed to apparently simultaneous impact craters on Earth (for example, the Clearwater Lakes in Quebec), suggesting that these craters were caused by pairs of gravitationally-bound objects.

In 1993, the first asteroid moon was confirmed when the Galileo probe discovered the small Dactyl orbiting 243 Ida in the asteroid belt. The second was discovered around 45 Eugenia in 1998.[10] In 2001, 617 Patroclus and its same-sized companion Menoetius became the first known binary asteroids in the Jupiter trojans.[11] The first trans-Neptunian binary after Pluto–Charon, 1998 WW31, was optically resolved in 2002.[12]

Triple systems[edit]

Triple minor planets, or trinary minor planets, are known since 2005, when the asteroid 87 Sylvia was discovered to have two satellites, making it the first known triple system.[13] This was followed by the discovery of a second moon orbiting 45 Eugenia.[14] Also in 2005, the dwarf planet Haumea was discovered to have two moons, making it the second trans-Neptunian object after Pluto known to have more than one moon.[15]

Additionally, 216 Kleopatra[16] and 93 Minerva[17] were discovered to be trinary asteroids in 2008 and 2009 respectively. Since the first few triple minor planets were discovered, more continue to be discovered at a rate of about one a year. Most recently discovered were two moons orbiting large near-earth asteroid 3122 Florence, bringing the number of known trinary systems in the Solar System up to 14. The following table lists all satellites of these systems chronologically by their discovery date, starting with Charon, discovered in 1978.

Parent body Minor-planet moon
Designation Orbital class Designation Discovery
date
Announcement
date
Announcement
of trinary
134340 Pluto TNO Charon 1978/06/22 1978/07/07 2005/10/31
45 Eugenia Asteroid belt Petit-Prince 1998/11/01 1999/03/20 2007/03/07
87 Sylvia Asteroid belt Romulus 2001/02/18 2005/08/11 2005/08/11
107 Camilla Asteroid belt S/2001 (107) 1 2001/03/01 2001/03/19 2016/08/07
47171 Lempo TNO S/2001 (47171) 1 2001/12/08 2002/01/10 2009/10/??
3749 Balam Asteroid belt S/2002 (3749) 1 2002/02/08 2002/02/13 2008/03/12
130 Elektra Asteroid belt S/2003 (130) 1 2003/08/15 2003/08/17 2014/12/16
45 Eugenia Asteroid belt S/2004 (45) 1 2004/02/14 2007/03/07 2007/03/07
87 Sylvia Asteroid belt Remus 2004/08/09 2005/08/11 2005/08/11
136108 Haumea TNO Hiʻiaka 2005/01/26 2008/09/17 2008/09/17
134340 Pluto TNO Nix 2005/05/15 2005/10/31 2005/10/31
134340 Pluto TNO Hydra 2005/05/15 2005/10/31 2005/10/31
136108 Haumea TNO Namaka 2005/06/30 2008/09/17 2008/09/17
3749 Balam Asteroid belt S/2007 (3749) 1 2007/07/15 2008/03/12 2008/03/12
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor Beta 2008/02/12 2008/02/12 2008/02/12
(153591) 2001 SN263 Amor Gamma 2008/02/12 2008/02/12 2008/02/12
216 Kleopatra Asteroid belt Alexhelios 2008/09/19 2011/02/18 2011/02/18
216 Kleopatra Asteroid belt Cleoselene 2008/09/19 2011/02/18 2011/02/18
2577 Litva Mars-crosser S/2009 (2577) 1 2009/02/28 2009/03/11 2013/12/22
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo Beta 2009/06/12 2009/06/19 2009/06/19
(136617) 1994 CC Apollo Gamma 2009/06/12 2009/06/19 2009/06/19
47171 Lempo TNO S/2009 (47171) 1 2009/10/?? 2009/10/?? 2009/10/??
93 Minerva Asteroid belt Aegis 2009/08/16 2013/12/17 2013/12/17
93 Minerva Asteroid belt Gorgoneion 2009/08/16 2013/12/17 2013/12/17
134340 Pluto TNO Kerberos 2011/06/28 2013/07/02 2005/10/31
2577 Litva Mars-crosser S/2012 (2577) 1 2012/06/22 2013/12/22 2013/12/22
134340 Pluto TNO Styx 2012/06/26 2013/07/02 2005/10/31
130 Elektra Asteroid belt S/2014 (130) 1 2014/12/06 2014/12/16 2014/12/16
107 Camilla Asteroid belt S/2016 (107) 1 2015/05/29 2016/08/07 2016/08/07
3122 Florence Amor S/2017 (3122) 1 2017/08/29 2017/09/01 2017/09/01
3122 Florence Amor S/2017 (3122) 2 2017/08/29 2017/09/01 2017/09/01

Commonality[edit]

The data about the populations of binary objects are still patchy. In addition to the inevitable observational bias (dependence on the distance from Earth, size, albedo and separation of the components) the frequency appears to be different among different categories of objects. Among asteroids, an estimated 2% would have satellites. Among trans-Neptunian objects (TNO), an estimated 11% are thought to be binary or multiple objects, and the majority of the large TNOs have at least one satellite, including all four IAU-listed dwarf planets.

More than 50 binaries are known in each of the main groupings: near-Earth asteroids, belt asteroids, and trans-Neptunian objects, not including numerous claims based solely on light-curve variation.

Two binaries have been found so far among centaurs with semi-major axes smaller than Neptune.[18] Both are double ring systems around 2060 Chiron and 10199 Chariklo, discovered in 1994–2011 and 2013 respectively.

Origin[edit]

The origin of minor-planet moons is not currently known with certainty, and a variety of theories exist. A widely accepted theory is that minor-planet moons are formed from debris knocked off of the primary by an impact. Other pairings may be formed when a small object is captured by the gravity of a larger one.

Formation by collision is constrained by the angular momentum of the components, i.e. by the masses and their separation. Close binaries fit this model (e.g. PlutoCharon). Distant binaries however, with components of comparable size, are unlikely to have followed this scenario, unless considerable mass has been lost in the event.

The distances of the components for the known binaries vary from a few hundreds of kilometres (243 Ida, 3749 Balam) to more than 3000 km (379 Huenna) for the asteroids. Among TNOs, the known separations vary from 3,000 to 50,000 km.[18]

Populations and classes[edit]

What is "typical" for a binary system tends to depend on its location in the Solar System (presumably because of different modes of origin and lifetimes of such systems in different populations of minor planets).[19]

  • Among near-Earth asteroids, satellites tend to orbit at distances of the order of 3–7 primary radii, and have diameters two to several times smaller than the primary. Since these binaries are all inner-planet crossers, it is thought that tidal stresses that occurred when the parent object passed close to a planet may be responsible for the formation of many of them, although collisions are thought to also be a factor in the creation of these satellites.
  • Among main-belt asteroids, the satellites are usually much smaller than the primary (a notable exception being 90 Antiope), and orbit around 10 primary radii away. Many of the binary systems here are members of asteroid families, and a good proportion of satellites are expected to be fragments of a parent body whose disruption after an asteroid collision produced both the primary and satellite.
  • Among trans-Neptunian objects, it is common for the two orbiting components to be of comparable size, and for the semi-major axis of their orbits to be much larger − about 100 to 1000 primary radii. A significant proportion of these binaries are expected to be primordial.
    • Pluto has five known moons. Its largest moon Charon is more than half the size of Pluto itself, and large enough to orbit a point outside Pluto's surface. In fact, each orbits the common barycenter between them, with Pluto's orbit entirely enclosed by Charon's; thus they form a binary system informally referred to as a double dwarf planet. Pluto's four other moons, Nix, Hydra, Kerberos, and Styx, are far smaller and orbit the Pluto–Charon system.
    • Haumea has two moons with radii estimated around 155 km (Hiʻiaka) and 85 km (Namaka).
    • Makemake has one known moon, S/2015 (136472) 1, estimated to be some 160 kilometers (100 mi) in diameter.
    • Eris has one known moon, Dysnomia. Its radius, based on its brightness, is estimated to be roughly between 150 and 350 km.[20]

List of minor planets with moons[edit]

Near-Earth objects[edit]

There are 70 known near-Earth asteroids with moons.[3] Candidate binaries with an unconfirmed status are displayed on a dark background.[21]

Name Type Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours) Refs
1862 Apollo APO 1.55 ± 0.07 S/2005 (1862) 1 0.08 ± 0.06 3.75 ± 0.25 27.36 ± 0.24 BIN JPL LoMP
1866 Sisyphus APO 8.48 ± 1.27 S/1985 (1866) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
3122 Florence AMO 4.4 ± 0.1 S/2017 (3122) 1 0.2 ± 0.1 4.7 7.2 BIN JPL LoMP
S/2017 (3122) 2 0.2 ± 0.1 9.8 24 ± 2.4
3671 Dionysus AMO 1.43 ± 0.2 S/1997 (3671) 1 0.29 ± 0.05 3.4 ± 0.6 27.744 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
5143 Heracles APO 3.6 ± 1.2 S/2011 (5143) 1 0.6 ± 0.3 4 15.5 ± 1.5 BIN JPL LoMP
5381 Sekhmet ATE 1 ± 0.05 S/2003 (5381) 1 0.3 ± 0.05 1.54 ± 0.12 12.5 ± 0.288 BIN JPL LoMP
(5646) 1990 TR AMO 2.68 ± 0.51 S/2012 (5646) 1 0.48 ± 0.11 5.1 19.4712 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
7088 Ishtar AMO 1.39 S/2006 (7088) 1 0.58 2.8 20.6496 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
(7888) 1993 UC APO 2.72 S/2013 (7888) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
15745 Yuliya BIN JPL LoMP
(31345) 1998 PG AMO 0.9 ± 0.2 S/2001 (31345) 1 0.27 1.4 14.0064 ± 0.00096 BIN JPL LoMP
(35107) 1991 VH APO 1.04 ± 0.2 S/1997 (35107) 1 0.42 ± 0.08 3.26 ± 0.035 32.64 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
(53110) 1999 AR7 AMO 1.4 S/2015 (53110) 1 >0.6 3.8 31.32 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
65803 Didymos AMO 0.75 ± 0.1 S/2003 (65803) 1 0.17 ± 0.03 1.18 ± 0.03 11.8992 ± 0.0048 BIN JPL LoMP
(66063) 1998 RO1 ATE 0.8 ± 0.15 S/2001 (66063) 1 0.38 ± 0.08 1.2 ± 0.03 14.5392 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
(66391) 1999 KW4 ATE 1.317 ± 0.04 S/2001 (66391) 1 0.451 ± 0.027 2.548 ± 0.015 17.4216 ± 0.036 BIN JPL LoMP
(68063) 2000 YJ66 BIN JPL LoMP
69230 Hermes APO 0.6 ± 0.12 S/2003 (69230) 1 0.54 ± 0.12 1.1 13.8936 ± 0.00408 BIN JPL LoMP
(85938) 1999 DJ4 APO 0.43 ± 0.08 S/2004 (85938) 1 0.21 ± 0.05 0.8 17.7312 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(88710) 2001 SL9 APO 0.96 S/2001 (88710) 1 0.2 1.6 16.3992 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
(136617) 1994 CC APO 0.62 ± 0.06 Beta
(S/2009 (136617) 1)
0.113 ± 0.03 1.729 ± 0.0008 29.832 ± 0.7896 BIN JPL LoMP
Gamma
(S/2009 (136617) 2)
0.08 ± 0.03 6.130 ± 0.108 201.024 ± 9.696
(136993) 1998 ST49 APO 0.69 ± 0.08 S/2012 (136993) 1 0.08 ± 0.04 BIN JPL LoMP
(137170) 1999 HF1 ATE 3.64 ± 0.73 S/1999 (137170) 1 0.84 ± 0.2 7.3 ± 1.8 14.01696 ± 0.00408 BIN JPL LoMP
(138095) 2000 DK79 AMO 2.18 S/2013 (138095) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(153591) 2001 SN263 AMO 2.6 Gamma
(S/2008 (153591) 2)
0.46 3.804 ± 0.002 16.464 ± 0.03816 BIN JPL LoMP
Beta
(S/2008 (153591) 1)
1.06 16.633 ± 0.163 149.4 ± 2.2872
(153958) 2002 AM31 APO 0.45 ± 0.05 S/2012 (153958) 1 0.11 1.5 26.304 BIN JPL LoMP
(162000) 1990 OS APO 0.3 ± 0.02 S/2003 (162000) 1 0.05 ± 0.02 0.6 21 ± 3 BIN JPL LoMP
(162483) 2000 PJ5 ATE 0.55 S/2005 (162483) 1 0.28 1.05 ± 0.1 14.16 ± 0.0408 BIN JPL LoMP
163693 Atira ATI 4.8 S/2017 (163693) 1 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(164121) 2003 YT1 APO 1.1 ± 0.2 S/2004 (164121) 1 0.21 ± 0.06 3.93 ± 0.8 36.696 ± 1.8 BIN JPL LoMP
(175706) 1996 FG3 APO 1.69 ± 0.22 S/1998 (175706) 1 0.49 ± 0.08 3 ± 0.6 16.1508 ± 0.000192 BIN JPL LoMP
(185851) 2000 DP107 APO 0.8 ± 0.16 S/2000 (185851) 1 0.3 ± 0.15 2.62 ± 0.16 42.192 ± 0.0048 BIN JPL LoMP
(190166) 2005 UP156 AMO 1.02 S/2017 (190166) 1 40.572 BIN JPL LoMP
(190208) 2006 AQ AMO 1.06 S/2015 (190208) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(226514) 2003 UX34 APO 0.25 S/2017 (226514) 1 0.1 BIN JPL LoMP
(276049) 2002 CE26 APO 3.46 ± 0.35 S/2004 (276049) 1 0.3 ± 0.1 4.7 ± 0.2 15.6 ± 0.096 BIN JPL LoMP
(285263) 1998 QE2 AMO 3.2 ± 0.3 S/2013 (285263) 1 0.8 ± 0.08 6.212 ± 0.1 31.3104 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(310560) 2001 QL142 APO 0.92 S/2017 (310560) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(311066) 2004 DC APO 0.36 S/2006 (311066) 1 0.07 0.75 ± 0.045 23.04 BIN JPL LoMP
(348400) 2005 JF21 AMO 1.2 S/2015 (348400) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(357439) 2004 BL86 APO 0.32 S/2015 (357439) 1 0.07 0.5 14.4 BIN JPL LoMP
(363027) 1998 ST27 ATE 0.8 S/2001 (363027) 1 0.12 4.5 ± 0.5 98.4 BIN JPL LoMP
(363067) 2000 CO101 APO 0.62 S/2009 (363067) 1 0.04 0.61 7.2 BIN JPL LoMP
(363599) 2004 FG11 APO 0.15 ± 0.03 S/2012 (363599) 1 <0.08 0.25 ± 0.05 20 ± 0.408 BIN JPL LoMP
(374851) 2006 VV2 APO 1.06 ± 0.05 S/2007 (374851) 1 >0.3 1.5 5.52 BIN JPL LoMP
(385186) 1994 AW1 AMO 0.94 S/1994 (385186) 1 0.46 2 22.3296 ± 0.096 BIN JPL LoMP
(399307) 1991 RJ2 AMO 0.5 S/2014 (399307) 1 0.24 0.86 15.91704 ± 0.00096 BIN JPL LoMP
(399774) 2005 NB7 APO 0.5 ± 0.1 S/2008 (399774) 1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.6 15.2808 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(410777) 2009 FD APO 0.15 ± 0.03 S/2015 (410777) 1 0.09 ± 0.03 0.25 14.4 BIN JPL LoMP
(450894) 2008 BT18 APO 0.6 S/2008 (450894) 1 >0.2 1.5 28.8 BIN JPL LoMP
(452561) 2005 AB AMO >1.9 S/2005 (2005 AB) 1 0.46 3.4 17.9304 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(461852) 2006 GY2 APO 0.4 S/2006 (2006 GY2) 1 0.08 0.5 11.7 ± 0.192 BIN JPL LoMP
(481532) 2007 LE APO 0.5 S/2012 (2007 LE) 1 0.18 1.4 33.504 ± 0.48 BIN JPL LoMP
(488453) 1994 XD APO 0.6 ± 0.15 S/2005 (1994 JD) 1 >0.15 0.6 ± 0.3 17.976 ± 0.006 BIN JPL LoMP
(494658) 2000 UG11 APO 0.26 ± 0.03 S/2000 (2000 UG11) 1 0.13 ± 0.03 0.426 ± 0.027 18.4 ± 0.144 BIN JPL LoMP
(523625) 2008 DG17 APO 0.38 S/2013 (2008 DG17) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(523775) 2014 YB35 APO 0.73 S/2015 (2014 YB35) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
1994 CJ1 APO <0.15 S/2014 (1999 CJ1) 1 <0.15 0.525 30 BIN JPL
2002 BM26 AMO 0.6 ± 0.0.3 S/2002 (2002 BM26) 1 0.1 ± 0.03 1.4 25.8 ± 0.288 BIN JPL
2002 KK8 AMO 0.5 ± 0.02 S/2002 (2002 KK8) 1 0.1 ± 0.02 BIN JPL
2003 SS84 APO 0.12 ± 0.02 S/2003 (2003 SS84) 1 0.06 ± 0.02 0.27 24 BIN JPL
2005 YQ96 ATE 0.27 S/2014 (2005 YQ96) 1 BIN JPL
2007 DT103 APO 0.3 S/2007 (2007 DT103) 1 >0.08 0.45 13.44 BIN JPL
2013 WT44 APO 1 ± 0.1 S/2014 (2013 WT44) 1 BIN JPL
2014 WZ120 APO 0.34 S/2014 (2014 WZ120) 1 0.11 13.66512 ± 0.006 BIN JPL
2015 TD144 APO 0.1 S/2015 (2015 TD144) 1 BIN JPL
2017 RV1 APO 0.3 S/2017 (2017 RV1) 1 BIN JPL
2017 YE5 APO 0.9 S/2018 (2017 YE5) 1 0.9 22.08±1.92 BIN JPL
2018 EB APO 0.24 S/2018 (2018 EB) 1 BIN JPL

Mars crossers[edit]

There are 27 Mars-crossing asteroids with moons.[3] Candidate binaries with an unconfirmed status are displayed on a dark background.[21]

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours) Refs
1139 Atami 6 S/2005 (1139) 1 5 >15 26.736 BIN JPL LoMP
1727 Mette 10.18 S/2013 (1727) 1 2.14 21 20.9904 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
2044 Wirt 6.46 ± 0.58 S/2006 (2044) 1 1.62 ± 0.19 12 18.9696 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
2449 Kenos 6.2 S/2015 (2449) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
2577 Litva 4 S/2009 (2577) 1 1.4 21 35.88 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
S/2012 (2577) 1 1.2 378 5136
3873 Roddy 7.25 ± 0.24 S/2012 (3873) 1 1.96 ± 0.16 14 19.2408 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
4435 Holt 5.03 ± 1.17 S/2018 (4435) 1 3 BIN JPL LoMP
5261 Eureka 1.19 S/2011 (5261) 1 0.46 2.1 16.9296 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(5407) 1992 AX 3.9 ± 1 S/2001 (5407) 1 0.78 ± 0.21 5.8 13.5192 ± 0.00096 BIN JPL LoMP
7369 Gavrilin 7.54 S/2007 (7369) 1 2.41 27 49.128 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
8373 Stephengould 5.29 S/2010 (8373) 1 1.43 15 34.152 ± 0.096 BIN JPL LoMP
12008 Kandrup 3.4 ± 0.4 S/2016 (12008) 1 2.6 ± 0.4 32.904 BIN JPL LoMP
(15700) 1987 QD 4.15 S/2010 (15700) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(16635) 1993 QO 4.61 S/2007 (16635) 1 1.24 12 32.256 ± 0.0288 BIN JPL LoMP
(23621) 1996 PA 2.4 S/2017 (23621) 1 0.65 5 20.60 ± 0.0312 BIN JPL LoMP
(24495) 2001 AV1 3.5 S/2017 (24495) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
26074 Carlwirtz 3.62 S/2013 (26074) 1 6.1 16.1112 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
26471 Tracybecker 5.61 ± 0.41 S/2009 (26471) 1 2.05 ± 0.19 18 39.288 ± 0.0004 BIN JPL LoMP
(32039) 2000 JO23 3.96 S/2007 (32039) 1 1.27 53 360 BIN JPL LoMP
(34706) 2001 OP83 3.48 S/2005 (34706) 1 0.98 7 20.76 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(51356) 2000 RY76 3.23 S/2012 (51356) 1 0.68 13 62.04 ± 0.048 BIN JPL LoMP
(53432) 1999 UT55 2.55 S/2013 (53432) 1 0.59 4 14.1 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(54697) 2001 FA70 BIN JPL LoMP
(99913) 1997 CZ5 6.77 S/2010 (99913) 1.29 11 14.6808 BIN JPL LoMP
(114319) 2002 XD58 2.62 S/2005 (114319) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(218144) 2002 RL66 3.46 S/2010 (218144) 1 BIN JPL LoMP

Asteroid belt[edit]

There are 155 asteroids with moons in the asteroid belt.[3] Candidate binaries with an unconfirmed status are displayed on a dark background.[21]

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours) Barycenter (m from
center of primary)
Refs
22 Kalliope (215×180×150) Linus 28 ± 2 1,095 ± 11 86.304 ± 0.024 5211 ± 1435 BIN JPL LoMP
41 Daphne (239x183x153) S/2008 (41) 1 <2 443 26.4 0.6727 ± 0.1378 BIN JPL LoMP
45 Eugenia (305×220×145) S/2004 (45) 1
(Eugenia II)
5 ± 1 610.59 ± 0.06 43.032 ± 0.0192 8.713 ± 6.213 BIN JPL LoMP
Petit-Prince
(Eugenia I)
7 ± 2 1,164.42 ± 0.03 110.808 ± 0.0168 45.59 ± 45.52
87 Sylvia (385×265×230) Remus
(Sylvia II)
10.6 ± 1.6 701.64 ± 0.02 32.952 ± 0.24 35.72 ± 20.87 BIN JPL LoMP
Romulus
(Sylvia I)
10.8 ± 5.6 1,351.35 ± 0.01 87.696 ± 0.576 72.76 ± 139.7
90 Antiope 110±16 S/2000 (90) 1 87.8 ± 1 171 ± 1 16.5048 ± 0.000096 79530 ± 3441 BIN JPL LoMP
93 Minerva 140 Gorgoneion
(Minerva II)
3.2 ± 0.9 375 ± 16 26.7528 ± 0.0144 4.328 ± 4.464 BIN JPL LoMP
Aegis
(Minerva I)
3.6 ± 1.0 623.5 ± 10 57.744 ± 0.048 10.25 ± 10.09
107 Camilla (285×205×170) ± 20 S/2016 (107) 1 3.5 ± 0.5 340 12 1.381 ± 0.7178 BIN JPL LoMP
S/2001 (107) 1 16 ± 6 1,250 ± 10 89.328 ± 0.072 484.8 ± 635.0
113 Amalthea 50.14 ± 1.26 S/2017 (113) 1 >5 BIN JPL LoMP
115 Thyra 75 ± 6 S/2016 (115) 1 BIN JPL LoMP[22]
121 Hermione (254×125) S/2002 (121) 1 32 747 ± 11 61.512 ± 0.0504 3724 ± 413.1 BIN JPL LoMP
130 Elektra (215×155) S/2014 (130) 1 5.2 ±1.2 460 26.4 8.216 ± 6.395 BIN JPL LoMP
S/2003 (130) 1 7 ± 3 1,318 ± 25 126.192 ± 0.1272 57.42 ± 85.86
216 Kleopatra 217×94×81 Cleoselene
(Kleopatra II)
6.9 ±1.6 454 ± 6 29.76 ± 0.48 60.61 ± 53.53 BIN JPL LoMP
Alexhelios
(Kleopatra I)
8.9 ± 1.6 678 ± 13 55.68 ± 0.48 194.2 ± 139.0
243 Ida (59.8×25.4×18.6) Dactyl (Ida I) (1.6×1.4×1.2) 108 36.96 9.572 ± 0.1064 BIN JPL LoMP
283 Emma 148.1 ± 4.6 S/2003 (283) 1 9 ± 5 581 ± 3.6 80.472 ± 0.02232 173.2 ± 338.4 BIN JPL LoMP
317 Roxane 19 S/2009 (317) 1 5.3 257 336 4793 ± 85.28 BIN JPL LoMP
379 Huenna 92.3 ± 1.7 S/2003 (379) 1 5.8 ± 1.2 3,336 ± 54.9 2102.4 ± 0.624 972.3 ± 722.5 BIN JPL LoMP
578 Happelia 69.29 ± 2.1 S/2017 (578) 1 >3.0 >80 BIN JPL LoMP[23]
702 Alauda 194.73 ± 3.2 Pichi üñëm 3.51 ± 0.9 1,227 ± 24 117.936 ± 0.168 6.441 ± 5.770 BIN JPL LoMP
762 Pulcova 137.1 ± 3.2 S/2000 (762) 1 19 ± 7 703 ± 14 106.512 ± 0.024 1690 ± 2071 BIN JPL LoMP
809 Lundia 6.9 ± 2.4 S/2005 (809) 1 6.1 ± 2.1 15.8 15.4176 ± 0.00096 6456 ± 6197 BIN JPL LoMP
854 Frostia 6.35 ± 0.16 S/2004 (854) 1 4.6 17 37.728 ± 0.00096 4682 ± 256.6 BIN JPL LoMP
939 Isberga (14.5×11.8×11.1) S/2006 (939) 1 (3.8×3.5×3.5) 33 ± 4.5 26.6304 ± 0.000096 788.2 ± 878.9 BIN JPL LoMP
1016 Anitra BIN JPL LoMP
1052 Belgica 9.79 ± 0.08 S/2012 (1052) 1 3.53 34 47.256 ± 0.0192 1522 ± 35.66 BIN JPL LoMP
1089 Tama 10.7 ± 0.5 S/2003 (1089) 1 7.33 20.7 ± 1.3 16.4448 ± 0.00096 5036 ± 853.6 BIN JPL LoMP
1313 Berna 10.6 ± 0.24 S/2004 (1313) 1 8.37 25 25.464 ± 0.00096 8248 ± 375.5 BIN JPL LoMP
1333 Cevenola 17.15 ± 0.24 S/2008 (1333) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
1338 Duponta 7.68 ± 0.06 S/2007 (1338) 1 1.77 ± 0.15 14 17.5704 ± 0.0096 169.3 ± 46.62 BIN JPL LoMP
1344 Caubeta BIN JPL LoMP
1453 Fennia 6.96 ± 0.39 S/2007 (1453) 1 1.95 ± 0.18 15 22.9896 ± 0.0096 322.8 ± 143.8 BIN JPL LoMP
1509 Esclangona 7.76 ± 0.57 S/2003 (1509) 1 2.57 140 552 4907 ± 1060 BIN JPL LoMP
1717 Arlon 9.13 ± 0.17 S/2006 (1717) 1 17 18.2352 BIN JPL LoMP
1770 Schlesinger BIN JPL LoMP
1798 Watts 6.64 ± 0.19 S/2017 (1798) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
1830 Pogson 7.89 ± 0.11 S/2007 (1830) 1 2.52 18 24.24 ± 0.0048 568.0 ± 23.19 BIN JPL LoMP
2006 Polonskaya 4.51 ± 0.16 S/2005 (2006) 1 0.99 8.5 19.1496 ± 0.0192 88.97 ± 9.408 BIN JPL LoMP
2047 Smetana 3 ± 0.15 S/2012 (2047) 1 0.63 ± 0.07 6.3 22.4304 ± 0.0192 57.81 ± 28.39 BIN JPL LoMP
2121 Sevastopol 8.62 ± 0.04 S/2010 (2121) 1 3.54 ± 0.17 26 37.104 1684 ± 248.9 BIN JPL LoMP
2131 Mayall 8.28 ± 0.07 S/2009 (2131) 1 2.15 18 23.4792 ± 0.0096 309.7 ± 7.722 BIN JPL LoMP
2242 Balaton 5.85 S/2015 (2242) 1 >1.49 9 12.96 ± 0.0096 >139.2 BIN JPL LoMP
2343 Siding Spring 5.11 S/2015 (2343) 1 >0.97 7 11.78904 ± 0.00288 >47.55 BIN JPL LoMP
2478 Tokai 8.1 ± 0.02 S/2007 (2478) 1 5.83 21 25.896 ± 0.00696 5704 ± 30.77 BIN JPL LoMP
2486 Metsähovi 8.42 ± 0.03 S/2007 (2486) 1 BIN JPL LoMP[24]
2491 Tvashtri BIN JPL LoMP
2535 Hameenlinna 10.2 S/2016 (2535) 1 >2.2 21.2304 ± 0.0096 >193.2 BIN JPL LoMP[25]
2623 Zech 7.92 S/2014 (2623) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
2691 Sersic 5 ± 0.11 S/2011 (2691) 1 2.15 ± 0.11 12 26.808 ± 0.0096 883.8 ± 180.2 BIN JPL LoMP
2754 Efimov 6.46 S/2006 (2754) 1 1.29 10 14.7648 ± 0.0096 79.00 BIN JPL LoMP
2815 Soma 6.95 ± 0.09 S/2011 (2815) 1 1.74 ± 0.14 13 17.916 ± 0.00192 200.9 ± 55.7 BIN JPL LoMP
2825 Crosby 5.065 ± 0.151 S/2017 (2825) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
2881 Meiden 5.67 ± 0.06 S/2017 (2881) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
3034 Climenhaga 9.97 S/2009 (3034) 1 19 18.9552 ± 0.00096 BIN JPL LoMP
3073 Kursk 6.69 S/2007 (3073) 1 1.67 22 44.952 ± 0.0192 337.0 BIN JPL LoMP
3169 Ostro (4.4×3.4×3.2) S/2005 (3169) 1 (4.8×2.6×2.4) 5.2 6.5088 ± 0.00096 2060 ± 134.7 BIN JPL LoMP
3309 Brorfelde 4.88 ± 0.08 S/2005 (3309) 1 1.27 ± 0.1 9 18.48 ± 0.0096 155.9 ± 43.95 BIN JPL LoMP
3378 Susanvictoria 6.637 ± 0.087 S/2017 (3378) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
3433 Fehrenbach 7.4 S/2015 (3433) 1 2.3 14 19.6656 ± 0.0048 408.1 BIN JPL LoMP
3623 Chaplin BIN JPL LoMP
3673 Levy 6.17 ± 0.15 S/2007 (3673) 1 1.73 ± 0.19 13 21.6 280.4 ± 111.5 BIN JPL LoMP
3703 Volkonskaya 3.46 ± 0.1 S/2003 (3703) 1 1.39 7.8 24 474.9 ± 38.76 BIN JPL LoMP
3749 Balam 3.95 S/2008 (3749) 1 1.66 20 33.384 ± 0.00096 1382 BIN JPL LoMP
S/2002 (3749) 1 1.84 289 ± 13 1464 ± 264 26530
3782 Celle 5.44 ± 0.21 S/2003 (3782) 1 2.34 ± 0.11 18 ± 1 36.576 ± 0.0288 1327 ± 393.2 BIN JPL LoMP
3792 Preston 5.16 ± 0.17 S/2016 (3792) 1 46.8 BIN JPL LoMP
3841 Dicicco 6.02 S/2014 (3841) 1 >1.67 12 21.6288 ± 0.0192 >250.8 BIN JPL LoMP
3868 Mendoza 9.13 ± 0.05 S/2009 (3868) 1 2.01 ± 0.18 20 24.384 211.2 ± 59.77 BIN JPL LoMP
3905 Doppler 6.27 S/2013 (3905) 1 4.83 26 50.808 ± 0.096 8157 BIN JPL LoMP
3951 Zichichi 6.38 ± 0.2 S/2006 (3951) 1 2.11 16 27.6 ± 0.0096 558.6 ± 50.84 BIN JPL LoMP
3982 Kastel' 6.79 ± 0.36 S/2005 (3982) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
4029 Bridges 7.8 ± 0.07 S/2006 (4029) 1 1.87 ± 0.16 13 16.3104 ± 0.0096 176.7 ± 49.63 BIN JPL LoMP
4272 Entsuji 7.56 S/2015 (4272) 1 1.36 13 15.9456 ± 0.0072 75.24 BIN JPL LoMP
4296 van Woerkom 7.3 S/2016 (4296) 1 2.2 BIN JPL LoMP
4383 Suruga 6.33 ± 0.09 S/2013 (4383) 1 1.33 ± 0.13 11 16.3872 ± 0.00096 101.1 ± 33.87 BIN JPL LoMP
4440 Tchantches 2.03 ± 0.57 S/2005 (4440) 1 0.51 ± 0.16 3.8 18.6912 ± 0.048 59.32 ± 162.8 BIN JPL LoMP
4492 Debussy 14.6 ± 0.59 S/2004 (4492) 1 9.39 31 26.616 ± 0.00096 6514 ± 625.0 BIN JPL LoMP
4514 Vilen 6.09 S/2015 (4514) 1 >1.58 11 16.8504 ± 0.0096 >188.8 BIN JPL LoMP
4541 Mizuno 6.29 ± 1.34 S/2015 (4541) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
4607 Seilandfarm 7.12 ± 0.12 S/2009 (4607) 1 2.06 19 31.632 ± 0.0192 453.0 ± 22.44 BIN JPL LoMP
4666 Dietz 6.83 ± 0.29 S/2015 (4666) 1 12 16.632 BIN JPL LoMP
4674 Pauling 4.46 ± 0.05 S/2004 (4674) 1 1.41 250 3120 7657 ± 249.7 BIN JPL LoMP
4765 Wasserburg 1.76 ± 0.48 S/2013 (4675) 1 0.28 ± 0.08 2.9 15.9696 ± 0.0196 11.63 ± 30.53 BIN JPL LoMP
4786 Tatianina 3.22 ± 0.2 S/2006 (4786) 1 0.61 ± 0.1 6.6 21.6696 ± 0.0096 44.57 ± 31.42 BIN JPL LoMP
4868 Knushevia 1.52 ± 0.32 S/2015 (4868) 1 >0.2 2.1 11.922 ± 0.00288 >4.773 BIN JPL LoMP
4951 Iwamoto 4.39 ± 0.02 S/2007 (4951) 1 3.34 31 118.008 ± 0.192 9478 ± 89.94 BIN JPL LoMP
5112 Kusaji 3.27 ± 0.13 S/2016 (5112) 1 1.01 ± 0.08 7 20.74 ± 0.01 200.4 ± 70.34 BIN JPL LoMP
5425 Vojtech 6.89 ± 0.13 S/2015 (5425) 1 1.52 ± 0.14 16 25.4304 ± 0.0196 170.0 ± 56.42 BIN JPL LoMP
5426 Sharp 2.033 ± 0.34 S/2014 (5426) 1 4.5 24.2208 ± 0.0196 BIN JPL LoMP
5474 Gingasen 5.05 ± 0.48 S/2008 (5474) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
5477 Holmes 2.95 ± 0.13 S/2005 (5477) 1 1.09 ± 0.08 6.7 24.432 ± 0.0192 321.7 ± 109.2 BIN JPL LoMP
5481 Kiuchi 7.52 S/2008 (5481) 1 2.48 15 20.8992 ± 0.0096 519.4 BIN JPL LoMP
5536 Honeycutt 9.45 S/2016 (5536) 1 2.7 15 16.3248 ± 0.0048 435.3 BIN JPL LoMP
5674 Wolff 4.72 S/2015 (5674) 1 >3.78 30 93.696 ± 0.192 >10180 BIN JPL LoMP
5872 Sugano 6.06 S/2016 (5872) 1 >1.82 11 18.84 ± 0.024 >290.1 BIN JPL LoMP
5899 Jedicke 2.54 ± 0.16 S/2010 (5899) 1 0.81 4.4 16.6992 ± 0.096 138.2 ± 25.60 BIN JPL LoMP
5905 Johnson 4.45 ± 0.07 S/2005 (5905) 1 1.78 ± 0.18 9.3 21.7848 ±0.00048 559.4 ± 184.9 BIN JPL LoMP
(6016) 1991 PA11 3.526 S/2016 (6016) 1 0.69 ± 0.11 7 21.3312 ± 0.0192 55.08 ± 35.39 BIN JPL LoMP
6016 Carnelli BIN JPL LoMP
6084 Bascom 5.96 ± 0.21 S/2006 (6084) 1 2.2 ± 0.14 20 43.512 957.7 ± 272.6 BIN JPL LoMP
6181 Bobweber BIN JPL LoMP
6186 Zenon 6 S/2017 (6186) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
6244 Okamoto 6.69 S/2006 (6244) 1 1.67 13 20.3208 ± 0.0096 199.1 BIN JPL LoMP
(6265) 1985 TW3 4.81 ± 0.1 S/2007 (6265) 1 1.16 ± 0.1 8 15.8592 ± 0.0096 110.7 ± 35.29 BIN JPL LoMP
(6369) 1983 UC 4.9 S/2013 (6369) 1 1.7 15– 39.84 601.3– BIN JPL LoMP
6384 Kervin BIN JPL LoMP
6615 Plutarchos 3.14 ± 0.04 S/2007 (6615) 1 9.7 40.032 ± 0.096 BIN JPL LoMP
6708 Bobbievaile 8.02 ± 0.02 S/2009 (6708) 1 4.57 19 24.696 2967 ± 18.73 BIN JPL LoMP
7187 Isobe 6.05 ± 1.46 S/2012 (7187) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
7225 Huntress 6.54 ± 0.22 S/2007 (7225) 1 1.37 ± 0.14 10 14.6712 ± 0.0096 91.09 ± 37.34 BIN JPL LoMP
7344 Summerfield 6.25 ± 0.28 S/2017 (7344) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
7958 Leakey 2.82 ± 0.16 S/2012 (7958) 1 0.85 ± 0.1 10 50.28 ± 0.072 266.5 ± 139.4 BIN JPL LoMP
8026 Johnmckay 1.69 ± 0.24 S/2010 (8026) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
8077 Hoyle BIN JPL LoMP
8116 Jeanperrin 4.53 ± 0.08 S/2007 (8116) 1 1.49 13 36.144 ± 0.0192 446.7 ± 22.87 BIN JPL LoMP
8306 Shoko 3.21 S/2013 (8306) 1 1.28 9.4 36.192 ± 0.0408 560.5 BIN JPL LoMP
8474 Rettig 4.5 S/2015 (8474) 1 >3.9 14 30.54 ± 0.0096 >5520 BIN JPL LoMP
9069 Hovland 3 S/2004 (9069) 1 0.9 7.8 30.336 ± 0.0096 205.1 BIN JPL LoMP
9260 Edwardolson 3.98 ± 0.35 S/2005 (9260) 1 1.07 ± 0.15 7.2 17.784 ± 0.00288 137.2 ± 97.47 BIN JPL LoMP
9617 Grahamchapman 2.74 ± 0.37 S/2006 (9617) 1 0.74 ± 0.13 5.2 19.3848 ± 0.0048 100.5 ± 103.1 BIN JPL LoMP
9783 Tensho-kan 5.1 S/2013 (9783) 1 1.8 13– 29.568 547.5– BIN JPL LoMP
9972 Minoruoda 9.095 ± 0.061 S/2017 (9972) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
10123 Fideoja 3.3 S/2013 (10123) 1 1.2 13– 56.448 596.4 BIN JPL LoMP
10132 Lummelunda 3.4 S/2017 (10132) 1 1 22.44 BIN JPL LoMP
10208 Germanicus 3.23 ± 0.18 S/2007 (10208) 1 1.48 ± 0.11 13 58.56 ± 0.0192 1141 ± 410.8 BIN JPL LoMP
(11217) 1999 JC4 3.3 S/2013 (11217) 1 6.2 19.1712 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
11264 Claudiomaccone <4 S/2003 (11264) 1 >1.24 6 15.1104 ± 0.0096 >173.6 BIN JPL LoMP
11227 Ksenborisova 2.6 ± 0.41 S/2017 (11227) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
12326 Shirasaki 3.8 S/2016 (12326) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
13123 Tyson 10.87 ± 2.26 S/2015 (12123) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
15268 Wendelinefroger 33.83 S/2008 (15268) 1 1.03 8.7 25.08 ± 0.0192 166.0 BIN JPL LoMP
(15430) 1998 UR31 3.74 ± 0.03 S/2010 (15430) 1 8.2 23.9592 BIN JPL LoMP
(15822) 1994 TV15 1.69 ± 0.3 S/2010 (15822) 1 0.32 ± 0.07 3.3 20.1312 ± 0.0096 22.25 ± 32.39 BIN JPL LoMP
16525 Shumarinaiko 5.18 ± 0.15 S/2013 (16525) 1 0.83 ± 0.11 8.1 14.4096 ± 0.0048 33.19 ± 16.30 BIN JPL LoMP
17246 Christophedumas 4.5 S/2004 (17246) 1 1 228 2160 2475 BIN JPL LoMP
17260 Kušnirák 4.62 S/2006 (17260) 1 1.2 7.4 14.7576 ± 0.00288 127.4 BIN JPL LoMP
(17700) 1997 GM40 BIN JPL LoMP
(18890) 2000 EV26 3.86 S/2014 (18890) 1 >1.04 6 14.2896 ± 0.0096 >115.1 BIN JPL LoMP
19204 Joshuatree 5.44 S/2015 (19204) 1 12 20 BIN JPL LoMP
20325 Julianoey 4.94 ± 1.01 S/2014 (20325) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
21436 Chaoyichi 1.8 S/2014 (21436) 1 0.6 BIN JPL LoMP
22899 Alconrad 5.54 ± 0.46 S/2003 (22899) 1 1.23 182 1344 1970 ± 496 BIN JPL LoMP
(24465) 2000 SX155 3.1 S/2016 (24465) 1 0.68 3.6 9.252 ± 0.00096 37.6 BIN JPL LoMP
(25015) 1998 QN2 BIN JPL LoMP
(26416) 1999 XM84 4.56 S/2015 (26416) 1 39.288 ± 0.0096 BIN JPL LoMP
(27568) 2000 PT6 1.82 ± 0.42 S/2013 (26578) 1 3.1 16.356 ± 0.00288 BIN JPL LoMP
(27675) 1981 CH 5.089 ± 0.2 S/2017 (27675) 1 BIN JPL LoMP
(31450) 1999 CU9 10.4 S/2015 (31450) 1 2.3 39 53.472 ± 0.072 417.3 BIN JPL LoMP
32008 Adriángalád 4.23 S/2007 (32008) 1 1.69 13 40.248 ± 0.0192 779.4 BIN JPL LoMP
(43008) 1999 UD31 2.4 S/2014 (43008) 1 0.8 BIN JPL LoMP
(44620) 1999 RS43 0.66 S/2014 (44620) 1 0.2 2 54.15 BIN JPL LoMP
46829 McMahon 3.06 S/2015 (46829) 1 1.22 5.4 16.83312 ± 0.00196 321.8 BIN JPL LoMP
52316 Daveslater 3.26 S/2012 (52316) 1 0.52 4.9 13.4352 ± 0.00408 19.81 BIN JPL LoMP
(69406) 1995 SX48 3.12 ± 0.02 S/2013 (69406) 1 0.59 ± 0.06 5.3 16.1112 ± 0.0196 35.60 ± 11.52 BIN JPL LoMP
(76818) 2000 RG79 3.6 S/2005 (76818) 1 1.33 5.6 14.124 ± 0.000096 268.8 BIN JPL LoMP
79472 Chiorny 3.79 S/2012 (79472) 1 9 25.944 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
(80218) 1999 VO123 0.28 S/2012 (80218) 1 0.08 0.9 33.12 20.51 BIN JPL LoMP
(300163) 2006 VW139 1.8 ± 0.2 S/2011 (300163) 1 1.8 ± 0.2 104 ± 32 52000 ± 32,780 3360 ± 960 BIN JPL LoMP

The following binaries are double asteroids, with similarly-sized components, and a barycenter outside of the larger object.

  1. 90 Antiope — S/2000 (90) 1
  2. 854 Frostia — S/2004 (854) 1
  3. 1313 Berna — S/2004 (1313) 1
  4. 2478 Tokai — S/2007 (2478) 1
  5. 3169 Ostro — S/2005 (3169) 1
  6. 3749 Balam — S/2002 (3749) 1
  7. 3905 Doppler — S/2013 (3905) 1
  8. 4674 Pauling — S/2004 (4674) 1
  9. 4951 Iwamoto — S/2007 (4951) 1
  10. 5674 Wolff — S/2015 (5674) 1
  11. 8474 Rettig — S/2015 (8474) 1
  12. 17246 Christophedumas — S/2004 (17246) 1
  13. (300163) 2006 VW139 — S/2011 (300163) 1

In addition, these bodies might be double asteroids, but due to errors in their size and orbit, it is uncertain.

  1. 809 Lundia — S/2005 (809) 1
  2. 1089 Tama — S/2003 (1089) 1
  3. 1509 Esclangona — S/2003 (1509) 1
  4. 4492 Debussy — S/2004 (4492) 1
  5. 11264 Claudiomaccone — S/2003 (11264) 1
  6. 22899 Alconrad — S/2003 (22899) 1

Jupiter trojans[edit]

There are 5 Jupiter trojans with a moon.[3] Candidate binaries with an unconfirmed status are displayed on a dark background.[21]

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours) Refs
617 Patroclus 121.8 ± 3.2 Menoetius (Patroclus I) 98 ± 10 680 ± 20 102.792 ± 0.096 BIN JPL LoMP
624 Hektor (363×207) Skamandrios (Hektor I) 12 ± 3 957.5 ±55.3 71.161896 ± 0.006912 BIN JPL LoMP
16974 Iphthime BIN JPL LoMP
(17365) 1978 VF11 32.6 ± 0.61 S/2005 (17365) 1 27.5 ± 2.25 43 12.672 ± 0.0192 BIN JPL LoMP
29314 Eurydamas 32 S/2005 (29314) 1 24 41 15.036 ± 0.0072 BIN JPL LoMP

Centaurs[edit]

There are only 2 centaurs with satellites, both of which are ring systems instead of moons.[3]

Name Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Orbital period (hours) Refs
10199 Chariklo 248±18 rings 2013C1R 6.3±0.11 390.6±3.3 16.65– BIN JPL LoMP[26]
2013C2R 3.4±0.14 404.8±3.3 17.56?
2060 Chiron 233±14 rings ring 1 3 324±10 33.84 Unconf. JPL LoMP
ring 2 7

Trans-Neptunian objects[edit]

There are 87 trans-Neptunian objects known to have moons,[3] with a total of 93 moons discovered. Candidate binaries with an unconfirmed status are displayed on a dark background.[21]

Name Type Diameter (km)
(or dimensions)
Name of moon Diameter of moon (km)
(or dimensions)
Separation (km) Refs
134340 Pluto Plutino 2379.8 ± 0.8 Charon (Pluto I) 1212 ± 6 19,573 ± 2 BIN JPL LoMP
Styx (Pluto V) 10.5 ± 2 42,657 ± 78
Nix (Pluto II) 39 ± 1 48,694 ± 3
Kerberos (Pluto IV) 12 ± 3 57,783 ± 19
Hydra (Pluto III) 42 ± 5 64,738 ± 3
(26308) 1998 SM165 Plutino 268 ± 28 S/2001 (26308) 1 81 ± 14 11,377 ± 8 BIN JPL LoMP
38628 Huya Plutino 406 ± 16 S/2012 (38628) 1 213 ± 30 1740 ± 80 BIN JPL LoMP
42355 Typhon SDO 162 ± 7 Echidna (Typhon I) 89 ± 6 1,580 ± 20 BIN JPL LoMP
47171 Lempo Plutino 272+17
−19
Paha (Lempo I) 132+8
−9
7,411 ± 12 BIN JPL LoMP
Hiisi (Lempo II) 251+16
−17
867 ± 11
(48639) 1995 TL8 SDO 176 S/2002 (48639) 1 80 420 ± 300 BIN JPL LoMP
50000 Quaoar Cubewano 1070 ± 38 Weywot (Quaoar I) 81 ± 11 13,800 ± 1,000 BIN JPL LoMP
(55637) 2002 UX25 Cubewano 665 ± 29 S/2007 (55637) 1 210 ± 30 4770 ± 40 BIN JPL LoMP
58534 Logos Cubewano 82 ± 18 Zoe (Logos I) 67 8,217 ± 42 BIN JPL LoMP
(60458) 2000 CM114 SDO 167 S/2006 (60458) 1 128 2,200 ± 200 BIN JPL LoMP
(60621) 2000 FE8 2:5 resonance 146 S/2007 (60621) 1 111 1,180 ± 80 BIN JPL LoMP
65489 Ceto SDO 223 ± 10 Phorcys (Ceto I) 171 ± 10 1,840 ± 44 BIN JPL LoMP
66652 Borasisi Cubewano 126+25
−51
Pabu (Borasisi I) 103+20
−42
4,528 ± 12 BIN JPL LoMP
79360 Sila–Nunam Cubewano 249+30
−31
Nunam 236+28
−29
2,777 ± 19 BIN JPL LoMP
(80806) 2000 CM105 Cubewano 160 S/2005 (80806) 1 121 2,700 ± 300 BIN JPL LoMP
(82075) 2000 YW134 SDO 216 S/2005 (82075) 1 75 1900 ± 300 BIN JPL LoMP
(82157) 2001 FM185 2:3 resonance 138 S/2008 (82157) 1 120 3130 ± 90 BIN JPL LoMP
88611 Teharonhiawako Cubewano 178+33
−36
Sawiskera (Teharonhiawako I) 129+24
−26
27,670 ± 120 BIN JPL LoMP
90482 Orcus Plutino 917 ± 25 Vanth (Orcus I) 276 ± 17 9,006 ± 16 BIN JPL LoMP
(119067) 2001 KP76 4:7 resonance 153 S/2007 (119067) 1 146 8,900 ± 100 BIN JPL LoMP
(119979) 2002 WC19 1:2 resonance 440 S/2007 (119979) 1 139 4,090 ± 90 BIN JPL LoMP
120347 Salacia Cubewano 854 ± 45 Actaea (Salacia I) 286 ± 24 5,619 ± 87 BIN JPL LoMP
(123509) 2000 WK183 Cubewano 106 ± 24 S/2007 (123509) 1 101 2,366 ± 28 BIN JPL LoMP
(134860) 2000 OJ67 Cubewano 138 ± 32 S/2003 (134860) 1 108 ± 25 2,270 ± 30 BIN JPL LoMP
136108 Haumea Cubewano 1379 ± 57 Hiʻiaka (Haumea I) 320 49,880 ± 198 BIN JPL LoMP
Namaka (Haumea II) 160 25,657 ± 91
136199 Eris SDO 2326 ± 12 Dysnomia (Eris I) 514 ± 221 37,580 ± 260 BIN JPL LoMP
136472 Makemake Cubewano 1434x1422 S/2015 (136472) 1 175 ± 75 >21,100 BIN JPL LoMP
(139775) 2001 QG298 Plutino 135 S/2004 (139775) 1 117 172 BIN JPL LoMP
148780 Altjira Cubewano 246+38
−139
S/2007 (148780) 1 221+34
−125
9,904 ± 56 BIN JPL LoMP
(160091) 2000 OL67 Cubewano 153 S/2007 (160091) 1 116 7,800 BIN JPL LoMP
(160256) 2002 PD149 Cubewano 186 S/2007 (160256) 1 155 24,400 ± 300 BIN JPL LoMP
174567 Varda Cubewano 705+81
−75
Ilmarë (Varda I) 361+42
−38
4,800 ± 20 BIN JPL LoMP
(182933) 2002 GZ31 SDO 195 S/2006 (182933) 1 123 2,060 ± 270 BIN JPL LoMP
(208996) 2003 AZ84 Plutino 723 ± 64 S/2005 (208996) 1 72 ± 12 7,200 ± 300 BIN JPL LoMP
(225088) 2007 OR10 3:10 resonance 1535 ± 75 S/2010 (225088) 1 300 15,000 BIN JPL LoMP
(229762) 2007 UK126 SDO 590 ± 76 S/2008 (229762) 1 103 3,600 ± 1,300 BIN JPL LoMP
(275809) 2001 QY297 Cubewano 169+16
−80
S/2006 (275809) 1 154+15
−73
9,960 ± 31 BIN JPL LoMP
(303712) 2005 PR21 Cubewano 227 S/2007 (303712) 1 137 3,600 ± 300 BIN JPL LoMP
341520 Mors-Somnus Plutino 102 S/2007 (341520) 1 97 21,040 ± 70 BIN JPL LoMP
(364570) 2006 JZ81 Cubewano 122+20
−12
S/2006 (364570) 1 78+13
−8
33,000 ± 2,000 BIN JPL LoMP
385446 Manwë 4:7 resonance 160+24
−44
Thorondor (Manwë I) 92+14
−26
6,674 ± 41 BIN JPL LoMP
(469420) 2001 XP254 3:5 Resonance 108 S/2008 (2001 XP254) 1 77 1,200 ± 100 BIN JPL LoMP
(469505) 2003 FE128 1:2 Resonance 178 S/2010 (2003 FE128) 1 131 2,140 ± 50 BIN JPL LoMP
(469514) 2003 QA91 Cubewano 188 ± 24 S/2006 (2003 QA91) 1 180 ± 35 1,900 ± 100 BIN JPL LoMP
(469705) 2005 EF298 Cubewano 138 S/2009 (2005 EF298) 1 105 7,700 ± 100 BIN JPL LoMP
(508788) 2000 CQ114 Cubewano 132 S/2003 (2000 CQ114) 1 115 6,930 ± 40 BIN JPL LoMP
(508869) 2002 VT130 Cubewano 251 S/2008 (2002 VT130) 1 205 2,490 ± 80 BIN JPL LoMP
(523624) 2008 CT190 BIN JPL LoMP
1998 WV24 Plutino 110 S/2007 (1998 WV24) 1 96 1,420 ± 60 BIN JPL uTNO
1998 WW31 Cubewano 148 S/2000 (1998 WW31) 1 123 22,620 ± 40 BIN JPL uTNO
1999 OJ4 Cubewano 75 ± 17 S/2002 (1999 OJ4) 1 82 ± 16 3,267 ± 60 BIN JPL uTNO
1999 RT214 Cubewano 100 S/2006 (1999 RT214) 1 69 3,310 ± 30 BIN JPL uTNO
1999 RY214 Cubewano 125 S/2008 (1999 RY214) 1 76 1,500 ± 200 BIN JPL uTNO
1999 XY143 Cubewano 213 S/2008 (1999 XY143) 1 179 2,670 ± 70 BIN JPL uTNO
2000 CF105 Cubewano 63.6+1.2
−1.6
S/2002 (2000 CF105) 1 50 ± 2 33,300 ± 550 BIN JPL uTNO
2000 QL251 1:2 Resonance 148 ± 34 S/2006 (2000 QL251) 1 143 ± 33 5,002 ± 27 BIN JPL uTNO
2000 WT169 Cubewano 205 S/2008 (2000 WT169) 1 168 2,600 ± 100 BIN JPL uTNO
2001 FL185 Cubewano 142 S/2006 (2001 FL185) 1 88 1,900 ± 400 BIN JPL uTNO
2001 QC298 Cubewano 235+21
−23
S/2002 (2001 QC298) 1 192+17
−19
3,813 ± 15 BIN JPL uTNO
2001 QQ322 Cubewano 171 S/2007 (2001 QQ322) 1 196 3,890 ± 90 BIN JPL uTNO
2001 QW322 Cubewano 128+2
−4
S/2001 (2001 QW322) 1 126+3
−5
102,100 ± 700 BIN JPL uTNO
2001 RZ143 Cubewano 108 S/2001 (2001 RZ143) 1 90 1,560 ± 30 BIN JPL uTNO
2001 XR254 Cubewano 171+32
−55
S/2005 (2001 XR254) 1 140+26
−45
2,780 ± 20 BIN JPL uTNO
2002 VF130 121 S/2008 (2002 VF130) 1 105 22,400 ± 100 BIN JPL uTNO
2002 XH91 Cubewano 298 S/2008 (2002 XH91) 1 185 19,900 ± 100 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 HG57 Cubewano 156 S/2010 (2003 HG57) 1 156 13,200 ± 50 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 QY90 SDO 81 ± 19 S/2003 (2003 QY90) 1 80 8,549 ± 95 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 QR91 Cubewano 207 ± 21 S/2007(–) (2003 QR91) 1 189 ± 29 1,790 ± 60 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 TJ58 Cubewano 65 ± 15 S/2006 (2003 TJ58) 1 51 ± 12 3,840 ± 50 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 UN284 Cubewano 124+6
−10
S/2003 (2003 UN284) 1 83+5
−7
54,000 ± 2,000 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 WU188 Cubewano 178 S/2007(–) (2003 WU188) 1 129 1,300 ± 100 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 YS179 Cubewano 126 S/2008 (2003 YS179) 1 110 7,830 ± 90 BIN JPL uTNO
2003 YU179 Cubewano 146 S/2008 (2003 YU179) 1 80 2,000 ± 200 BIN JPL uTNO
2004 KB19 BIN JPL uTNO
2004 KH19 Plutino 179 S/2011(–) (2004 KH19) 1 129 13,000 BIN JPL uTNO
2004 PB108 Cubewano 243 ± 57 S/2006 (2004 PB108) 1 132 ± 31 10,400 ± 84 BIN JPL uTNO
2005 EO304 Cubewano 152.4+2
−1.8
S/2005 (2005 EO304) 1 78+1.5
−1.4
69,800 ± 2,050 BIN JPL uTNO
2005 GD187 Cubewano 123 S/2009 (2005 GD187) 1 102 7,600 ± 300 BIN JPL uTNO
2005 SF287 BIN JPL uTNO
2005 VZ122 Cubewano 124 S/2008 (2005 VZ122) 1 49 2,300 ± 300 BIN JPL uTNO
2006 BR284 Cubewano 89.8+0.8
−1
S/2006 (2006 BR284) 1 71 ± 1.5 25,300 ± 300 BIN JPL uTNO
2006 CH69 Cubewano 100+12
−10
S/2004 (2006 CH69) 1 82+10
−8
27,000 ± 1,000 BIN JPL uTNO
2006 SF369 1:3 Resonance 144 S/2007 (2006 SF369) 1 141 3,120 ± 80 BIN JPL uTNO
2013 FY27 BIN JPL uTNO
2014 LQ28 BIN JPL uTNO
2015 QL14 BIN JPL uTNO
HST5 135 S/2005 (hst5) 1 135 16,400 ± 1,600 BIN

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b William J. Merline; Maria Martinez (26 October 2000). "Astronomers Image Double Asteroid". SwRI Press Release. Retrieved 27 November 2018. (mentions both 90 Antiope and 762 Pulcova)
  2. ^ Dunham, David W.; Maley, Paul D. (December 1977). "Possible Observation of a Satellite of a Minor Planet". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 5: 16–17. Bibcode:1977MPBu....5...16D.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Johnston, Wm. Robert (2009-10-16). "Asteroids with Satellites". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  4. ^ "Satellites and Companions of Minor Planets". IAU / Minor Planet Center. 17 September 2009. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  5. ^ "90 Antiope: Raw Keck Image". SWrI Press Release. August 2000. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  6. ^ "IAUC 8732: S/2006 (624) 1". Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. 21 July 2006. Retrieved 26 November 2018. (Satellite Discovery)
  7. ^ Marchis, F.; Baek, M.; Berthier, J.; Descamps, P.; et al. (2008). "Multiple Asteroid Systems: New Techniques to Study New Worlds" (PDF). Lunar and Planetary Institute. Retrieved 2009-10-20.
  8. ^ Satellite of Minor Planet 532 Herculina Discovered During Occultation. David W. Dunham, The Minor Planet Bulletin, Volume 6, p.13–14 (December 1978) ADS archive copy
  9. ^ Storrs, Alex Weiss; Zellner; Burleson; Sichitiu; Wells; Kowal; Tholen (1999). "Imaging observations of asteroids with Hubble Space Telescope" (PDF). Icarus. 137 (2): 260–268. Bibcode:1999Icar..137..260S. doi:10.1006/icar.1999.6047. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-02-25.
  10. ^ "Astronomers Discover Moon Orbiting Asteroid". SwRI. 1998. Retrieved 2009-10-21. (Eugenia AO image)
  11. ^ Merline, W. J. (2001). "IAUC 7741: 2001fc; S/2001 (617) 1; C/2001 T1, C/2001 T2".
  12. ^ Chiang, E.; Lithwick, Y.; Buie, M.; Grundy, W.; Holman, M.; A Brief History of Trans-Neptunian Space, to appear in Protostars and Planets V (August 2006) Final preprint on arXiv
  13. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (2005-08-11). "IAUC 8582: Sats OF (87)". International Astronomical Union Circular. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
  14. ^ Daniel W. E. Green (2007-03-07). "IAUC 8817: S/2004 (45) 1". International Astronomical Union Circular. Retrieved 2011-01-08.
  15. ^ Franck Marchis (Principal Investigator, SETI Institute, UC Berkeley). "Franck Marchis Web Page". Department of Astronomy (University of California at Berkeley). Archived from the original on 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  16. ^ Franck Marchis (Principal Investigator, SETI Institute, UC Berkeley) (2008-09-19). "Two Companions Found Near Dog-Bone Asteroid". SETI Institute. Retrieved 2009-10-26.
  17. ^ Franck Marchis (2009-08-21). "The discovery of a new triple asteroid – (93) Minerva". Cosmic Diary Blog. Archived from the original on 2012-06-09. Retrieved 2009-10-27.
  18. ^ a b Noll, Keith S. "Solar System binaries", Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Proceedings of the 229th Symposium of the IAU, Rio de Janeiro, 2005, Cambridge University Press, 2006., pp. 301–318 Preprint
  19. ^ T. Michałowski; et al. (2004). "Eclipsing binary asteroid 90 Antiope". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 423 (3): 1159. Bibcode:2004A&A...423.1159M. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20040449.
  20. ^ Santos-Sanz, P.; et al. (2012). ""TNOs are Cool": A Survey of the Transneptunian Region IV. Size/albedo characterization of 15 scattered disk and detached objects observed with Herschel Space Observatory-PACS". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 541: A92. arXiv:1202.1481. Bibcode:2012A&A...541A..92S. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201118541.
  21. ^ a b c d e Johnston, Wm. Robert (30 September 2018). "Asteroids/TNOs with Satellites list by type and presumed level of confirmation". Johnston's Archive. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  22. ^ Lehtinen, K; Bach, U; Muinonen, K; Poutanen, M; Petrov, L (2 May 2016). "Asteroid sizing by radiogalaxy occultation at 5 GHz". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 822 (2): L21. Bibcode:2016ApJ...822L..21L. doi:10.3847/2041-8205/822/2/L21. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
  23. ^ "Happelia satellite". www.asteroidoccultation.com. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
  24. ^ http://www.cbat.eps.harvard.edu/cbet/000800/CBET000860.txt CBET 860
  25. ^ Green, Daniel. "CBET 4262". IAU Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams. Retrieved 11 March 2016.
  26. ^ Braga-Ribas, F.; Sicardy, B.; Ortiz, J. L.; Snodgrass, C.; Roques, F.; Vieira-Martins, R.; et al. (April 2014). "A ring system detected around the Centaur (10199) Chariklo" (PDF). Nature. 508 (7494): 72–75. arXiv:1409.7259. Bibcode:2014Natur.508...72B. doi:10.1038/nature13155. Retrieved 11 October 2017.

External links[edit]