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Minyans

According to Greek mythology and legendary prehistory of the Aegean region, the Minyans were an autochthonous group inhabiting the Aegean region. However, the extent to which the prehistory of the Aegean world is reflected in literary accounts of legendary peoples, the degree to which material culture can be securely linked to language-based ethnicity have been subjected to repeated revision; the Mycenaean Greeks reached Crete as early as 1450 BCE. Greek presence on the mainland, dates to 1600 BCE as shown in the latest shaft graves. Other aspects of the "Minyan" period appear to arrive from northern Greece and the Balkans, in particular tumulus graves and perforated stone axes. John L. Caskey's interpretation of his archaeological excavations conducted in the 1950s linked the ethno-linguistic "Proto-Greeks" to the bearers of the "Minyan" culture. More recent scholars have questioned or amended his dating and doubted the linking of material culture to linguistic ethnicity. Greeks did not always distinguish the Minyans from the Pelasgian cultures that had preceded them.

Greek mythographers gave the Minyans an eponymous founder, Minyas as legendary as Pelasgus, a broader category of pre-Greek Aegean peoples. These Minyans were associated with Boeotian Orchomenus, as when Pausanias relates that "Teos used to be inhabited by Minyans of Orchomenus, who came to it with Athamas" and may have represented a ruling dynasty or a tribe located in Boeotia. Herodotus asserts several times that Pelasgians dwelt in the distant past with the Athenians in Attica, that those Pelasgians driven from Attica in turn drove the Minyans out of Lemnos; the same historian states that Minyans from Amyklai settled on the island of Thera in 800 BC. Heracles, the hero whose exploits always celebrate the new Olympian order over the old traditions, came to Thebes, one of the ancient Mycenaean cities of Greece, found that the Greeks were paying tribute of 100 cattle each year to Erginus, king of the Minyans. Heracles attacked a group of emissaries from the Minyans, cut off their ears and hands.

He tied them around their necks and told them to take those for tribute to Erginus. Erginus made war on Thebes, but Heracles defeated the Minyans with his fellow Thebans after arming them with weapons, dedicated in temples. Erginus was killed and the Minyans were forced to pay double the previous tribute to the Thebans. Heracles was credited with the burning of the palace at Orchomenus: "Then appearing unawares before the city of the Orchomenians and slipping in at their gates he burned the palace of the Minyans and razed the city to the ground."The Argonauts were sometimes referred to as "Minyans" because Jason's mother came from that line, several of his cousins joined in the adventure. Before World War II, archaeologists sometimes applied the term "Minyans" differently, to indicate the first wave of Proto-Greek speakers in the 2nd millennium BCE, among the early Bronze Age cultures sometimes identified with the beginning of Middle Helladic culture. Gray "Minyan ware" is an archaeologist's term for a particular style of Aegean pottery associated with the Middle Helladic period.

Thus the beginning of the Middle Helladic period would be marked by the immigration of these "Minyans". According to Emily Vermeule, this was the first wave of true Hellenes in Greece. More however and paleoethnologists find the term "Minyan" to be questionable: "To call the makers of Minyan ware themselves'Minyans' is reprehensible", remarked F. H. Stubbings. "Deriving ethnic names from pottery styles is one of the most deplorable habits in archaeology," F. J. Tritsch asserted in 1974. "We cheerfully speak of the'Minyans' when we mean a population that uses pottery we call'Minyan'," although he was mistaken in saying that the Greeks themselves never mention the'Minyans' as a tribe or as a people. When John L. Caskey of the American School of Classical Studies at Athens outlined the results of his excavations at Lerna from 1952 up until 1958, he stated that the hallmarks of Middle Helladic culture may have originated from Early Helladic III. Caskey stated that Lerna was destroyed at the end of Early Helladic II.

He suggested that the invaders of Early Helladic II settlements may have been Greeks speaking a prototype of the Greek language. However, there is evidence of destruction at the end of the Early Helladic III period at Korakou and Eutresis in Boeotia. Caskey found the Middle Helladic people to be the direct ancestors of the Myceneans and Greeks. Although scholars today agree that the Mycenean Greeks descend from the "Minyans" of the Middle Helladic period, they question Caskey's suggestion that Indo-European invaders destroyed Early Helladic II settlements throughout Greece. In fact, the layers of destruction Caskey found at Lerna and Tiryns were attributed to fire. Moreover, there are indications of Early Helladic II culture being directly succeeded by Early Helladic III culture. Overall, this indicates that the progenitors and founders of "Minyan culture" were an autochthonous group. Minyas Boeotia Graïke Graia Ogyges Pelasgians Pre-Greek substrate Chloris Persephione Harper's Dictionary of Classical Antiquities Peter Pavúk - "Grey Ware as a Phenomenon"

The Great Gatsby (1926 film)

The Great Gatsby is a 1926 American silent drama film directed by Herbert Brenon. It is the first film adaptation of the 1925 novel of the same name by F. Scott Fitzgerald. Warner Baxter portrayed Lois Wilson as Daisy Buchanan; the film was produced by Famous Players-Lasky, distributed by Paramount Pictures. The Great Gatsby is now considered lost. A vintage movie trailer displaying short clips of the film still exists. An adaptation of F. Scott Fitzgerald's Long Island-set novel, where Midwesterner Nick Carraway is lured into the lavish world of his neighbor, Jay Gatsby. Soon enough, Carraway will see through the cracks of Gatsby's nouveau riche existence, where obsession and tragedy await; the screenplay was written by Becky Gardiner and Elizabeth Meehan and was based on Owen Davis' stage play treatment of The Great Gatsby. The play, directed by George Cukor, opened on Broadway at the Ambassador Theatre on February 2, 1926. Shortly after the play opened, Famous Players-Lasky and Paramount Pictures purchased the film rights for $45,000.

The film's director Herbert Brenon designed The Great Gatsby as lightweight, popular entertainment, playing up the party scenes at Gatsby's mansion and emphasizing their scandalous elements. The film had 7,296 feet. F. Scott Fitzgerald and his wife Zelda Sayre loathed Brenon's adaptation of his novel and walked out midway through a viewing of the film at a theater. "We saw The Great Gatsby at the movies," Zelda wrote to an acquaintance. "It's rotten and awful and terrible and we left."Mordaunt Hall—The New York Times' first regular film critic—wrote in a contemporary review that the film was "good entertainment, but at the same time it is obvious that it would have benefited by more imaginative direction." He lamented that Herbert Brenon's direction lacked subtlety and that none of the actors convincingly developed their characters. He faulted a scene where Daisy gulps absinthe: "She takes enough of this beverage to render the average person unconscious, yet she appears only mildly intoxicated, soon recovers."

Hall describes a scene in which Gatsby "tosses twenty-dollar gold pieces into the water, you see a number of the girls diving for the coins. A clever bit of comedy is introduced by a girl asking what Gatsby is throwing into the water, as soon as this creature hears that they are real gold pieces she unhesitatingly plunges into the pool to get a share. Gatsby appears to throw the money into the water with a good deal of interest, whereas it might have been more effective to have him appear a little bored as he watched the scramble of the men and women."In contrast to Hall's mixed review, journalist Abel Green's November 1926 review published in Variety was more positive. Green deemed Brenon's production to be "serviceable film material" and "a good, interesting gripping cinema exposition of the type certain to be acclaimed by the average fan, with the usual Long Island parties and the rest of those high-hat trimmings thrown in to clinch the argument." The Variety reviewer observed that Gatsby's "Volstead violating" bootlegging was not "a heinous crime despite the existence of a federal statute which declares it so."

The reviewer praised Warner Baxter's portrayal of Gatsby and Neil Hamilton's portrayal of Nick Carraway but found Lois Wilson's interpretation of Daisy to be needlessly unsympathetic. Professor Wheeler Winston Dixon, the James Ryan Professor of Film Studies at the University of Nebraska, Lincoln made extensive but unsuccessful attempts to find a surviving print. Dixon noted that there were rumors that a copy survived in an unknown archive in Moscow but dismissed these rumors as unfounded. However, the trailer has survived and is one of the 50 films in the three-disc, boxed DVD set More Treasures from American Film Archives, 1894-1931, compiled by the National Film Preservation Foundation from five American film archives; the trailer has a running time of one minute. It was featured on the Blu-Ray released by Warner Home Video of director Baz Luhrmann's 2013 adaptation of The Great Gatsby as a special feature; the Great Gatsby trailer on YouTube The Great Gatsby on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie

Eastern Dry Rocks

Eastern Dry Rocks is a coral reef located within the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. It lies seven miles southeast of Key West and one mile east of Sand Key light within the Key West National Wildlife Refuge; this reef is within a Sanctuary Preservation Area. The Eastern Dry Rocks Reef includes rubble zones and long fingers of coral separated by deeper sand and coral canyons; the Eastern Dry Rocks reef is a popular spot for diving and/or snorkeling. It is quite close to multiple other reefs including Sand Key and Rock Key, so it is common for divers and snorkelers to see multiple reefs on one outing. One can find many different kinds of fish and other marine creatures at the reef. Common species include nurse and hammerhead sharks, brain coral, stingray, cleaner shrimp, reef crab, lobster, moray eel, angelfish, sergeant major, Florida horse conch, queen conch. Many of the same species that can be found throughout the rest of the Keys are found here, species from the greater Caribbean. Other species of marine life have been spotted at the reef, ranging from infrequently to only a few times.

Rarer species include permit, spotted eagle ray, sea turtles, the Atlantic Goliath grouper. Rock Key Benthic Habitat Map NOAA National Marine Sanctuary Maps, Florida Keys West NOAA Page on Eastern Dry Rocks NOAA Navigational Chart 11446