The Ingenious Gentleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha, or just Don Quixote, is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes. Published in two parts, in 1605 and 1615, Don Quixote is the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon; as a founding work of modern Western literature, it appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction published, such as the Bokklubben World Library collection that cites Don Quixote as the authors' choice for the "best literary work written". The story follows the adventures of a noble named Alonso Quixano who reads so many chivalric romances that he loses his sanity and decides to become a knight-errant, reviving chivalry and serving his country, under the name Don Quixote de la Mancha, he recruits a simple farmer, Sancho Panza, as his squire, who employs a unique, earthy wit in dealing with Don Quixote's rhetorical orations on antiquated knighthood. Don Quixote, in the first part of the book, does not see the world for what it is and prefers to imagine that he is living out a knightly story.
Throughout the novel, Cervantes uses such literary techniques as realism and intertextuality. The book had a major influence on the literary community, as evidenced by direct references in Alexandre Dumas' The Three Musketeers, Mark Twain's Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, Edmond Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac, as well as the word quixotic and the epithet Lothario; the 19th-century German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer cited Don Quixote as one of the four greatest novels written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse, Wilhelm Meisters Lehrjahre. When first published, Don Quixote was interpreted as a comic novel. After the French Revolution, it was better known for its central ethic that individuals can be right while society is quite wrong and seen as disenchanting. In the 19th century, it was seen as a social commentary, but no one could tell "whose side Cervantes was on". Many critics came to view the work as a tragedy in which Don Quixote's idealism and nobility are viewed by the post-chivalric world as insane, are defeated and rendered useless by common reality.
By the 20th century, the novel had come to occupy a canonical space as one of the foundations of modern literature. Cervantes wrote that the first chapters were taken from "the archives of La Mancha", the rest were translated from an Arabic text by the Moorish author Cide Hamete Benengeli; this metafictional trick appears to give a greater credibility to the text, implying that Don Quixote is a real character and that the events related occurred several decades prior to the recording of this account. However, it was common practice in that era for fictional works to make some pretense of being factual, such as the common opening line of fairy tales "Once upon a time in a land far away...". In the course of their travels, the protagonists meet innkeepers, goat-herders, priests, escaped convicts and scorned lovers; the aforementioned characters sometimes tell tales that incorporate events from the real world, like the conquest of the Kingdom of Maynila or battles in the Eighty Years' War. Their encounters are magnified by Don Quixote's imagination into chivalrous quests.
Don Quixote's tendency to intervene violently in matters irrelevant to himself, his habit of not paying debts, result in privations and humiliations. Don Quixote is persuaded to return to his home village; the narrator says that records of it have been lost. Alonso Quixano, the protagonist of the novel, is a Hidalgo, nearing 50 years of age, living in an unnamed section of La Mancha with his niece and housekeeper, as well as a boy, never heard of again after the first chapter. Although Quixano is a rational man, in keeping with the humoral physiology theory of the time, not sleeping adequately—because he was reading—has caused his brain to dry; as a result, he is given to anger and believes every word of these fictional books of chivalry to be true. Imitating the protagonists of these books, he decides to become a knight-errant in search of adventure. To these ends, he dons an old suit of armour, renames himself "Don Quixote", names his exhausted horse "Rocinante", designates Aldonza Lorenzo, a neighboring farm girl, as his lady love, renaming her Dulcinea del Toboso, while she knows nothing of this.
Expecting to become famous he arrives at an inn, which he believes to be a castle. He spends the night holding vigil over his armor and becomes involved in a fight with muleteers who try to remove his armor from the horse trough so that they can water their mules. In a pretended ceremony, the innkeeper sends him on his way. Don Quixote next "frees" a young boy named Andres, tied to a tree and beaten by his master, makes his master swear to treat the boy fairly. Don Quixote encounters traders from Toledo, who "insult" the imaginary Dulcinea, he attacks them, only to be
The percussion cap, introduced circa 1820, is a type of single-use ignition device used on muzzleloader firearms that enabled them to fire reliably in any weather conditions. This crucial invention gave rise to the percussion lock system. Before this development, firearms used flintlock ignition systems that produced flint-on-steel sparks to ignite a pan of priming powder and thereby fire the gun's main powder charge. Flintlocks were prone to misfire in wet weather, many flintlock firearms were converted to the more reliable percussion system; the percussion cap is a small cylinder of brass with one closed end. Inside the closed end is a small amount of a shock-sensitive explosive material such as fulminate of mercury; the percussion cap is placed over a hollow metal "nipple" at the rear end of the gun barrel. Pulling the trigger releases a hammer that strikes the percussion cap and ignites the explosive primer; the flame travels through the hollow nipple to ignite the main powder charge. Percussion caps were, still are, made in small sizes for pistols and larger sizes for rifles and muskets.
While the metal percussion cap was the most popular and used type of primer, their small size made them difficult to handle under the stress of combat or while riding a horse. Accordingly, several manufacturers developed "auto-priming" systems; the "Maynard tape primer", for example, used a roll of paper "caps" much like today's toy cap gun. The Maynard tape primer was fitted to some firearms used in the mid-nineteenth century and a few saw brief use in the American Civil War. Other disc or pellet-type primers held a supply of tiny fulminate detonator discs in a small magazine. Cocking the hammer automatically advanced a disc into position. However, these automatic feed systems were difficult to make with the manufacturing systems in the early and mid-nineteenth century and generated more problems than they solved, they were shelved in favor of a single percussion cap that, while awkward to handle in some conditions, could be carried in sufficient quantities to make up for dropping one while a jammed tape primer system reduced the rifle to an awkward club.
The first practical solution for the problem of handling percussion caps in battle was the Prussian 1841, which used a long needle to penetrate a paper cartridge filled with black powder and strike the percussion cap, fastened to the base of the bullet. While it had a number of problems, it was used by the Prussians and other German states in the mid-nineteenth century and was a major factor in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War. In the 1850s, the percussion cap was first integrated into a metallic cartridge, which contained the bullet, powder charge and primer. By the late 1860s, breech-loading metallic cartridges had made the percussion cap system obsolete. Today, reproduction percussion firearms are popular for recreational shooters and percussion caps are still available. Most percussion caps now use non-corrosive compounds such as lead styphnate; the percussion cap replaced the flint, the steel "frizzen", the powder pan of the flint-lock mechanism. It was only applied to the British military musket in 1842, a quarter of a century after the invention of percussion powder and after an elaborate government test at Woolwich in 1834.
The first percussion firearm produced for the US military was the percussion carbine version of the M1819 Hall rifle. The discovery of fulminates was made by Edward Charles Howard in 1800; the invention that made the percussion cap possible using the discovered fulminates was patented by the Rev. Alexander John Forsyth of Belhelvie, Scotland in 1807; this early system coined "Percussion Lock" operated in a near identical fashion to flintlock firearms and used fulminating primer made of fulminate of mercury, chlorate of potash and charcoal, ignited by concussion. It was an invention born of necessity, his invention of a fulminate-primed firing mechanism deprived the birds of their early warning, by avoiding the initial puff of smoke from the flintlock powder pan and shortening the interval between the trigger pull and the shot leaving the muzzle. Fulminate-primed guns were less to misfire than flintlocks; the percussion cap helped lead to the self-contained cartridge, where the bullet is held in by the casing, the casing is filled with gunpowder and a primer is at the end.
Joshua Shaw, an English-born American, is sometimes credited with the development of the first metallic percussion cap in 1814 but his claim remains clouded with controversy as he did not patent the idea until 1822. According to Lewis Winant, the US government's decision to award Shaw $25,000 as compensation for his invention was a mistake. Congress believed Shaw's patent was the earliest and awarded him a large sum of money based on this belief but a claim for the percussion cap was filed in 1819 and granted in 1820 as an addition to an 1818 patent by Francois Prelat, two years before Shaw's patent. Prelat may not be the inventor as he made a habit of copying English patents and inventions and the mode of operation he describes is flawed. According to historian Sidney James Gooding, the most inventor of the percussion cap is Joseph Egg, around 1817. Shaw's percussion caps used a mixture of fulminate of m
The caplock mechanism or percussion lock was the successor of the flintlock mechanism in firearm technology, used a percussion cap struck by the hammer to set off the main charge, rather than using a piece of flint to strike a steel frizzen. The caplock mechanism consists of a hammer, similar to the cock used in a flintlock, a nipple, which holds a small percussion cap; the nipple contains a tube. The percussion cap contains a chemical compound called mercuric fulminate or fulminate of mercury, whose chemical formula is Hg2, it is made from nitric acid and alcohol. When the trigger releases the hammer, it strikes the cap; the flames from this explosion travel down the tube in the nipple and enter the barrel, where they ignite the main powder charge. The rudimentary percussion system was developed by Rev. Alexander John Forsyth as a solution to the problem that birds would startle when smoke puffed from the powder pan of his flintlock shotgun, giving them sufficient warning to escape the shot.
His invention of a fulminate-primed firing mechanism deprived the birds of their early warning system, both by avoiding the initial puff of smoke from the flintlock powder pan, as well as shortening the interval between the trigger pull and the shot leaving the muzzle. Forsyth patented his "scent bottle" ignition system in 1807. However, it was not until after Forsyth's patents expired that the conventional percussion cap system was developed. Joseph Manton invented a precursor to the percussion cap in 1814, comprising a copper tube that detonated when crushed; this was further developed in 1822 by the artist Joshua Shaw, as a copper cup filled with fulminates. The caplock offered many improvements over the flintlock; the caplock was easier to load, more resistant to weather, was much more reliable than the flintlock. Many older flintlock weapons were converted into caplocks so that they could take advantage of this increased reliability; the first purpose built caplock guns were fowling pieces commissioned by sportsmen in Regency era England.
Due to the mechanism's compactness and superior reliability compared to the flintlock, gunsmiths were able to manufacture pistols and long guns with two barrels. Early caplock handguns with two or more barrels and a single lock are known as turn-over or twister pistols, due to the need to manually rotate the second barrel to align with the hammer. Pocket sized versions of this pistol were used by gamblers in the Old West. With the addition of a third barrel, a ratchet to mechanically turn the barrels while cocking the hammer, these caplock pistols evolved into the pepperbox revolver during the 1830s. From the 1830s onwards, the armies of Britain, France and America began converting their muskets to the new percussion system; the Americans' breech loading caplock Hall rifles, muzzle loading rifled muskets and Colt Dragoon revolvers gave them an advantage over the smoothbore flintlock Brown Bess muskets used by Santa Anna's troops during the Mexican War. In Japan, matchlock pistols and muskets were converted to percussion from the 1850s onwards, new guns based on existing designs were manufactured as caplocks.
The Austrians instead used a variant of Manton's tube lock in their Augustin musket until the conventional caplock Lorenz rifle was introduced in 1855, the Prussians replaced their muzzle loading flintlock Potsdam muskets with the bolt action Dreyse needle gun in 1841. The needle gun fired paper cartridges containing a bullet, powder charge and percussion cap, but by the time of the Franco-Prussian War this had evolved into modern brass ammunition. After the American Civil War, Britain and America began converting existing caplock guns to accept brass rimfire and centrefire cartridges. For muskets such as the 1853 Enfield and 1861 Springfield, this involved installing a firing pin in place of the nipple, a trapdoor in the breech to accept the new bullets. Examples include the Trapdoor Springfield, Tabatiere rifle, Westley Richards and Snider Enfield conversions; the British army used Snider Enfields contemporaneously with the Martini-Henry rifle until the.303 bolt action Lee-Metford repeating rifle was introduced in the 1880s.
Military surplus Sniders were purchased as hunting and defensive weapons by British colonists and trusted local natives. Caplock revolvers such as the Colt Navy and Remington were widely converted during the late 19th century, by replacing the existing cylinder with one designed for modern ammunition; these were used extensively by the Turks in the Russo-Turkish War, the US Cavalry during the Indian Wars, by gunfighters and outlaws in the Old West. How percussion caps work
Naples is the regional capital of Campania and the third-largest municipality in Italy after Rome and Milan. In 2017, around 967,069 people lived within the city's administrative limits while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,115,320 residents, its continuously built-up metropolitan area is the second or third largest metropolitan area in Italy and one of the most densely populated cities in Europe. First settled by Greeks in the second millennium BC, Naples is one of the oldest continuously inhabited urban areas in the world. In the ninth century BC, a colony known as Parthenope or Παρθενόπη was established on the Island of Megaride refounded as Neápolis in the sixth century BC; the city was an important part of Magna Graecia, played a major role in the merging of Greek and Roman society and a significant cultural centre under the Romans. It served as the capital of the Duchy of Naples of the Kingdom of Naples and of the Two Sicilies until the unification of Italy in 1861.
Between 1925 and 1936, Naples was expanded and upgraded by Benito Mussolini's government but subsequently sustained severe damage from Allied bombing during World War II, which led to extensive post-1945 reconstruction work. Naples has experienced significant economic growth in recent decades, helped by the construction of the Centro Direzionale business district and an advanced transportation network, which includes the Alta Velocità high-speed rail link to Rome and Salerno and an expanded subway network. Naples is the third-largest urban economy in Italy, after Rome; the Port of Naples is one of the most important in Europe and home of the Allied Joint Force Command Naples, the NATO body that oversees North Africa, the Sahel and Middle East. Naples' historic city centre is the largest in Europe and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, with a wide range of culturally and significant sites nearby, including the Palace of Caserta and the Roman ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. Naples is known for its natural beauties such as Posillipo, Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius.
Neapolitan cuisine is synonymous with pizza – which originated in the city – but it includes many lesser-known dishes. The best-known sports team in Naples is the Serie A club S. S. C. Napoli, two-time Italian champions who play at the San Paolo Stadium in the southwest of the city, in the Fuorigrotta quarter. Naples has been inhabited since the Neolithic period; the earliest Greek settlements were established in the Naples area in the second millennium BC. Sailors from the Greek island of Rhodes established a small commercial port called Parthenope on the island of Megaride in the ninth century BC. By the eighth century BC, the settlement had expanded to include Monte Echia. In the sixth century BC the new urban zone of Neápolis was founded on the plain becoming one of the foremost cities of Magna Graecia; the city grew due to the influence of the powerful Greek city-state of Syracuse, became an ally of the Roman Republic against Carthage. During the Samnite Wars, the city, now a bustling centre of trade, was captured by the Samnites.
During the Punic Wars, the strong walls surrounding Neápolis repelled the invading forces of the Carthaginian general Hannibal. Naples was respected by the Romans as a paragon of Hellenistic culture. During the Roman era, the people of Naples maintained their Greek language and customs, while the city was expanded with elegant Roman villas and public baths. Landmarks such as the Temple of Dioscures were built, many emperors chose to holiday in the city, including Claudius and Tiberius. Virgil, the author of Rome's national epic, the Aeneid, received part of his education in the city, resided in its environs, it was during this period. Januarius, who would become Naples' patron saint, was martyred there in the fourth century AD; the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire, Romulus Augustulus, was exiled to Naples by the Germanic king Odoacer in the fifth century AD. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, Naples was captured by the Ostrogoths, a Germanic people, incorporated into the Ostrogothic Kingdom.
However, Belisarius of the Byzantine Empire recaptured Naples in 536, after entering the city via an aqueduct. In 543, during the Gothic Wars, Totila took the city for the Ostrogoths, but the Byzantines seized control of the area following the Battle of Mons Lactarius on the slopes of Vesuvius. Naples was expected to keep in contact with the Exarchate of Ravenna, the centre of Byzantine power on the Italian Peninsula. After the exarchate fell, a Duchy of Naples was created. Although Naples' Greco-Roman culture endured, it switched allegiance from Constantinople to Rome under Duke Stephen II, putting it under papal suzerainty by 763; the years between 818 and 832 were tumultuous in regard to Naples' relations with the Byzantine Emperor, with numerous local pretenders feuding for possession of the ducal throne. Theoctistus was appointed without imperial approval. However, the disgruntled general populace chased him from the city, instead elected Stephen III, a man who minted coins with his own initials, r
Flintlock is a general term for any firearm that uses a flint striking ignition mechanism. The term may apply to a particular form of the mechanism itself known as the true flintlock, introduced in the early 17th century, replaced earlier firearm-ignition technologies, such as the matchlock, the wheellock, the earlier flintlock mechanisms; the true flintlock continued to be in common use for over two centuries, replaced by percussion cap and the cartridge-based systems in the early-to-mid 19th century. Although long superseded by modern firearms, flintlock weapons enjoy continuing popularity with black-powder shooting enthusiasts. French court gunsmith Marin le Bourgeoys made a firearm incorporating a flintlock mechanism for King Louis XIII shortly after his accession to the throne in 1610. However, firearms using some form of flint ignition mechanism had been in use for over half a century; the development of firearm lock mechanisms had proceeded from the matchlock to wheellock to the earlier flintlocks in the previous two centuries, each type had been an improvement, contributing design features to firearms which were useful.
Le Bourgeoys fitted these various features together to create what became known as the flintlock or true flintlock. The new flintlock system became popular, was known and used in various forms throughout Europe by 1630, although older flintlock systems continued to be used for some time. Examples of early flintlock muskets can be seen in the painting "Marie de' Medici as Bellona" by Rubens. Various breech-loading flintlocks were developed starting around 1650; the most popular action has a barrel, unscrewed from the rest of the gun. This is more practical on pistols because of the shorter barrel length; this type is known as a Queen Anne pistol. Another type has a removable screw plug set into top or bottom of the barrel. A large number of sporting rifles were made with this system, as it allowed easier loading compared with muzzle loading with a tight fitting bullet and patch. One of the more successful was the system built by Isaac de la Chaumette starting in 1704; the barrel could be opened by 3 revolutions of the triggerguard.
The plug stayed attached to the ball and powder were loaded from the top. This system was improved in the 1770s by Colonel Patrick Ferguson and 100 experimental rifles used in the American Revolutionary War; the only two flintlock breechloaders to be produced in quantity were the Crespi. The first was invented by John Hall and patented c. 1817. It was issued to the U. S. Army as the Model 1819 Hall Breech Loading Rifle; the Hall rifles and carbines were loaded using a combustible paper cartridge inserted into the upward tilting breechblock. Hall rifles leaked gas from the poorly fitted action; the same problem affected the muskets produced by Giuseppe Crespi and adopted by the Austrian Army in 1771. Nonetheless, the Crespi System was experimented with by the British during the Napoleonic Wars, percussion Halls guns saw service in the American Civil War. Flintlock weapons were used until the mid 19th century, when they were replaced by percussion lock systems. Though they have long been considered obsolete, flintlock weapons continue to be produced today by manufacturers such as Pedersoli and Armi Sport.
Not only are these weapons used by modern re-enactors, but they are used for hunting, as many U. S. states have dedicated hunting seasons for black-powder weapons, which includes both flintlock and percussion lock weapons. Flintlocks may be any type of small arm: long gun or pistol, smoothbore or rifle, muzzleloader or breechloader. Flintlock pistols were used as a military arm, their effective range was short, they were used as an adjunct to a sword or cutlass. Pistols were smoothbore although some rifled pistols were produced. Flintlock pistols came in a variety of sizes and styles which overlap and are not well defined, many of the names we use having been applied by collectors and dealers long after the pistols were obsolete; the smallest were less than 6 inches long and the largest were over 20 inches. From around the beginning of the 1700s the larger pistols got shorter, so that by the late 1700s the largest would be more like 16 inches long; the smallest would fit into a typical pocket or a hand warming muff and could be carried by women.
The largest sizes would be carried in holsters across a horse's back just ahead of the saddle. In-between sizes included the coat pocket pistol, or coat pistol, which would fit into a large pocket, the coach pistol, meant to be carried on or under the seat of a coach in a bag or box, belt pistols, sometimes equipped with a hook designed to slip over a belt or waistband. Larger pistols were called horse pistols. Arguably the most elegant of the pistol designs was the Queen Anne pistol, made in all sizes; the high point of the mechanical development of the flintlock pistol was the British duelling pistol. External decoration was minimal but craftsmanship was evident, the internal works were finished to a higher degree of craftsmanship than the exterior. Dueling pistols were the size of the horse pistols of the late 1700s, around 16 inches long and were sold in pairs along with accessories in a wooden case with compartments for each piece. Flintlock muskets were the mainstay of European armies between 1660 and 1840.
A musket wa
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra was a Spanish writer, regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists. His novel Don Quixote has been translated into over dialects. Don Quixote, a classic of Western literature, is sometimes considered both the first modern novel and the best work of fiction written. Cervantes' influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is called la lengua de Cervantes, he has been dubbed El príncipe de los ingenios. In 1569, in forced exile from Castile, Cervantes moved to Rome, where he worked as chamber assistant of a cardinal, he enlisted as a soldier in a Spanish Navy infantry regiment and continued his military life until 1575, when he was captured by Barbary pirates. After five years of captivity, he was released on payment of a ransom by his parents and the Trinitarians, a Catholic religious order, he returned to his family in Madrid. In 1585, Cervantes published a pastoral novel, he worked as a purchasing agent for the Spanish Armada and as a tax collector for the government.
In 1597, discrepancies in his accounts for three years previous landed him in the Crown Jail of Seville. In 1605, Cervantes was in Valladolid when the immediate success of the first part of his Don Quixote, published in Madrid, signalled his return to the literary world. In 1607, he settled in Madrid, where he worked until his death. During the last nine years of his life, Cervantes solidified his reputation as a writer, publishing Novelas ejemplares in 1613, Viaje del Parnaso in 1614, Ocho comedias y ocho entremeses and the second part of Don Quixote in 1615, his last work, Los trabajos de Persiles y Sigismunda, was published posthumously in 1617. It is assumed that Cervantes was born in Alcalá de Henares, a Castilian city about 35 kilometres north-east from Madrid on 29 September 1547; the probable date of his birth was determined from records in the church register, given the tradition of naming a child after the feast day of his birth. He was baptized in Alcalá de Henares on 9 October 1547 at the parish church of Santa María la Mayor.
The register of baptisms records the following: On Sunday, the ninth day of the month of October, the year of our Lord one thousand five hundred forty and seven, son of Rodrigo Cervantes and his wife Leonor, was baptised. Witnesses, Baltasar Vázquez, I, who baptised him and signed this in my name. Bachelor Serrano, his father, was a barber-surgeon of Galician extraction from Córdoba, who set bones, performed blood-lettings, attended to "lesser medical needs". His paternal grandfather, Juan de Cervantes, was an influential lawyer who held several administrative positions, his uncle was mayor of Cabra for many years. His mother, Leonor de Cortinas, was a native of Arganda del Rey and the third daughter of a nobleman, who lost his fortune and had to sell his daughter into matrimony in 1543; this led to a awkward marriage and several affairs by Rodrigo. Leonor died on 19 October 1593. Miguel at birth was not surnamed Cervantes Saavedra, he adopted the "Saavedra" name as an adult. Little is known of Cervantes' early years.
It seems he spent much of his childhood moving from town to town with his family enrolling in The Imperial School, a Jesuit educational establishment for boys in Madrid. Court records show a poor household. While it has been speculated that he studied at the University of Salamanca, there is no evidence supporting it. Based on the high praise of the Jesuits in the Dialogue of the Dogs, there has been speculation that Cervantes studied with them, but again there is no evidence, his siblings were Andrés, Luisa, Rodrigo and Juan – the latter known because he is mentioned in his father's will. The reasons that forced Cervantes to leave Spain remain uncertain. Possible reasons include that he was a "student" of the same name, a "sword-wielding fugitive from justice", or fleeing from a royal warrant of arrest, for having wounded a certain Antonio de Sigura in a duel. Like many young Spanish men who wanted to further their careers, Cervantes left for Italy. In Rome, he focused his attention on Renaissance art and poetry – knowledge of Italian literature is discernible in his work.
He found "a powerful impetus to revive the contemporary world in light of its accomplishments". Thus, Cervantes' stay in Italy, as revealed in his works, might be in part a desire for a return to an earlier period of the Renaissance. By 1570, Cervantes had enlisted as a soldier in a regiment of the Spanish Navy Marines, Infantería de Marina, stationed in Naples a possession of the Spanish crown, he was there for about a year. In September 1571, Cervantes sailed on board the Marquesa, part of the galley fleet of the Holy League that, under the command of John of Austria, the illegitimate half brother of Spain's Phillip II, defeated the Ottoman fleet on 7 October 1571, in the Battle of Lepanto. Though taken with fever, Cervantes refused to stay below, he d
Valencia València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre. Its urban area extends beyond the administrative city limits with a population of around 1.6 million people. Valencia is Spain's third largest metropolitan area, with a population ranging from 1.7 to 2.5 million depending on how the metropolitan area is defined. The Port of Valencia is the 5th busiest container port in Europe and the busiest container port on the Mediterranean Sea; the city is ranked at Beta-global city in World Cities Research Network. Valencia is integrated into an industrial area on the Costa del Azahar. Valencia was founded as a Roman colony by the consul Decimus Junius Brutus Callaicus in 138 BC, called Valentia Edetanorum. In 714 Moroccan and Arab Moors occupied the city, introducing their language and customs. Valencia was the capital of the Taifa of Valencia.
In 1238 the Christian king James I of Aragon conquered the city and divided the land among the nobles who helped him conquer it, as witnessed in the Llibre del Repartiment. He created a new law for the city, the Furs of Valencia, which were extended to the rest of the Kingdom of Valencia. In the 18th century Philip V of Spain abolished the privileges as punishment to the kingdom of Valencia for aligning with the Habsburg side in the War of the Spanish Succession. Valencia was the capital of Spain when Joseph Bonaparte moved the Court there in the summer of 1812, it served as capital between 1936 and 1937, during the Second Spanish Republic. The city is situated on the banks of the Turia, on the east coast of the Iberian Peninsula, fronting the Gulf of Valencia on the Mediterranean Sea, its historic centre is one of the largest in Spain, with 169 ha. Due to its long history, this is a city with numerous popular celebrations and traditions, such as the Fallas, which were declared as Fiestas of National Tourist Interest of Spain in 1965 and Intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO in November 2016.
From 1991 to 2015, Rita Barberá Nolla was the mayor of the city, yet in 2015, Joan Ribó from Coalició Compromís, became mayor. The original Latin name of the city was Valentia, meaning "strength", or "valour", the city being named according to the Roman practice of recognising the valour of former Roman soldiers after a war; the Roman historian Livy explains that the founding of Valentia in the 2nd century BC was due to the settling of the Roman soldiers who fought against an Iberian rebel, Viriatus. During the rule of the Muslim kingdoms in Spain, it had the nickname Medina at-Tarab according to one transliteration, or Medina at-Turab according to another, since it was located on the banks of the River Turia, it is not clear if the term Balansiyya was reserved for the entire Taifa of Valencia or designated the city. By gradual sound changes, Valentia has in Castilian and València in Valencian. In Valencian, the grave accent ⟨è⟩ /ɛ/ contrasts with the acute accent ⟨é⟩ /e/—but the word València is an exception to this rule.
It is spelled according to Catalan etymology. Valencia stands on the banks of the Turia River, located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula and the western part of the Mediterranean Sea, fronting the Gulf of Valencia. At its founding by the Romans, it stood on a river island in 6.4 kilometres from the sea. The Albufera, a freshwater lagoon and estuary about 11 km south of the city, is one of the largest lakes in Spain; the City Council bought the lake from the Crown of Spain for 1,072,980 pesetas in 1911, today it forms the main portion of the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, with a surface area of 21,120 hectares. In 1976, because of its cultural and ecological value, the Generalitat Valenciana declared it a natural park. Valencia has a subtropical Mediterranean climate with short mild winters and long and dry summers, its average annual temperature is 18.4 °C. In the coldest month, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 14 to 21 °C, the minimum temperature at night ranges from 5 to 11 °C.
In the warmest month – August, the maximum temperature during the day ranges from 28–34 °C, about 22 to 23 °C at night. Similar temperatures to those experienced in the northern part of Europe in summer last about 8 months, from April to November. March is transitional, the temperature exceeds 20 °C, with an average temperature of 19.3 °C during the day and 10.0 °C at night. December and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 17 °C during the day and 8 °C at night. Valencia has one of the mildest winters in Europe, owing to its southern location on the Mediterranean Sea and the Foehn phenomenon; the January average is comparable to temperatures expected for May and September in the major cities of northern Europe. Sunshine duration hours are 2,696 per year, from 15