Latin honors are Latin phrases used to indicate the level of distinction with which an academic degree has been earned. This system is used in the United States, many countries of continental Europe, some Southeastern Asian countries with European colonial history, such as Indonesia and the Philippines, although some institutions use translations of these phrases rather than the Latin originals; the honors distinction should not be confused with the honors degrees offered in some countries. A college's or university's regulations set out definite criteria to be met in order for a student to obtain a given honors distinction. For example, the student might be required to achieve a specific grade point average, to submit an honors thesis for evaluation, to be part of an honors program, or to graduate early; each university sets its own standards. Since these standards may vary it is possible for the same level of Latin honors conferred by different institutions to represent contrasting levels of academic achievement.
Some institutions may grant equivalent non-Latin honors to undergraduates. The University of Wisconsin–Madison, for example, has a series of plain English grading honors based on class standing; these honors, when they are used, are always awarded to undergraduates earning their bachelor's, with the exception of law school graduates, much more to graduate students receiving their master's or doctorate degree. The honor is indicated on the diploma. Latin honors are conferred upon law school students graduating as a Juris Doctor or J. D. in which case they are based upon class rank or grade point average. In North America, Latin honors are awarded by colleges and universities for undergraduates degrees, such as the Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science, by law schools for the Juris Doctor degree. Latin honors are not used with other graduate degrees, such as M. D. or Ph. D. degrees. Most institutions use two or three levels of Latin honors, listed below in ascending order: cum laude, meaning "with praise".
This honor is awarded to graduates in the top 20%, top 25%, or top 30% of their class, depending on the institution. Magna cum laude, meaning "with great praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 10% or top 15% of their class, depending on the institution. Summa cum laude, meaning "with greatest praise"; this honor is awarded to graduates in the top 1%, top 2%, or top 5% of their class, depending on the institution. Not all institutions award the summa cum laude distinction; some institutions have additional distinctions. For example, at a few universities maxima cum laude, meaning "with great praise", is an intermediary honor between the magna and the summa honors, it is sometimes used when the summa honor is reserved only for students with perfect academic records. A further used distinction is that of egregia cum laude which means "with outstanding praise," and if used may be for either students achieving summa cum laude honors in a difficult subject area or recipients of a non-standard Bachelor's degree.
For undergraduate degrees, Latin honors are used in only a few countries such as the United States, Indonesia, the Dominican Republic, the Philippines and Canada. Most countries use a different scheme, such as the British undergraduate degree classification, more used with varying criteria and nomenclature depending on country, including Australia, Barbados, Colombia, Hong Kong, Ireland, Kenya, New Zealand, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, South Africa and Tobago, the United Kingdom and many other countries. Malta shows the Latin honors on the degree certificates, but the UK model is shown on the transcript. In Austria, the only Latin honor in use is sub auspiciis Praesidentis rei publicae for doctoral degrees. Candidates must have excellent grades throughout high school and university, making it difficult to attain: only about 20 out of a total of 2,500 doctoral graduates per year achieve a sub auspiciis degree. In Belgium, the university degree awarded is limited to: Satisfaction cum laude magna cum laude summa cum laude In Brazil, the Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica awards the cum laude honor for graduates with every individual grade above 8.5, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 8.5 and more than 50% of individual grades above 9.5, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade above 9.5.
As of 2009, only 22 graduates have received the summa cum laude honor at ITA. The Federal University of Rio de Janeiro awards the cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 8.0 to 8.9, the magna cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.0 to 9.4, the summa cum laude honor for graduates with average grade from 9.5 to 10.0. The Federal University of Ceará awards the magna cum laude honor for undergraduates who have never failed a course, achieved an average grade from 8.5 and have received a fellowship of both Academic Extension and Teaching Initiation. In Estonia, up until 2010 both summa cum laude and cum laude were used. Summa cum laude was awarded only for exceptional work. Since 1 September 2010, only cum laude is used. It
At First Sight (1999 film)
At First Sight is a 1999 American romantic drama film starring Val Kilmer and Mira Sorvino, based on the essay "To See and Not See" in neurologist Oliver Sacks' book An Anthropologist on Mars and inspired by the true life story of Shirl Jennings. The film was written by Steve Levitt. Amy Benic takes a vacation at a spa outside New York City. Virgil Adamson gives Amy a massage. Amy inexplicably cries and Virgil comforts her. While complimenting Virgil on the massage, Amy realizes. Virgil asks her out, the two begin a relationship. Virgil lives alone, though his over-protective sister Jennie takes care of him. Virgil reveals that he went blind when he was three and that the last thing he saw was something fluffy. While researching Virgil's condition, Amy learns of Doctor Charles Aaron, a specialist in eye treatment who suggests to Virgil that, with surgery, he could restore his sight. Virgil angrily refuses. Jennie reveals that their father left the family after putting Virgil through several kinds of treatments in order to restore his sight.
Virgil decides he will give the operation a try. It is a success, but after Virgil regains sight, he becomes confused and disoriented, unable to perceive light and distance. Dr. Aaron suggests that he should visit a visual physiotherapist. Webster in turn suggests that Virgil needs to learn everything from scratch himself, through experience. Virgil and Amy begin living in New York City; the pair begin drifting apart. Amy finds herself having to explain basic things to Virgil. While at a party, Virgil walks into a glass pane due to his poor perception. Virgil's father arranges a reunion. On one of the regular visits with Webster, they engage in a deep conversation, where Webster notes that instead of just "seeing", Virgil should "look". Virgil confesses that he and Amy are drifting apart, but insists that Amy is the most important thing in his life. Upon returning from a work trip to Atlanta, where she and her ex-husband shared a sensual moment, Amy decides to save the relationship, she finds Virgil in a park looking for "the horizon" in the city.
Virgil's sight begins deteriorating. After consulting with Dr. Aaron, Virgil realizes, he decides to look for his father. Virgil reveals to him that he is going blind again, asks him why he left, his father tells him that he felt he was a failure when he did not find a way to help his son regain sight. Virgil states that he should not have left because his mother and sister suffered after his father walked away. Virgil looks for Amy, who tells him about her plans to travel with him to places like Egypt and Europe. Withholding the fact that he is again going blind, Virgil tells her there is one thing he wants to see, brings her to a New York Rangers game. At the game, Virgil realizes, he suffers a lengthened vision blackout and admits to Amy that he is going blind, which Amy refuses to accept. Back home and Amy argue, he asks. Amy hesitates, Virgil decides to return home. Virgil eases back into his old way of life. While losing his sight, Virgil decides to look at as many things as possible, going through magazines and pictorial books in the library.
He stays up to watch the sunset, seeing the horizon for the last time. After he has been blind again for some time, Virgil is at a park with a guide dog. Amy approaches and they reconnect. Amy apologizes for moving too fast, she asks if he wants to take a walk and "see what they see". They leave the park together. Mira Sorvino as Amy Benic Val Kilmer as Virgil Adamson Kelly McGillis as Jennie Adamson Steven Weber as Duncan Allanbrook Bruce Davison as Dr. Charles Aaron Nathan Lane as Phil Webster Drena De Niro as Caroline The film holds a "rotten" rating of 32% on the movie review site Rotten Tomatoes based on 37 reviews. At First Sight on IMDb At First Sight at Rotten Tomatoes
Lulu on the Bridge
Lulu on the Bridge is a 1998 American romantic-mystery drama film written and directed by author Paul Auster and starring Harvey Keitel, Mira Sorvino, Willem Dafoe. The film is about a jazz saxophone player. After discovering a mysterious stone, he meets and falls in love with a beautiful aspiring actress, but their happiness is cut short by a series of strange, dreamlike events; the film was screened in the Un Certain Regard section at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival. Jazz saxophone player Izzy Maurer is shot in the chest during a performance at a jazz club by a deranged man. Izzy loses his left lung, ending his music career. A young aspiring actress named Celia Burns walks into the Chez Pierre restaurant in New York City where she works as a waitress, she and her boss talk about the shooting. She purchases Izzy's latest CD. Following his recovery, Izzy avoids his friends, he ventures outside and adapts to his new life. His former girlfriend Hannah invites him to a dinner attended by a retired famous actress, Catherine Moore, now a successful film director, her film producer friend, Philip Kleinman.
For the first time in a long time he has a good time. Catherine is looking for a young actress to play the part of "Lula" in her upcoming film version of Pandora's Box. Walking home that night Izzy discovers a dead body, finds a bag lying nearby, rushes home in fear, he examines the contents of the bag and finds a small box containing a stone with a red mark. As he examines the stone he hears voices speaking in foreign tongues; that night, as he lay awake in bed, the stone emits a strange blue light and elevates above the nightstand. The next morning he calls the number written on a napkin he found in the bag and Celia picks up the phone just as she's listening to Izzy's CD, he asks to meet, she invites him over. When he arrives he demands to know what she knows about the dead man, Stanley Mar, the strange rock, he shows her the rock's mysterious blue light. Drawn to the rock, Celia encourages him to touch it too. "It's the best thing, it is. It's like nothing else," she says, they feel elated by the experience.
He tells her, "The way I feel now, I could spend the rest of my life with you." After he leaves, Celia invites him back to her apartment where they make love. In the coming days, they fall in love, she gets him a job at her restaurant, but when a customer comes on to her, Izzy causes a scene and they both get fired. Celia is up for a part in Catherine's film, Pandorah's Box, with Izzy's help and connections, she gets the part of Lulu. Izzy plans to meet Celia in Dublin. Shortly after she leaves, Izzy is attacked by men in his apartment demanding to know why he killed Stanley Mar, he is held prisoner. He meets a mysterious Dr. Van Horn. Izzy has no idea what he's talking about, but Van Horn seems to know details about Izzy's past—his real name, childhood incidents, catching fireflies with his brother at their summer house on Echo Lake; when Van Horn begins to delve into Izzy's relationships with his father and brother, Izzy responds, "Don't do this to me." When reminded that he refused to play music at his father's funeral, he breaks down in tears.
One night, Van Horn tell him, "You're not worthy. You've lived a bad dishonest life." Having learned about Celia, Van horn now demands. Izzy refuses to acknowledge that he knows her; as he leaves, Van Horn says, "May God have mercy on your soul." Meanwhile, Celia is unable to reach Izzy and she suspects that something is wrong. She fears. One night she takes out the rock and the blue light appears, but now it only produces in her an overwhelming sadness. Distressed, Lulu takes the rock and walks to Ha'penny Bridge, where she drops the stone into the dark river below; the following day, Van Horn and his men attempt to kidnap her. They chase her through the streets to Ha ` penny Bridge; as they close in, she jumps into the river. Back in New York, Izzy manages to escape his prison, he learns from the producer of Celia's disappearance and nearly collapses. The producer gives him a videotape of some of Celia's scenes. At a jazz club, he asks his friends, "Am I a good person or a bad person?" Back at his apartment he weeps.
After being shot at the jazz club by the deranged man, Izzy is taken away in an ambulance. On the way to the hospital, his heart stops and Izzy Maurer dies, just as the ambulance passes a young aspiring actress named Celia Burns, she makes the sign of the cross. Lulu on the Bridge was Paul Auster's directing début, he had written the script for The Music of Chance, had collaborated with director Wayne Wang on Smoke and Blue in the Face. Auster felt fortunate in his casting of the film, stating, "I wanted all the people that are in the film, I asked them. Many of them I knew—that was my casting technique."Auster had hoped to cast Salman Rushdie as Dr. Van Horn. Demands for increased wages on the part of the Teamsters, due to the perceived increased danger of having Rushdie in the cast, could not be met and the part went, on short notice, to Willem Dafoe. Dublin, County Dublin, Ireland Ha'penny Bridge, County Dublin, Ireland New York City, New York, USA The film premiered i
Daisy Fay Buchanan is a fictional character in F. Scott Fitzgerald's magnum opus The Great Gatsby. In the novel, Daisy is depicted as a married woman with a daughter, reunited with her former lover Jay Gatsby, arousing the jealousy of her husband, Tom, she is believed to have been based on Ginevra King. She plays. Daisy Fay was born into a wealthy Louisville family. By 1917, Daisy had several suitors of her same class, but fell in love with Jay Gatsby, a poor soldier. Before Gatsby left for war, Daisy promised to wait for him. After Gatsby started attending Trinity College, Daisy sent him a letter revealing that she had married Tom Buchanan. During the marriage, Daisy gave birth to a daughter, who Daisy had hoped would be "a beautiful little fool." Daisy and her family settled in a wealthy old money enclave on Long Island. After her cousin Nick Carraway arrives in West Egg, the neighboring island, he meets Gatsby, who by now has become wealthy. Gatsby throws several extravagant parties in hopes that Daisy will attend.
Nick sets up a meeting between Daisy and Jay at his neighboring cottage in West Egg where the two meet for the first time in five years, which leads to an affair. At the Buchanan home, Tom, Gatsby and his girlfriend Jordan Baker decide to visit New York City, Tom taking Gatsby's yellow Rolls Royce with Jordan and Nick while Daisy and Gatsby drive alone. Once the group reach the city, they throw a party that turns into a confrontation between Daisy and Gatsby. Though Gatsby insisted that Daisy never loved Tom, Daisy admits that she loves both Gatsby; the party ends with Daisy driving Gatsby out of New York City in Gatsby's car, while Tom leaves with Nick and Jordan. Tom's mistress Myrtle Wilson, who earlier had a falling out with Tom, runs in front of Gatsby's car in hopes of reconciling with Tom. Daisy does not see her until it is too late, runs her over. Daisy, drives away from the scene of the accident. In her home in East Egg, Gatsby assures her. Tom tells Myrtle's husband, that it was Gatsby that killed Myrtle.
George shoots Gatsby dead before turning the gun on himself. After Gatsby's murder, Daisy and their daughter leave East Egg, having no forwarding address; the first adaptation of The Great Gatsby was a silent film produced in 1926 and featured Lois Wilson as Daisy. The film is now considered lost. In 1949, another film was made, starring Alan Ladd as Betty Field as Daisy. Phyllis Kirk portrayed Daisy in a 1955 episode of the television series Robert Montgomery Presents adapting The Great Gatsby. Jeanne Crain played Daisy in a 1958 episode of the television series Playhouse 90. In the 1974 film adaptation, Daisy is portrayed by Mia Farrow. A photo of Farrow portraying Daisy appeared on the cover of the first issue of People magazine in promotion of the then-upcoming film. In the photo, Farrow holds a string of pearls in her hand while the pearls are in her mouth, it was emulated in 2014 by Taylor Swift. Farrow's performance as Daisy was met with mixed reception. Vincent Canby of The New York Times, in an otherwise negative review of the film, wrote favorably of Farrow as Daisy, calling the actress' performance "just odd enough to be right as Daisy, a woman who cannot conceive of the cruelties she so casually commits".
The author's own daughter, Scottie Fitzgerald Smith, after re-reading his book, when selling film rights, noted of Farrow in 1974: "When I first saw Mia Farrow on the set I thought she was ravishing, just breathtaking. The New England Summer sun was hitting her face under this lilac chiffon hat and she looked just like my father’s Daisy Buchanan should look". Mira Sorvino played Daisy in the 2000 film adaptation. In the 2013 film adaptation with DiCaprio, Daisy is portrayed by Carey Mulligan. Mulligan had two 90-minute auditions, which she found to be fun and served as her initial encounters with Leonardo DiCaprio, who portrayed Gatsby, who read with her both days. Mulligan left the audition, unsure she had secured the role, but was satisfied to have played off DiCaprio. Mulligan read the novel in preparation for auditioning for the role, finding the book to be accessible due to its length. Mulligan was familiar with the dislike some readers of The Great Gatsby had for the character, but felt she could not "think that about her, because I can't play her thinking she's awful."
Mulligan strayed from watching Farrow's prior portrayal of Daisy, believing she might steal from Farrow's performance subconsciously for her own. Director Baz Luhrmann confirmed Mulligan had been cast as Daisy in November 2010, one month after she acquired the role. After the confirmation, Time assessed Mulligan as being attractive but in a childlike way, a contrast to Daisy's womanly beauty in the novel. Todd McCarthy of The Hollywood Reporter in his review of the film wrote that viewers had their own ideals about Daisy's character and would debate whether Mulligan "has the beauty, the bearing, the dream qualities desired for the part, but she lucidly portrays the desperate tear Daisy feels between her unquestionable love for Gatsby and fear of her husband."Tricia Paoluccio portrayed Daisy in the American Masters episode "Novel Reflections: The American Dream". Starting in 2006, in the Simon Levy version of the play, Daisy was portrayed by Heidi Armbruster, who according to Quinton Skinner, "is full of loony momentary enthusiasms and a dangerous sensuality, though by the s
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
The Academy Awards known as the Oscars, are a set of awards for artistic and technical merit in the film industry. Given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the awards are an international recognition of excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership; the various category winners are awarded a copy of a golden statuette called the "Academy Award of Merit", although more referred to by its nickname "Oscar". The award was sculpted by George Stanley from a design sketch by Cedric Gibbons. AMPAS first presented it in 1929 at a private dinner hosted by Douglas Fairbanks in the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel; the Academy Awards ceremony was first broadcast on radio in 1930 and televised for the first time in 1953. It is now seen live worldwide, its equivalents – the Emmy Awards for television, the Tony Awards for theater, the Grammy Awards for music – are modeled after the Academy Awards. The 91st Academy Awards ceremony, honoring the best films of 2018, was held on February 24, 2019, at the Dolby Theatre, in Los Angeles, California.
The ceremony was broadcast on ABC. A total of 3,072 Oscar statuettes have been awarded from the inception of the award through the 90th ceremony, it was the first ceremony since 1988 without a host. The first Academy Awards presentation was held on 16 May 1929, at a private dinner function at the Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel with an audience of about 270 people; the post-awards party was held at the Mayfair Hotel. The cost of guest tickets for that night's ceremony was $5. Fifteen statuettes were awarded, honoring artists and other participants in the film-making industry of the time, for their works during the 1927–28 period; the ceremony ran for 15 minutes. Winners were announced to media three months earlier; that was changed for the second ceremony in 1930. Since for the rest of the first decade, the results were given to newspapers for publication at 11:00 pm on the night of the awards; this method was used until an occasion when the Los Angeles Times announced the winners before the ceremony began.
The first Best Actor awarded was Emil Jannings, for his performances in The Last Command and The Way of All Flesh. He had to return to Europe before the ceremony, so the Academy agreed to give him the prize earlier. At that time, the winners were recognized for all of their work done in a certain category during the qualifying period. With the fourth ceremony, the system changed, professionals were honored for a specific performance in a single film. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility period spanned two calendar years. At the 29th ceremony, held on 27 March 1957, the Best Foreign Language Film category was introduced; until foreign-language films had been honored with the Special Achievement Award. The 74th Academy Awards, held in 2002, presented the first Academy Award for Best Animated Feature. Since 1973, all Academy Awards ceremonies have ended with the Academy Award for Best Picture. Traditionally, the previous year's winner for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor present the awards for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress, while the previous year's winner for Best Actress and Best Supporting Actress present the awards for Best Actor and Best Supporting Actor.
See § Awards of Merit categories The best known award is the Academy Award of Merit, more popularly known as the Oscar statuette. Made of gold-plated bronze on a black metal base, it is 13.5 in tall, weighs 8.5 lb, depicts a knight rendered in Art Deco style holding a crusader's sword standing on a reel of film with five spokes. The five spokes represent the original branches of the Academy: Actors, Directors and Technicians; the model for the statuette is said to be Mexican actor Emilio "El Indio" Fernández. Sculptor George Stanley sculpted Cedric Gibbons' design; the statuettes presented at the initial ceremonies were gold-plated solid bronze. Within a few years the bronze was abandoned in favor of Britannia metal, a pewter-like alloy, plated in copper, nickel silver, 24-karat gold. Due to a metal shortage during World War II, Oscars were made of painted plaster for three years. Following the war, the Academy invited recipients to redeem the plaster figures for gold-plated metal ones; the only addition to the Oscar since it was created is a minor streamlining of the base.
The original Oscar mold was cast in 1928 at the C. W. Shumway & Sons Foundry in Batavia, which contributed to casting the molds for the Vince Lombardi Trophy and Emmy Award's statuettes. From 1983 to 2015 50 Oscars in a tin alloy with gold plating were made each year in Chicago by Illinois manufacturer R. S. Owens & Company, it would take between four weeks to manufacture 50 statuettes. In 2016, the Academy returned to bronze as the core metal of the statuettes, handing manufacturing duties to Walden, New York-based Polich Tallix Fine Art Foundry. While based on a digital scan of an original 1929 Oscar, the statuettes retain their modern-era dimensions and black pedestal. Cast in liquid bronze from 3D-printed ceramic molds and polished, they are electroplated in 24-karat gold by Brooklyn, New York–based Epner Technology; the time required to produce 50 such statuettes is three months. R. S. Owens i
Amongst Friends is a 1993 film written and directed by Rob Weiss. The film portrays the conspicuous consumption and aggressive upward mobility among the mobsters and drug dealers living among the affluent communities in the Five Towns in southwestern Nassau County, New York. Weiss's voiceover introduces the film citing the contrasts in a community where "you got judges living next to gamblers next to rabbis living next to dentists" and "16-year-old kids thinking and acting like they're Flavor Flav." The film tells the story of three boys — Billy and Andy — who stray from their parents' professional careers to become low-level gangsters and end up involved in drug running and murder. Andy and Billy are childhood friends; as young adults, Billy sells Andy does deliveries for him. One night, Trevor gets busted by narcs. 5 years Trevor is released from jail and learns his girlfriend Laura is now with Billy. Trevor decides to rob a local mobster. Trevor wants some cash to buy Laura some gifts and Andy was told by some local mobsters that they are investing money with huge profits and he wants some cash to buy in.
However, their robbery is sloppy and the head mobster figures out what happened. However, he and Andy's grandfather were good friends, so he tells Andy and Trevor that they can work off what they owe by smuggling stolen diamonds. Billy finds out what is going on and is mildly amused by it until he realizes that Trevor has gotten back together with Laura behind his back, he retaliates by convincing the mobsters that Trevor is a junkie and is stealing the diamonds that he is supposed to be delivering to supply his habit. He convinces the diamond dealer that Trevor cannot be trusted with real diamonds and he gives him fake diamonds instead; when he delivers them to the mob, they spot them as fakes and assume Trevor switched them. Billy figured by doing this, the mobsters would send a goon to kill Trevor and with him out of the picture, he could have Laura back with no blood on his hands. However, since he was the one to notify the mobsters, they tell him if he wants Trevor dead he has to do the killing himself.
He kidnaps him at gunpoint. He takes Trevor to a field to kill him. Though Trevor begs for his life and Billy struggles with his conscience for the briefest of moments, he pulls the trigger anyway, killing Trevor in cold blood, it doesn't take long for Andy and Laura to notice Trevor missing and they get worried. Andy asks the local mobsters who are investing his money if they've seen Trevor and not knowing they are friends, they proudly tell him about how Billy became a made mobster by killing him. Andy sadly informs Laura that Trevor is gone and they mourn his death. Andy goes to Billy's house and asks him how he could do that to their friend. Without waiting for an answer, Andy points it at Billy. Billy tries to talk Andy into putting down the gun by reminding Andy that he is a made mobster and hurting him could get Andy killed. However, Andy shoots Billy anyway. Andy goes back to the local mobsters investing his money and convinces them that he has incurred some debt with some loan sharks and he needs his money returned to him to pay them off.
They get it for him and he pays off the head mobster in full what he owes. With his debt settled, he leaves the city. Earlier Trevor had mentioned going to California on his motorcycle to start a new life and it is now implied that Andy will be following that advice; the film received considerable attention at the 1993 Sundance Film Festival and opened in New York City in July. Weiss grew up in Baldwin, New York, close to the Five Towns, lived with his father in Lawrence for a period of time. While emphasizing that the characters in the film are fictional, Weiss acknowledged that "I'm going to try to hide during the Five Towns screening." The film was produced for $900,000, most of, raised from friends and family, was shot on location in the Five Towns. With finances tight, a scene in which Weiss opens a bag of Doritos was filmed using yellow cardboard triangles; the film was distributed by a division of New Line Cinema. Mira Sorvino was hired to work on the film in pre-production as third assistant director was promoted to casting director to assistant producer, was offered a lead role.
Positive reviews received for her role in the film helped. Her grandfather, Ford Sorvino, appears in the film. Peter Travers in Rolling Stone gave the film three stars, stating that Weiss made "a sensational debut as writer and director", despite the lack of stars or a big budget in a film written with the "pitch-perfect eloquence about the mean streets he knows." A soundtrack containing hip hop and alternative rock was released on August 31, 1993 by Atlantic Records. Amongst Friends on IMDb Amongst Friends at AllMovie