Teetotalism is the practice or promotion of complete personal abstinence from alcoholic beverages. A person who practices teetotalism is called a teetotaler or is said to be teetotal. The teetotalism movement was first started in Preston, England, in the early 19th century, there is some dispute over the origin of the word teetotaler. One anecdote attributes the origin of the word to a meeting of the Preston Temperance Society in 1833, the story attributes the word to Richard Turner, a member of the society, who in a speech said Ill be reet down out-and-out t-t-total for ever and ever. A variation on the account is found on the pages of The Charleston Observer, Teetotalers. --The origin of this convenient word, is, we imagine, known. Hence total abstainers have been called teetotalers, an alternative explanation is that teetotal is simply a reduplication of the first T in total. It is said that as early as 1827 in some Temperance Societies signing a T after ones name signified ones pledge for total abstinence, according to historian Daniel Walker Howe the term was derived from the practice of American preacher and temperance advocate Lyman Beecher.
He would take names at his meetings of people who pledged alcoholic temperance, such persons became known as Teetotallers. Some common reasons for choosing teetotalism are psychological, health, familial and social, alcoholism, or sometimes it is simply a matter of taste or preference. When at drinking establishments, teetotalers either abstain from drinking completely, or consume non-alcoholic beverages such as water, tea, most teetotaler organizations demand from their members that they do not promote or produce alcoholic intoxicants. Methodists historically abstained from alcohol, though many Methodist denominations no longer teach this, members are required to refrain from selling such products. A translation of the New Testament, the Purified Translation of the Bible, abstention from alcohol is a tenet of a number of religious faiths, including those of the Sikhs, Baháís, Hare Krishnas, Hindus and Meivazhi-ites, Pillays. Khamr is the term for all intoxicants which are prohibited in Islam, a number of Christian denominations forbid the consumption of alcohol, including the Amish, Seventh-day Adventists, Church of the Brethren members, and Christian Scientists.
Many Christian groups, such as Methodists and Quakers, are associated with teetotalism due to their traditionally strong support for temperance movements. However, tenets forbidding the consumption of alcohol are variably practiced, in many Christian denominations, abstinence is not a religious requirement, but the tradition is strong enough to make ritual and recreational alcohol consumption a controversial issue among members. Members of the Salvation Army make a promise on joining the movement to observe lifelong abstinence from alcohol, several authors have conducted research looking at the social and subjective experiences of young people who do not drink alcohol in varied social settings. A2015 study by the Office for National Statistics showed that young Britons were more likely to be teetotallers than their parents
Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was an American politician and activist. President Harry S. Truman called her the First Lady of the World in tribute to her human rights achievements, Roosevelt was a member of the prominent American Roosevelt and Livingston families and a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt. She had a childhood, having suffered the deaths of both parents and one of her brothers at a young age. At 15, she attended Allenwood Academy in London and was influenced by its feminist headmistress Marie Souvestre. Returning to the U. S. she married her fifth cousin once removed, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, though widely respected in her years, Roosevelt was a controversial First Lady at the time for her outspokenness, particularly her stance on racial issues. On a few occasions, she disagreed with her husbands policies. She launched a community at Arthurdale, West Virginia, for the families of unemployed miners. She advocated for expanded roles for women in the workplace, the rights of African Americans and Asian Americans.
Following her husbands death in 1945, Roosevelt remained active in politics for the remaining 17 years of her life and she pressed the United States to join and support the United Nations and became its first delegate. She served as the first chair of the UN Commission on Human Rights, she chaired the John F. Kennedy administrations Presidential Commission on the Status of Women. By the time of her death, Roosevelt was regarded as one of the most esteemed women in the world, in 1999, she was ranked ninth in the top ten of Gallups List of Most Widely Admired People of the 20th Century. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt was born in 1884 at 56 West 37th Street in Manhattan, New York City, to socialites Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt, from an early age, she preferred to be called by her middle name, Eleanor. Through her father, she was a niece of President Theodore Roosevelt, through her mother, she was a niece of tennis champions Valentine Gill Vallie Hall III and Edward Ludlow Hall. Her mother nicknamed her Granny because she acted in such a manner as a child.
Her mother was somewhat ashamed of Eleanors plainness. Eleanor had two brothers, Elliott Jr. and Gracie Hall Roosevelt, usually called Hall. She had a brother, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, through her fathers affair with Katy Mann. Roosevelt was born into a world of wealth and privilege
Indian independence movement
The Indian independence movement encompassed all activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule and the British Indian Empire in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 190 years, the early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai. The last stages of the struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhis policy of nonviolence and civil resistance. Nationalist like Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh and Vinayak Damodar Sawarkar preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule, feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. Babasaheb Ambedkar championed the cause of the sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement. The period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, the Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society.
It underwent a process of constant ideological evolution, in 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the Peoples Republic of Bangladesh. European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 AD at the port of Calicut, in search of the lucrative spice trade. Just over a century later, the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, the decline of the Mughal empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan, most of South India came either under the Companys direct rule, the Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empire, after defeating them in a series of wars. The Punjab was annexed in 1849, after the defeat of the Sikh armies in the First, in 1835, English was made the medium of instruction in Indias schools and many Indians increasingly disliked British rule.
With the British now dominating most of the subcontinent, many British increasingly disregarded local customs, Puli Thevan was one of the opponents of the British rule in India. He was in conflict with the Nawab of Arcot who was supported by the British and his prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Nelkatumseval the present Tirunelveli Dist of Tamil Nadu state of India was the headquarters of Puli Thevan, kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja was one of the earliest freedom fighters in India. He was the regent of the princely state of Kottiyur or Cotiote in North Malabar, near Kannur. He fought a war with tribal people from Wynad supporting him. He was caught by the British and his fort was razed to the ground, Rani Velu Nachiyar, was a queen of Indian Sivaganga in 1760–1790. She was the first queen to fight against the British in India, Rani Nachiyar was trained in war match weapons usage, martial arts like Valari, horse riding and archery
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Sabarmati Ashram is located in the Sabarmati suburb of Ahmedabad, adjoining the Ashram Road, on the banks of the River Sabarmati, four miles from the town hall. This was one of the residences of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, generally called Mahatma Gandhi and it was from his base here that Gandhi led the Dandi march known as the Salt Satyagraha on 12 March 1930. In recognition of the significant influence that this march had on the Indian independence movement the Indian government has established the ashram as a national monument. Gandhis India ashram was established at the Kocharab Bungalow of Jivanlal Desai. At that time the ashram was called the Satyagraha Ashram, but Gandhi wanted to carry out various activities such as farming and animal husbandry, in addition to other pursuits which called for the need of a much larger area of useable land. So two years later, on 17 June 1917, the ashram was relocated to an area of thirty-six acres on the banks of the river Sabarmati, and it came to be known as the Sabarmati Ashram.
It is believed that this is one of the ancient ashram sites of Dadhichi Rishi who had donated his bones for a righteous war and his main ashram lies in Naimisharanya, near Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh. The Sabarmati ashram is sited between a jail and a crematorium, and Gandhi believed that a satyagrahi has invariably to go to either place. While at the ashram, Gandhi formed a school that focused on manual labour and literacy. It was this march and the subsequent illegal production of salt that spurred hundreds of thousands across India to join in, either in the illegal production, buying or selling of salt. This mass civil disobedience in turn led to the jailing of some 60,000 freedom fighters by the British Raj over the three weeks. Subsequently the government seized the ashram, Gandhi asked the Government to give it back but they were not willing to do this. He had by decided on 22 July 1933 to disband the ashram. Then local citizens decided to preserve it, on 12 March 1930 Gandhi had vowed that he would not return to the ashram until India had gained independence.
Although India was declared a nation on 15 August 1947. The ashram now has a museum, the Gandhi Smarak Sangrahalaya and this had originally been located in Hridaya Kunj, Gandhis own cottage in the ashram. Then in 1963, having been designed by the architect Charles Correa, the Sangrahalaya was re-located into the well-designed and well-furnished museum building and was inaugurated by Jawaharlal Nehru, Prime Minister of India on 10 May 1963. Other buildings and sites within the ashram are, This is an old ashram guest house where visitors from India and it is situated on the right hand side of Hridaya Kunj
Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, Kt, CBE was an English actor, filmmaker and politician. He was the President of the Royal Academy of Dramatic Art, as a film director and producer, Attenborough won two Academy Awards for Gandhi in 1983. He won four BAFTA Awards and four Golden Globe Awards, as an actor, he is perhaps best known for his roles in Brighton Rock, The Great Escape,10 Rillington Place, Miracle on 34th Street and Jurassic Park. He was the brother of David Attenborough, a naturalist and broadcaster, and John Attenborough. He was married to actress Sheila Sim from 1945 until his death, Attenborough was educated at Wyggeston Grammar School for Boys in Leicester and studied at RADA. The sisters moved to the United States in the 1950s and lived with an uncle, during the Second World War, Attenborough served in the Royal Air Force. After initial pilot training he was seconded to the newly formed R. A. F, Film Unit at Pinewood Studios, under the command of Flight Lieutenant John Boulting where he appeared with Edward G.
Robinson in the propaganda film Journey Together. Attenboroughs acting career started on stage and he appeared in shows at Leicesters Little Theatre, Dover Street, prior to his going to RADA, in 1949, exhibitors voted him the sixth most popular British actor at the box office. Early in his career, Attenborough starred in the West End production of Agatha Christies The Mousetrap. Both he and his wife were among the original cast members of the production and it was his first appearance in a major Hollywood film blockbuster and his most successful film thus far. His portrayal of the serial killer John Christie in 10 Rillington Place garnered excellent reviews, in 1977, he played the ruthless General Outram, again to great acclaim, in the Indian director Satyajit Rays period piece The Chess Players. He starred in the remake of Miracle on 34th Street as Kris Kringle and he made his only appearance in a film adaptation of Shakespeare when he played the English ambassador who announces that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead at the end of Kenneth Branaghs Hamlet.
His performance in The Angry Silence earned him his first nomination for a BAFTA, seance On A Wet Afternoon won him his first BAFTA award. His feature film debut was the all-star screen version of the hit musical Oh. What a Lovely War, after which his acting appearances became sporadic as he concentrated more on directing and producing. He directed two epic films, Young Winston, based on the early life of Winston Churchill, and A Bridge Too Far. He had been attempting to get the project made for 18 years and he directed the screen version of the musical A Chorus Line and the anti-apartheid drama Cry Freedom. He was nominated for a Golden Globe Award for Best Director for both films and his films as director and producer include Chaplin starring Robert Downey, Jr. as Charlie Chaplin and Shadowlands, based on the relationship between C. S. Lewis and Joy Gresham
India, officially the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh-largest country by area, the second-most populous country, and it is bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, and the Bay of Bengal on the southeast. It shares land borders with Pakistan to the west, China and Bhutan to the northeast, in the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives. Indias Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a border with Thailand. The Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE, in the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, early political consolidations took place under the Maurya and Gupta empires, the peninsular Middle Kingdoms influenced cultures as far as southeast Asia. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, much of the north fell to the Delhi sultanate, the south was united under the Vijayanagara Empire.
The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal empire, in the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, and in the mid-19th under British crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which later, under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance, in 2015, the Indian economy was the worlds seventh largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, malnutrition, a nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the third largest standing army in the world and ranks sixth in military expenditure among nations. India is a constitutional republic governed under a parliamentary system. It is a pluralistic and multi-ethnic society and is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindu, the latter term stems from the Sanskrit word Sindhu, which was the historical local appellation for the Indus River.
The ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as The people of the Indus, the geographical term Bharat, which is recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations. Scholars believe it to be named after the Vedic tribe of Bharatas in the second millennium B. C. E and it is traditionally associated with the rule of the legendary emperor Bharata. Gaṇarājya is the Sanskrit/Hindi term for republic dating back to the ancient times, hindustan is a Persian name for India dating back to the 3rd century B. C. E. It was introduced into India by the Mughals and widely used since and its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety
Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi, was assassinated on 30 January 1948 by Nathuram Godse at Birla House in New Delhi. Gandhi had just climbed up the steps of a raised lawn behind Birla House where he conducted his prayer meetings. Godse stepped out from the crowd and into Gandhis path, Gandhi crumpled to the ground, leaving the crowd stunned. The first to approach Godse was an American vice-consul, Herbert Reiner Jr. who grasped him by the shoulders, Gandhi was carried back to his room in Birla House, where a doctor declared him dead. Godse, a member of the Hindu nationalist political party, Hindu Mahasabha, thought Gandhi was being too accommodating to Muslims, who had planned the assassination with Narayan Apte and six others, was tried and convicted of murder. He was hanged in November 1949,550 million to Pakistan on 13 January 1948. Godse and their friends felt that this was appeasing Pakistani Muslims at the expense of Hindus in India and this decision of Gandhi and Nehru had caused Vallabhbhai Patel to submit his resignation.
Interestingly, Gandhis fast was for the restoration of Hindu-Muslim peace and it is possible that Godse may not have known of this, however this cannot be said for certain. However, being under the thumb of Gandhi they resorted to more feeble ways and he felt that Gandhi had not protested against these atrocities being suffered in Pakistan and instead resorted to fasts. In his court deposition, Godse said, I thought to myself and foresaw I shall be ruined. If I were to kill Gandhiji, but at the same time I felt that the Indian politics in the absence of Gandhiji would surely be proved practical, able to retaliate, and would be powerful with armed forces. In Godses own words during his deposition in the court during the trial. Nathuram Godse was arrested immediately after he assassinated Gandhi, based on a FIR filed by Nandlal Mehta at the Tughlak Road Police station at Delhi, the trial, which was held in camera, began on May 27,1948, and concluded on February 10,1949. An appeal to the Punjab High Court, in session at Shimla, did not find favour, Godse approached Gandhi on 30 January 1948 during the evening prayer at 5,17 pm.380 ACP bearing the serial number 606824.
As the attending crowd was overcome by shock, Herbert Reiner Jr. Reiner held Godse by the neck and shoulders until he was taken away by the military, All of those involved in the crime were arrested and tried in a trial that attracted considerable media attention. Those convicted were either executed or served their complete sentences, Nathuram Godse and his fellow conspirators Digambar Badge, Gopal Godse, Narayan Apte, Vishnu Karkare and Madanlal Pahwa were identified as prominent members of the Hindu Mahasabha. Along with them, police arrested Vinayak Damodar Savarkar, who was suspected of being the mastermind behind the plot, the Kapur Commission in 1967 established that Savarkar was in close contact with the plotters for many years. The accused were put on trial at Peterhoff, Shimla which housed the Punjab High Court, Savarkar was acquitted and set free due to lack of evidence
Villeneuve is a municipality of the canton of Vaud in Switzerland, located in the district of Aigle. Villeneuve has an area, as of 2009, of 32.04 square kilometers, of this area,8.56 km2 or 26. 7% is used for agricultural purposes, while 17.69 km2 or 55. 2% is forested. Of the rest of the land,2.63 km2 or 8. 2% is settled,0.17 km2 or 0. 5% is either rivers or lakes and 3.08 km2 or 9. 6% is unproductive land. Of the built up area, industrial buildings made up 1. 5% of the area while housing and buildings made up 1. 9%. Of the agricultural land,0. 9% is used for growing crops, all the water in the municipality is flowing water. Of the unproductive areas,6. 7% is unproductive vegetation and 2. 9% is too rocky for vegetation, the blazon of the municipal coat of arms is Or, an Eagle displayed Azure. Villeneuve has a population of 5,508, as of 2008,36. 2% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 10 years the population has changed at a rate of 17. 7% and it has changed at a rate of 16. 7% due to migration and at a rate of 1. 9% due to births and deaths.
Most of the population speaks French, with German being second most common, of the population in the municipality 924 or about 22. 1% were born in Villeneuve and lived there in 2000. There were 1,062 or 25. 4% who were born in the canton, while 693 or 16. 6% were born somewhere else in Switzerland. In 2008 there were 26 live births to Swiss citizens and 21 births to non-Swiss citizens, ignoring immigration and emigration, the population of Swiss citizens decreased by 8 while the foreign population increased by 16. There was 1 Swiss man who emigrated from Switzerland, at the same time, there were 33 non-Swiss men and 39 non-Swiss women who immigrated from another country to Switzerland. The total Swiss population change in 2008 was an increase of 104 and this represents a population growth rate of 3. 4%. The age distribution, as of 2009, in Villeneuve is,490 children or 10. 4% of the population are between 0 and 9 years old and 597 teenagers or 12. 7% are between 10 and 19. Of the adult population,595 people or 12. 6% of the population are between 20 and 29 years old. 561 people or 11. 9% are between 30 and 39,741 people or 15. 7% are between 40 and 49, and 645 people or 13. 7% are between 50 and 59.
As of 2000, there were 1,600 people who were single, There were 2,078 married individuals,263 widows or widowers and 239 individuals who are divorced. As of 2000, there were 1,810 private households in the municipality, There were 652 households that consist of only one person and 96 households with five or more people
Rishikesh is a city, municipal council and a tehsil in Dehradun district of the Indian state, Uttarakhand. Located in the foothills of the Himalayas in northern India, it is known as the Gateway to the Garhwal Himalayas, Rishikesh is surrounded by three districts, Tehri Garhwal, Pauri Garhwal and Haridwar. It is approximately 25 km north of the city Haridwar and 43 km southeast of the state capital Dehradun. According to Census of India,2011 Rishikesh had a population of 102,138 making it the 7th most populated city and it is known as the pilgrimage town and regarded as one of the holiest places to Hindus. Hindu sages and saints have visited Rishikesh since ancient times to meditate in search of higher knowledge, in September 2015, the Union tourism minister Mahesh Sharma announced that Rishikesh and Haridwar will be the first in India to be given the title of twin national heritage cities. Due to the significance of the place, non-vegetarian food. IAST, Hṛṣīkeśa is a name of Vishnu composed of hṛṣīka meaning senses and īśa meaning lord, the name commemorates an apparition of Vishnu to Raibhya Rishi, as a result of his tapasya, as Lord Hrishikesha.
In Skanda Purana, this area is known as Kubjāmraka as Lord Vishnu appeared under a mango tree, another legend says that fierce fire broke out here. Lord Shiva was angry with Lord Agni and cursed him, Lord Agni prayed here for the expiation of his sins. Hence it is known as Agni Tīrtha — the holy place to do penance of Lord Agni or Fire God. Rishikesh has been a part of the legendary Kedarkhand, the Kedarkhand of Skanda Purana, mentions the existence of Indrakund at this very point. The jute-rope bridge was replaced by iron-rope suspension bridge in 1889, after it was washed away in the 1924 floods, it was replaced by the present stronger bridge. Another similar suspension bridge Ram Jhula was built in 1986 at nearby Sivananda Nagar, the sacred river Ganges flows through Rishikesh. Here the river leaves the Shivalik Hills in the Himalayas and flows into the plains of northern India, several temples and new, are along the banks of the Ganges in Rishikesh. Shatrughna Mandir, Bharat Mandir, Lakshman Mandir are the ancient temples established by Adi Shankaracharya, shatrughna Temple is near Ram Jhula and Lakshman Mandir is near Lakshman Jhula.
As with Haridwar about an hour south, Rishikesh is considered by Hindus to be a city and is vegetarian by law. Meat and alcohol are not served in the city, Rishikesh is at 30. 103368°N78. 294754°E /30.103368,78.294754. It has an elevation of 372 metres
Darwen is a market town and civil parish located in Lancashire, England. Along with its neighbour, Blackburn, it forms the Borough of Blackburn with Darwen — a unitary authority area. It is known locally as Darren and its residents are known as Darreners, Darwens population decreased to 28,046 in 2011 and is made up of five wards. The town stands on the River Darwen, which flows south to north and is visible only in the outskirts of the town. Most authorities trace the name Darwen to the Brythonic derw oak, Derwen in Welsh, originally applied to the river, an etymology supported by an older form of the name, Derewent. The area around Darwen has been inhabited since the early Bronze Age, artefacts including a bronze dagger and urns containing human ashes were found, and a small number of these finds are now on display at Darwen Library Theatre. The Romans once had a force in Lancashire, and a Roman road is visible on the Ordnance Survey map of the area, mediaeval Darwen was tiny, little or nothing survives.
One of the earliest remaining buildings is a farmhouse at Bury Fold, Whitehall Cottage is thought to be the oldest house in the town, and was mostly built in the 17th and 18th centuries but contains a chimney piece dated 1557. Like many towns in Lancashire, Darwen was a centre for manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. Samuel Crompton, inventor of the mule, lived there for part of his life. Rail links and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal arrived in the mid-19th century, the most important textile building in Darwen is India Mill, built by Eccles Shorrock & Company. The company was ruined, however, by the effects of the Lancashire Cotton Famine of the 1860s and it was one of the first places in the world to have steam trams. The year 1900 perhaps represents the peak of Victorian optimism in the area, the working classes were much more identifiable as masses than now. George Orwell, for example, described the sound of clogs on cobblestones of the number of female millworkers. However, Darwen usually voted for the Conservative Party until a Conservative government made unpopular administrative rearrangements in the early 1970s, Andrew Carnegie financed a public library here, the town had an art and technology college and a grammar school.
In common with many northern nonconformist towns, there are chapels of assorted denominations. One of Darwens biggest claims to fame is that it hosted a visit from Mohandas K. Gandhi in 1931 and he had accepted the invitation from Corder Catchpool, Quaker manager of the Spring Vale Garden Village Ltd, to see the effects of Indias boycott of cotton goods. India Mill is now home to companies, including Brookhouse and Capita Group
David Lloyd George
David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC was a British Liberal politician and statesman. As Chancellor of the Exchequer, Lloyd George was a key figure in the introduction of reforms which laid the foundations of the modern welfare state. His most important role came as the highly energetic Prime Minister of the Wartime Coalition Government, during and he was a major player at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 that reordered Europe after the defeat of the Central Powers. He made an impact on British public life than any other 20th-century leader. Furthermore, in foreign affairs he played a role in winning the First World War, redrawing the map of Europe at the peace conference. His main political problem was that he was not loyal to his Liberal party—he was always a political maverick, while he was Prime Minister he favoured the Conservatives in his coalition in the 1918 elections, leaving the Liberal party as a hopeless minority. He became leader of the Liberal Party in the late 1920s, by the 1930s he was a marginalised and widely mistrusted figure.
He gave weak support to the Second World War amidst fears that he was favourable toward Germany, Lloyd George was born on 17 January 1863 in Chorlton-on-Medlock, Manchester, to Welsh parents, and was brought up as a Welsh-speaker. He is so far the only British Prime Minister to have been Welsh and his father, William George, had been a teacher in both London and Liverpool. He taught in the Hope Street Sunday Schools, which were administered by the Unitarians, in March of the same year, on account of his failing health, William George returned with his family to his native Pembrokeshire. He took up farming but died in June 1864 of pneumonia, Lloyd George was educated at the local Anglican school Llanystumdwy National School and under tutors. He added his uncles surname to become Lloyd George and his surname is usually given as Lloyd George and sometimes as George. The influence of his childhood showed through in his entire career, brought up a devout evangelical, as a young man he suddenly lost his religious faith.
Biographer Don Cregier says he became a Deist and perhaps an agnostic, though he remained a chapel-goer and he kept quiet about that and was hailed as one of the foremost fighting leaders of a fanatical Welsh Nonconformity. It was during this period of his life that Lloyd George first became interested in the issue of land ownership, by the age of twenty-one, he had already read and taken notes on Henry Georges Progress and Poverty. This strongly influenced Lloyd Georges politics in life through the Peoples Budget which heavily drew on the georgist tax reform ideas, the practice flourished, and he established branch offices in surrounding towns, taking his brother William into partnership in 1887. Although many Prime Ministers have been barristers, Lloyd George is to date the only solicitor to have held that office, by he was politically active, having campaigned for the Liberal Party in the 1885 election, attracted by Joseph Chamberlains unauthorised programme of reforms. The election resulted firstly in a stalemate with neither the Liberals nor the Conservatives having a majority, William Gladstones proposal to bring about Irish Home Rule split the party, with Chamberlain eventually leading the breakaway Liberal Unionists