Century City is a 176-acre neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles' Westside. Outside Downtown Los Angeles, Century City is one of the metropolitan area's most prominent employment centers, its skyscrapers form a distinctive skyline on the Westside; the district was developed on the former backlot of film studio 20th Century Fox, its first building was opened in 1963. There are two private schools, but no public schools in the neighborhood. Important to the economy are the Westfield Century City shopping center, business towers, Fox Studios. According to the City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning, Century City constitutes census tract 2679.01. As shown on the map published on the Century City Chamber of Commerce website, Century City is bounded by Santa Monica Boulevard to the north, the city of Beverly Hills to the east, Pico Boulevard to the south, Century Park West to the west; these boundaries correspond with those recognized by the Century City Business Improvement District Association.
Neighboring Century City are Beverly Hills to the east, Cheviot Hills to the south, West Los Angeles to the west, Westwood to the north. The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times extends Century City's western boundary to Beverly Glen Boulevard. However, this more expansive definition is not consistent with other L. A. Times reports: a 1999 article sets Century Park West as Century City's western boundary, a 2017 article refers to the neighborhood to the west of Century City as distinct from it. Two specific plans cover the neighborhood: "Century City North Specific Plan for the retail and entertainment functions in Century City," and "Century City South Specific Plan for multi-family homes, office tower and Fox Studios," according to the community plan set forth by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning; the land of Century City belonged to cowboy actor Tom Mix. It became a backlot of 20th Century Fox, which still has its headquarters just to the southwest; the area is named for the 20th Century Fox's Century Property.
In 1956, Spyros Skouras, who served as the President of 20th Century Fox from 1942–62, his nephew-in-law Edmond Herrscher, an attorney sometimes known as "the father of Century City", decided to repurpose the land for real estate development. The following year, in 1957, they commissioned a master-plan development from Welton Becket Associates, unveiled at a major press event on the "western" backlot that year. In 1961, after Fox suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating with the financial strain put on the studio by the expensive production of Cleopatra, the film studio sold about 180 acres to developer William Zeckendorf and Aluminum Co. of America known as Alcoa, for US$300 million. Herrscher had encouraged his uncle-in-law to borrow money instead, but once Skouras refused, he was out of the picture; the new owners conceived Century City as "a city within a city". In 1963, the first building, Gateway West Building, was completed; the next year, in 1964, Minoru Yamasaki designed the Century Plaza Hotel.
Five years in 1969, architects Anthony J. Lumsden and César Pelli designed the Century City Medical Plaza. Much of the shopping center's architecture and style can be seen in numerous sequences in the 1967 Fox film, A Guide for the Married Man, as well as in a sequence in another Fox film of the same year, Caprice. Century City's plaza as it appeared in the early 1970s can be viewed in several scenes of still another Fox film, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes; the following data applies to Century City within the boundaries set by the Mapping L. A. project: The 2000 U. S. census counted 5,513 residents in the 0.70-square-mile Century City neighborhood—or 7,869 people per square mile, an average population density for the city and county. The Southern California Association of Governments estimates that the daytime population amounts to 48,343 on a working day. In 2008, the city estimated that the resident population had increased to 5,934. In 2008, the median age for residents was 46, older than average for the county.
The percentage of residents aged 65 and older was the highest for any neighborhood in Los Angeles County. The percentages of widowed men and women and of divorced men were among the county's highest. Military veterans accounted for 11.9 % of the population, a high rate for the county. The neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of white residents; the breakdown was whites, 82.5%. Iran and Canada were the most common places of birth for the 25.5% of the residents who were born abroad—a low percentage, compared to the city at large. The median yearly income in 2014 was a high figure for Los Angeles; the percentage of households that earned $125,000 and up was high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of 1.8 people was low for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 39.6% of the housing stock and apartment owners held 60.4%. Westfield Century City and Fox Studios occupy important acreage in the neighborhood; as of 2016, Westfield Century City is undergoing an $800 million renovation and expansion that aims to maintain the center's status as one of the Westside's premier shopping and entertainment destinations.
One tower, Constellation Place, has the headquarters of Houlihan Lokey, ICM Partners, International Lease Finance Corporation. Crystal Cruises is hea
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre
The Pellissier Building and adjoining Wiltern Theatre is a 12-story, 155-foot Art Deco landmark at the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue in Los Angeles, California. The entire complex is referred to as the Wiltern Center. Clad in a blue-green glazed architectural terra-cotta tile and situated diagonal to the street corner, the complex is considered one of the finest examples of Art Deco architecture in the United States; the Wiltern building is owned and the Wiltern Theatre is operated by Live Nation's Los Angeles division. The Wiltern Theatre is located at the western edge of the Los Angeles neighborhood of Koreatown, at the southeast corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue; the Koreatown district is served by Metro Rail. Named after the family that owned the land upon which it was developed, the Pellissier Building is a 12-story steel-reinforced concrete office tower. Set upon a two-story pedestal that contains ground floor retail and the theater entrance, the tower has narrow vertical windows that sweep the eye upward and create the illusion of a much taller building.
The tower is an example of French Zig-Zag Moderne styling. The entrance to the Wiltern Theatre is flanked by large vertical neon signs while patrons approach the ticket booth set back among colorful terrazzo paving; the Wiltern's interior was designed by G. Albert Lansburgh and is renowned for its Art Deco design containing decorative plaster and tile work along with colorful murals painted by Anthony Heinsbergen; the most dramatic element of the design is the sunburst on the ceiling of the auditorium, with each ray its own Art Deco skyscraper—Lansburgh's vision of the future of Wilshire Boulevard. When the Wiltern first opened, it housed the largest theater pipe organ in the western United States. Both the Wiltern Theatre and the Pellissier Building have been named to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument by the City of Los Angeles. Built in 1931, the Wiltern was designed by architect Stiles O. Clements of Morgan, Walls & Clements, the city's oldest architectural firm.
The Wiltern Theatre was designed as a vaudeville theater and opened as the Warner Brothers Western Theater, the flagship for the theater chain. Closing a year the theater reopened in the mid-1930s and was renamed the Wiltern Theatre for the major intersection which it faces. In 1956, the building and theater were sold to the Franklin Life Insurance Company of Springfield, Illinois; the Los Angeles chapter of the American Theater Organ Enthusiasts worked to restore the theater's 37-rank Kimball pipe organ—reputed to be the largest one in Los Angeles at the time—and held recitals there through the late 1960s and into the mid-1970s. However, the owners ignored the landmark building, by the late 1970s, the Wiltern had fallen into disrepair. Only the intervention of a group of local preservationists saved the complex from being demolished on two occasions in the late 1970s, when the owners filed for demolition permits. In 1981, the Wiltern was purchased by developer Wayne Ratkovich, who worked with architect Brenda Levin to restore both the theater and the office building to their former glory.
Previous successes with the Fine Arts Building and the Oviatt Building renovations in downtown Los Angeles and the refurbishing of the nearby Chapman Market complex on Sixth Street convinced many in the city that they were the right people for the job. The renovation of the office building was complete by 1983, but the Wiltern Theatre presented a much more difficult problem and took another two years to complete; the theater had been poorly maintained—many of the murals and plasterwork were damaged, many of the fixtures had been sold off or pillaged, portions of the ceiling had crashed onto the ground floor seats. It had been used as the primary location for the film Get Crazy, which caused further damage. To restore the theater to its original state required expert craftsmanship by A. T. Heinsbergen, son of the original painter, some creativity to replace what had been lost; this included salvaging vintage Art Deco seats from the soon-to-be-renovated Paramount Theater in Portland, Oregon. Furthermore, while it was designed and run as a movie theater, Ratkovich wanted to convert the Wiltern into a performing arts center that could host live concerts and Broadway-level stage performances—which entailed opening up the rear wall and extending the stage and stage house of the theater back 15 feet.
After a four-year renovation the Wiltern Theatre opened again to the public on May 1, 1985, with performances by the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater company. Bill Graham Presents was retained to provide the oversight of operations; the Wiltern was operated as a producing theater, hosted its own live performances and those sponsored by Avalon Attractions, Concerts West, Universal Concerts, Timeless Entertainment, many others, was used for many televised events, commercial filming and feature film locations. On August 7, 1985, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers played a show at the theater, most of the live show was subsequently used for Petty's first official live release Pack Up the Plantation: Live! The concert was filmed; the Wiltern seated 2,344. Subsequent modifications in 2002 removed the 1,200 p
El Capitan Theatre
El Capitan Theatre is a restored movie palace at 6838 Hollywood Blvd. in Hollywood. The theater and adjacent Hollywood Masonic Temple is operated by Buena Vista Theatres, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Distribution, as such, serves as the venue for a majority of the Walt Disney Studios' film premieres. In the early 1920s, real estate developer Charles E. Toberman envisioned a thriving Hollywood theater district. Toberman was involved in 36 projects while building the Max Factor Building, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and the Hollywood Masonic Temple. With Sid Grauman, he opened the three themed theaters: Egyptian, El Capitan, Chinese. El Capitan, dubbed "Hollywood's First Home of Spoken Drama," opened as a legitimate theater on May 3, 1926, with Charlot's Revue starring Gertrude Lawrence and Jack Buchanan. Barker Bros. Furniture Emporium took up the rest of the building in the 1920s. For a decade, it presented live plays, with over 120 productions including such legends as Clark Gable and Joan Fontaine.
By the late 1930s, El Capitan felt the economic effects of the Depression, showcasing fewer and fewer productions. This period saw a cycle of experimentation with entertainment. In an effort to boost attendance at the theater, its management attempted to lure revues, road shows and benefits. Despite these efforts, business was faltering, the theater began showing movies; when Orson Welles was unable to locate a theater owner willing to risk screening Citizen Kane, he turned to the El Capitan, in 1941, Citizen Kane had its world premiere there. The theater closed for one year as Paramount Pictures purchased the theater; the building was remodeled in the modern style, with the decor covered with curtains and removing the box-seat balconies. The theater reopened in 1942 as the Hollywood Paramount Theater, its inaugural film presentation was Cecil B. DeMille's feature Reap the Wild Wind; the theater remained the West Coast flagship for Paramount Pictures until the studio was forced by the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in the antitrust case U.
S. vs. Paramount Pictures, et al. to divest itself of its theater holdings. After this, the Hollywood Paramount was operated by United Paramount Theatres for some years by a series of other companies, culminating with ownership by the Pacific Theatres Circuit in the 1980s. After a 50-year stay, Barker Bros. Furniture closed its location in the building in the 1970s. In 1985, Pacific Theatres purchased the theater from SRO Theaters; the building's owners, Nick Olaerts and Thomas L. Harnsberger, had assigned authority for the theater's facade to the Los Angeles Conservancy in exchange for historical building tax credits. Late in the 1980s, Disney purchased a controlling stake in one of Pacific Theatres' chains, leading to Disney's Buena Vista Theaters and Pacific renovating the El Capitan Theatre and the Crest by 1989; these theaters became Disney's flagship houses. They spent $14 million on a complete renovation of the Paramount, restoring much of the building's original decor as well as the theater's original name.
El Capitan reopened in 1991 with the premiere of The Rocketeer. In 1990, the city of Los Angeles designated El Capitan as a Cultural Heritage Monument; the 1992 National Preservation Honor Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation was bestowed on the restorers of the theater. A Michael Jackson mural was approved by the National Park Service to be placed on the side of the building in December 1992. After the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the building's frame was compromised and the theater had been flooded by its sprinklers and was considered uninhabitable by building inspectors; the owner walked away from the theater leaving the building to its mortgage company, CUNA Mutual Group. CUNA Mutual, having Disney as a continuing tenant, not only refurbished the theater but the office floors above for $10 million. In July 1995, Buena Vista purchased the Lanterman organ from Glendale City Redevelopment Agency. From the November 18, 1995, Toy Story premiere to January 1, 1996, Disney rented the Masonic Convention Hall, the next-door building, for Totally Toy Story, an instant theme park and a promotional event for the movie.
In July 1998, Buena Vista Pictures Distribution purchased the convention hall to continue using it as a promotional venue. A Disney Store location opened next to the theater in the El Capitan Building in 1998; the $3 million seismic retrofitting was finished in time for the June 21, 1996, premiere of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. The building's full restoration was completed in December 1997; the Hollywood Entertainment District, a self-taxing business improvement district, was formed for the properties from La Brea Avenue to McCadden Place on Hollywood Boulevard. The office space's first tenants were TrizecHahn Centers, builders of the 425,000-square-foot development on the other side of the boulevard. In conjunction with the Herbie: Fully Loaded premiere on June 22, 2005, the Disney's Soda Fountain and Studio Store opened up in the El Capitan Building on the ground floor replacing a Disney Store. CUNA Mutual having leased the building to full capacity placed the building up for sale in 2008 at a price of $31 million.
In November 2013, Ghirardelli Soda Fountain and Chocolate Shop co-located with the Disney Studios Store next to the theater in the El Capitan building. The theater is built into a six-story office building built in the 1920s; the design featured a Spanish Colonial Revival style exterior designed by Stiles O. Clements of the architectural firm of Morgan, Walls & Clements, mixed interior by G. Albert Lansburgh; the interior is a lavish East Indian in the main auditorium, English Tudor in the wood-pan
Fairfax Avenue is a street in the north central area of the city of Los Angeles, California. It runs from La Cienega Boulevard with Culver City at its southern end to Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood on its northern end. From La Cienega Boulevard to Sunset Boulevard, it separates the Westside from the central part of the city along with Venice Boulevard, La Cienega Boulevard, Hauser Boulevard, San Vicente Boulevard, South Cochran Avenue, Wilshire Boulevard, 6th Street, Cochran Avenue, 4th Street, La Brea Avenue, Fountain Avenue and Sunset Boulevard. Fairfax Avenue forms the western boundary of Hancock Park as well as Park La Brea, a 160-acre, 4,222-unit apartment complex with over 10,000 residents. Since World War II, the Fairfax District has been a Jewish neighborhood in Mid-City West. Fairfax High School, on the corner of Fairfax and Melrose Avenue, was known as the alma mater of many entertainment industry personalities. Canter's Deli has been a late night hangout in Los Angeles since the 1940s.
CBS's Television City is located on the corner of Fairfax and Beverly Boulevard,where thousands camp out to wait for a chance to watch The Price is Right. The former site of Gilmore Stadium, where the minor league baseball team, the Hollywood Stars, used to play prior to the Dodgers moving from Brooklyn. World-famous recording studio, Cherokee Studios, home to over 250 gold and platinum recorders, is just above Melrose Avenue; the Grove is off 3rd Fairfax. Due to the volume of high density attractions, Fairfax is one of the most congested streets in Los Angeles. Little Ethiopia is further south by Olympic Blvd and north by Pico Boulevard in the Pico-Robertson neighborhood in West Los Angeles. South of Olympic, Fairfax narrows to two lanes, Pico Boulevard between the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and Venice Boulevard between the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and Lafayette Square in Mid-City. At the northeast corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Fairfax is the former May Company department store building, converted to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and will be the future home of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures.
The Petersen Automotive Museum is located on the south corner. Metro Local line 217 and Metro Rapid line 780 serve Fairfax Avenue. An underground station for the Metro Purple Line at Wilshire Boulevard is under construction and is due to open in 2023. Canter's CBS Television City Farmers Market Academy Museum of Motion Pictures Petersen Automotive Museum
Petersen Automotive Museum
The Petersen Automotive Museum is located on Wilshire Boulevard along Museum Row in the Miracle Mile neighborhood of Los Angeles. One of the world's largest automotive museums, the Petersen Automotive Museum is a nonprofit organization specializing in automobile history and related educational programs. Founded on June 11, 1994 by magazine publisher Robert E. Petersen and his wife Margie, the $40-million Petersen Automotive Museum is owned and operated by the Petersen Automotive Museum Foundation; the museum was located within the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, moved to a historic department store designed by Welton Becket. Opened in 1962, the building first served as a short-lived U. S. branch of Seibu Department Stores, before operating as an Ohrbach's department store from 1965 to 1986. Six years after Ohrbach's closed, Robert Petersen selected the windowless site as an ideal space for a museum—allowing artifacts to be displayed without harmful exposure to direct sunlight. In 2015, the museum underwent an extensive $125 million renovation.
The building's façade was redesigned by the architectural firm Kohn Pedersen Fox, features a stainless-steel ribbon assembly made of 100 tons of 14-gauge type 304 steel in 308 sections, 25 supports and 140,000 custom stainless-steel screws. Designers at The Scenic Route configured interior spaces to accommodate changing exhibits; the remodeled museum opened to the public on December 7, 2015. The museum has over 100 vehicles on display in its 25 galleries; the remaining half of the collection is kept in a vault, located on the basement level of the building. Age restrictions and an admission premium are in effect to view the vault collection; the ground floor focuses on automotive artistry. The second floor is principally concerned with industrial engineering—including design, a collection of interactive teaching exhibits. Special displays on the industry floor cover racing, hot rods and customs; the third floor chronicles the history of the automobile with an emphasis on the car culture of Southern California.
Some of the cars, automotive memorabilia, exhibits include: An extensive Porsche exhibit, including the rare 1939 Porsche 64, one of only two in existence. A unique exhibit on the history of the Japanese automotive industry, with many cars on view from Japanese collections An exhibit on powered children's racecars The NASCAR Herbie used during filming of Herbie: Fully Loaded. Lightning McQueen from Disney Pixar Cars and Cars 2 1967 Ford MKIII GT40 1956 Jaguar XKSS owned by Steve McQueen 2011 Ford Fiesta from Ken Block’s Gymkhana 3 1992 Batmobile from Batman Returns Ferrari 308 GTS Targa used by Tom Selleck in Magnum, P. I. In order for the 6’4” Tom Selleck to fit comfortably in the Ferrari, they had to lower the driver seat. De Tomaso Pantera which belonged to Elvis Presley The museum received a $100-million gift from Margie Petersen and the Margie & Robert E. Petersen Foundation in April 2011, which includes cash and the property the museum was leasing, as well as many of the vehicles belonging to the Petersens.
On March 9, 1997, after a party at the museum, The Notorious B. I. G. got into an SUV with his entourage and drove fifty yards to a red light where he was murdered by an unknown assailant. Ohrbach's department store is featured in a lengthy sequence in the 1988 film Miracle Mile; the museum is destroyed in Volcano. In a scene from Who Killed the Electric Car? A previous General Motors EV1 owner visits their car in the museum. Official website 1897 Anthony Electric Runabout
Arizona Daily Star
The Arizona Daily Star is the major morning daily newspaper that serves Tucson and surrounding districts of southern Arizona in the United States. The paper was purchased by Pulitzer in 1971. At present, the paper's business operations are owned jointly by Lee Enterprises and the Gannett Company. In 1981, Star reporters Clark Hallas and Robert B. Lowe won a Pulitzer Prize for their stories about recruiting violations by University of Arizona football coach Tony Mason. L. C. Hughes, Arizona Territory governor and owner of the newspaper that became the Arizona Daily Star Official website Arizona Daily Star Archives Today's Arizona Daily Star front page at the Newseum websiteThe Arizona Daily Star's 2014 project on SB1070, "State of Confusion," Arizona Daily Star, March, 2014 The Arizona Daily Star's 2013 series on poverty, "Losing Ground", Arizona Daily Star, August, 2013