Century City is a 176-acre neighborhood and business district in Los Angeles' Westside. Outside Downtown Los Angeles, Century City is one of the metropolitan area's most prominent employment centers, its skyscrapers form a distinctive skyline on the Westside; the district was developed on the former backlot of film studio 20th Century Fox, its first building was opened in 1963. There are two private schools, but no public schools in the neighborhood. Important to the economy are the Westfield Century City shopping center, business towers, Fox Studios. According to the City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning, Century City constitutes census tract 2679.01. As shown on the map published on the Century City Chamber of Commerce website, Century City is bounded by Santa Monica Boulevard to the north, the city of Beverly Hills to the east, Pico Boulevard to the south, Century Park West to the west; these boundaries correspond with those recognized by the Century City Business Improvement District Association.
Neighboring Century City are Beverly Hills to the east, Cheviot Hills to the south, West Los Angeles to the west, Westwood to the north. The Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times extends Century City's western boundary to Beverly Glen Boulevard. However, this more expansive definition is not consistent with other L. A. Times reports: a 1999 article sets Century Park West as Century City's western boundary, a 2017 article refers to the neighborhood to the west of Century City as distinct from it. Two specific plans cover the neighborhood: "Century City North Specific Plan for the retail and entertainment functions in Century City," and "Century City South Specific Plan for multi-family homes, office tower and Fox Studios," according to the community plan set forth by the Los Angeles Department of City Planning; the land of Century City belonged to cowboy actor Tom Mix. It became a backlot of 20th Century Fox, which still has its headquarters just to the southwest; the area is named for the 20th Century Fox's Century Property.
In 1956, Spyros Skouras, who served as the President of 20th Century Fox from 1942–62, his nephew-in-law Edmond Herrscher, an attorney sometimes known as "the father of Century City", decided to repurpose the land for real estate development. The following year, in 1957, they commissioned a master-plan development from Welton Becket Associates, unveiled at a major press event on the "western" backlot that year. In 1961, after Fox suffered a string of expensive flops, culminating with the financial strain put on the studio by the expensive production of Cleopatra, the film studio sold about 180 acres to developer William Zeckendorf and Aluminum Co. of America known as Alcoa, for US$300 million. Herrscher had encouraged his uncle-in-law to borrow money instead, but once Skouras refused, he was out of the picture; the new owners conceived Century City as "a city within a city". In 1963, the first building, Gateway West Building, was completed; the next year, in 1964, Minoru Yamasaki designed the Century Plaza Hotel.
Five years in 1969, architects Anthony J. Lumsden and César Pelli designed the Century City Medical Plaza. Much of the shopping center's architecture and style can be seen in numerous sequences in the 1967 Fox film, A Guide for the Married Man, as well as in a sequence in another Fox film of the same year, Caprice. Century City's plaza as it appeared in the early 1970s can be viewed in several scenes of still another Fox film, Conquest of the Planet of the Apes; the following data applies to Century City within the boundaries set by the Mapping L. A. project: The 2000 U. S. census counted 5,513 residents in the 0.70-square-mile Century City neighborhood—or 7,869 people per square mile, an average population density for the city and county. The Southern California Association of Governments estimates that the daytime population amounts to 48,343 on a working day. In 2008, the city estimated that the resident population had increased to 5,934. In 2008, the median age for residents was 46, older than average for the county.
The percentage of residents aged 65 and older was the highest for any neighborhood in Los Angeles County. The percentages of widowed men and women and of divorced men were among the county's highest. Military veterans accounted for 11.9 % of the population, a high rate for the county. The neighborhood was considered "not diverse" ethnically, with a high percentage of white residents; the breakdown was whites, 82.5%. Iran and Canada were the most common places of birth for the 25.5% of the residents who were born abroad—a low percentage, compared to the city at large. The median yearly income in 2014 was a high figure for Los Angeles; the percentage of households that earned $125,000 and up was high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of 1.8 people was low for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 39.6% of the housing stock and apartment owners held 60.4%. Westfield Century City and Fox Studios occupy important acreage in the neighborhood; as of 2016, Westfield Century City is undergoing an $800 million renovation and expansion that aims to maintain the center's status as one of the Westside's premier shopping and entertainment destinations.
One tower, Constellation Place, has the headquarters of Houlihan Lokey, ICM Partners, International Lease Finance Corporation. Crystal Cruises is hea
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
May Company California
May Company California was a chain of department stores operating in Southern California and Nevada, with headquarters in North Hollywood, California. It was a subsidiary of May Department Stores and merged with May's other Southern California subsidiary, J. W. Robinson's, in 1993 to form Robinsons-May. May Company California was established in 1923 when May acquired A. Hamburger & Sons Inc... The company operated in Southern California until 1989 when May Department Stores had dissolved Goldwater's, based in Scottsdale and transferred its Las Vegas, Nevada store to May Company California; the May Company store, in Whittier, California, at The Quad at Whittier opened in 1965 and closed on March 31, 1987, just six months before the Whittier Narrows earthquake which took place at 7:42 a.m. October 1, 1987; the store's three-level parking structure fell flat to the ground as a result of this quake, the store itself suffered internal damage but remained intact until its controlled implosion a few years later.
Two well-known stores were the flagship Downtown store on 8th Street between Broadway and Hill streets, the May Company Wilshire at Wilshire Boulevard and Fairfax Avenue. The 1926 garage building at 9th and Hill Streets was one of the nation's first parking structures; the Wilshire location has been featured in several vintage films, including Behave Yourself! May Company California can trace its roots to the store that Asher Hamburger and his sons Moses and Solomon had established in Los Angeles after their recent move from Sacramento; this store first opened on October 29, 1881, in a 20-by-75-foot room on Main Street near Requena Street and was original known as The People's Store. In a short time, the store expanded into adjacent store fronts. Within three years, the store had moved to a larger location on Spring Street. By the start of the 20th century, A. Hamburger & Sons had outgrown the Spring Street location, which had 520 employees working on five floors; the Hamburger family decided to build a much larger store at the southeast corner of Broadway and Eighth, a location, outside of current retail district.
Construction started in 1905 with a grand opening held in 1908. This location, known as the Great White Store, was the largest department store building west of Chicago at the time and would become the flagship location for the May Company California. At the time that the Great White Store was opened, the store could boast of having one of the first escalators on the West Coast, several restaurants, a drug store, grocery store, fruit store, meat market, U. S. post office, telegraph office, barber shop, a dentist, a chiropractor, a medical doctor, an auditorium, an electricity and steam power plant in the basement, large enough to support a city of 50,000 inhabitants, a private volunteer 120 men fire brigade, 13 acres of retail space, 1200 employees. The Los Angeles Public Library was located on the third floor from 1908 until it was forced to move to a larger location when it outgrew the Hamburger space by 1913. For a short time, Woodbury Business College was located on the fifth floor. In 1925, the Hamburgers sold their store to the May family of St. Louis for $8.5 million.
Thomas and Wilbur May, sons of the founder of the May Company, were sent to manage the former Hamburger store. One of the first things that they did was to expand the store again by building adjacent additions on the other parts of the city block. After several more years, the May Company store occupied the entire block between Broadway and Hill and between 8th and 9th Streets; the old Hamburger store was renamed the May Company in 1927. To keep pace with the extreme growth in population within Southern California during the Great Depression, May Company opened the first branch store in 1939 on Wilshire at Fairfax at a cost of $2 million. After World War II, a second branch store was completed in 1947 on Crenshaw. A proposed store in Hollywood, planned at the same time was never built. A third branch store opened in Lakewood in 1952, followed by stores in North Hollywood in 1955, West Covina in 1957, Redondo Beach in 1959; the end of the 1950s saw May Company's expansion into the San Diego market with the opening of its eighth store at Mission Valley in 1960.
Other stores that followed during the 1960s included Buena Park in 1963, Canoga Park in 1964, West Los Angeles in 1964, Whittier in 1964, Costa Mesa in 1966, Arcadia in 1966, San Bernardino in 1966, Montclair in 1968, Carlsbad in 1969. During the 1970s, stores were opened in Oxnard in 1970, El Cajon in 1972, Riverside in 1973, Eagle Rock in 1973, Orange in 1974, Westminster in 1974, Culver City in 1975, Brea in 1977, Thousand Oaks in 1978, Mission Viejo in 1979 and La Jolla in 1979. During the next decade, stores were opened in Sherman Oaks in 1980, Pasadena in 1980, National City in 1981, Palos Verdes in 1981, Palm Desert in 1983, Montebello in 1985, Escondido in 1986. After a long period of declining sales, the original Downtown flagship store at 8th and Broadway was closed and replaced by a smaller store at Seventh Market Place in 1986; the parent company had relocated the main corporate offices for the May Company California division from the former Hamburger Building to the North Hollywood store at Laurel Plaza in 1983.
A new store was open in Bakersfield in 1988, while a store in Las Vegas was acquired from sister company Goldwater's in 1989 when parent company May Department Stores decided to cut costs by consolidating divisions. The Las Vegas store is the only locat
El Capitan Theatre
El Capitan Theatre is a restored movie palace at 6838 Hollywood Blvd. in Hollywood. The theater and adjacent Hollywood Masonic Temple is operated by Buena Vista Theatres, a subsidiary of Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures Distribution, as such, serves as the venue for a majority of the Walt Disney Studios' film premieres. In the early 1920s, real estate developer Charles E. Toberman envisioned a thriving Hollywood theater district. Toberman was involved in 36 projects while building the Max Factor Building, Hollywood Roosevelt Hotel and the Hollywood Masonic Temple. With Sid Grauman, he opened the three themed theaters: Egyptian, El Capitan, Chinese. El Capitan, dubbed "Hollywood's First Home of Spoken Drama," opened as a legitimate theater on May 3, 1926, with Charlot's Revue starring Gertrude Lawrence and Jack Buchanan. Barker Bros. Furniture Emporium took up the rest of the building in the 1920s. For a decade, it presented live plays, with over 120 productions including such legends as Clark Gable and Joan Fontaine.
By the late 1930s, El Capitan felt the economic effects of the Depression, showcasing fewer and fewer productions. This period saw a cycle of experimentation with entertainment. In an effort to boost attendance at the theater, its management attempted to lure revues, road shows and benefits. Despite these efforts, business was faltering, the theater began showing movies; when Orson Welles was unable to locate a theater owner willing to risk screening Citizen Kane, he turned to the El Capitan, in 1941, Citizen Kane had its world premiere there. The theater closed for one year as Paramount Pictures purchased the theater; the building was remodeled in the modern style, with the decor covered with curtains and removing the box-seat balconies. The theater reopened in 1942 as the Hollywood Paramount Theater, its inaugural film presentation was Cecil B. DeMille's feature Reap the Wild Wind; the theater remained the West Coast flagship for Paramount Pictures until the studio was forced by the U. S. Supreme Court's decision in the antitrust case U.
S. vs. Paramount Pictures, et al. to divest itself of its theater holdings. After this, the Hollywood Paramount was operated by United Paramount Theatres for some years by a series of other companies, culminating with ownership by the Pacific Theatres Circuit in the 1980s. After a 50-year stay, Barker Bros. Furniture closed its location in the building in the 1970s. In 1985, Pacific Theatres purchased the theater from SRO Theaters; the building's owners, Nick Olaerts and Thomas L. Harnsberger, had assigned authority for the theater's facade to the Los Angeles Conservancy in exchange for historical building tax credits. Late in the 1980s, Disney purchased a controlling stake in one of Pacific Theatres' chains, leading to Disney's Buena Vista Theaters and Pacific renovating the El Capitan Theatre and the Crest by 1989; these theaters became Disney's flagship houses. They spent $14 million on a complete renovation of the Paramount, restoring much of the building's original decor as well as the theater's original name.
El Capitan reopened in 1991 with the premiere of The Rocketeer. In 1990, the city of Los Angeles designated El Capitan as a Cultural Heritage Monument; the 1992 National Preservation Honor Award from the National Trust for Historic Preservation was bestowed on the restorers of the theater. A Michael Jackson mural was approved by the National Park Service to be placed on the side of the building in December 1992. After the 1994 Northridge earthquake, the building's frame was compromised and the theater had been flooded by its sprinklers and was considered uninhabitable by building inspectors; the owner walked away from the theater leaving the building to its mortgage company, CUNA Mutual Group. CUNA Mutual, having Disney as a continuing tenant, not only refurbished the theater but the office floors above for $10 million. In July 1995, Buena Vista purchased the Lanterman organ from Glendale City Redevelopment Agency. From the November 18, 1995, Toy Story premiere to January 1, 1996, Disney rented the Masonic Convention Hall, the next-door building, for Totally Toy Story, an instant theme park and a promotional event for the movie.
In July 1998, Buena Vista Pictures Distribution purchased the convention hall to continue using it as a promotional venue. A Disney Store location opened next to the theater in the El Capitan Building in 1998; the $3 million seismic retrofitting was finished in time for the June 21, 1996, premiere of The Hunchback of Notre Dame. The building's full restoration was completed in December 1997; the Hollywood Entertainment District, a self-taxing business improvement district, was formed for the properties from La Brea Avenue to McCadden Place on Hollywood Boulevard. The office space's first tenants were TrizecHahn Centers, builders of the 425,000-square-foot development on the other side of the boulevard. In conjunction with the Herbie: Fully Loaded premiere on June 22, 2005, the Disney's Soda Fountain and Studio Store opened up in the El Capitan Building on the ground floor replacing a Disney Store. CUNA Mutual having leased the building to full capacity placed the building up for sale in 2008 at a price of $31 million.
In November 2013, Ghirardelli Soda Fountain and Chocolate Shop co-located with the Disney Studios Store next to the theater in the El Capitan building. The theater is built into a six-story office building built in the 1920s; the design featured a Spanish Colonial Revival style exterior designed by Stiles O. Clements of the architectural firm of Morgan, Walls & Clements, mixed interior by G. Albert Lansburgh; the interior is a lavish East Indian in the main auditorium, English Tudor in the wood-pan
Fairfax Avenue is a street in the north central area of the city of Los Angeles, California. It runs from La Cienega Boulevard with Culver City at its southern end to Hollywood Boulevard in Hollywood on its northern end. From La Cienega Boulevard to Sunset Boulevard, it separates the Westside from the central part of the city along with Venice Boulevard, La Cienega Boulevard, Hauser Boulevard, San Vicente Boulevard, South Cochran Avenue, Wilshire Boulevard, 6th Street, Cochran Avenue, 4th Street, La Brea Avenue, Fountain Avenue and Sunset Boulevard. Fairfax Avenue forms the western boundary of Hancock Park as well as Park La Brea, a 160-acre, 4,222-unit apartment complex with over 10,000 residents. Since World War II, the Fairfax District has been a Jewish neighborhood in Mid-City West. Fairfax High School, on the corner of Fairfax and Melrose Avenue, was known as the alma mater of many entertainment industry personalities. Canter's Deli has been a late night hangout in Los Angeles since the 1940s.
CBS's Television City is located on the corner of Fairfax and Beverly Boulevard,where thousands camp out to wait for a chance to watch The Price is Right. The former site of Gilmore Stadium, where the minor league baseball team, the Hollywood Stars, used to play prior to the Dodgers moving from Brooklyn. World-famous recording studio, Cherokee Studios, home to over 250 gold and platinum recorders, is just above Melrose Avenue; the Grove is off 3rd Fairfax. Due to the volume of high density attractions, Fairfax is one of the most congested streets in Los Angeles. Little Ethiopia is further south by Olympic Blvd and north by Pico Boulevard in the Pico-Robertson neighborhood in West Los Angeles. South of Olympic, Fairfax narrows to two lanes, Pico Boulevard between the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and Venice Boulevard between the Crestview and Pico-Robertson neighborhoods in West Los Angeles and Lafayette Square in Mid-City. At the northeast corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Fairfax is the former May Company department store building, converted to the Los Angeles County Museum of Art and will be the future home of the Academy Museum of Motion Pictures.
The Petersen Automotive Museum is located on the south corner. Metro Local line 217 and Metro Rapid line 780 serve Fairfax Avenue. An underground station for the Metro Purple Line at Wilshire Boulevard is under construction and is due to open in 2023. Canter's CBS Television City Farmers Market Academy Museum of Motion Pictures Petersen Automotive Museum
Los Angeles County Museum of Art
The Los Angeles County Museum of Art is an art museum located on Wilshire Boulevard in the Miracle Mile vicinity of Los Angeles. LACMA is on Museum Row, adjacent to the La Brea Tar Pits. LACMA is the largest art museum in the western United States, it attracts nearly a million visitors annually. It holds more than 150,000 works spanning the history of art from ancient times to the present. In addition to art exhibits, the museum features concert series; the Los Angeles County Museum of Art was established as a museum in 1961. Prior to this, LACMA was part of the Los Angeles Museum of History and Art, founded in 1910 in Exposition Park near the University of Southern California. Howard F. Ahmanson, Sr. Anna Bing Arnold and Bart Lytton were the first principal patrons of the museum. Ahmanson made the lead donation of $2 million, convincing the museum board that sufficient funds could be raised to establish the new museum. In 1965 the museum moved to a new Wilshire Boulevard complex as an independent, art-focused institution, the largest new museum to be built in the United States after the National Gallery of Art.
The museum, built in a style similar to Lincoln Center and the Los Angeles Music Center, consisted of three buildings: the Ahmanson Building, the Bing Center, the Lytton Gallery. The board selected LA architect William Pereira over the directors' recommendation of Ludwig Mies van der Rohe for the buildings. According to a 1965 Los Angeles Times story, the total cost of the three buildings was $11.5 million. Construction began in 1963, was undertaken by the Del E. Webb Corporation. Construction was completed in early 1965. At the time, the Los Angeles Music Center and LACMA were concurrent large civic projects which vied for attention and donors in Los Angeles; when the museum opened, the buildings were surrounded by reflecting pools, but they were filled in and covered over when tar from the adjacent La Brea Tar Pits began seeping in. Money poured into LACMA during the boom years of the 1980s, a $209 million in private donations during director Earl Powell's tenure. To house its growing collections of modern and contemporary art and to provide more space for exhibitions, the museum hired the architectural firm of Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates to design its $35.3-million, 115,000-square-foot Robert O. Anderson Building for 20th-century art, which opened in 1986.
In the far-reaching expansion, museum-goers henceforth entered through the new roofed central court, nearly an acre of space bounded by the museum's four buildings. The museum's Pavilion for Japanese Art, designed by maverick architect Bruce Goff, opened in 1988, as did the B. Gerald Cantor Sculpture Garden of Rodin bronzes. In 1999, the Hancock Park Improvement Project was complete, the LACMA-adjacent park was inaugurated with a free public celebration; the $10-million renovation replaced dead trees and bare earth with picnic facilities, viewing sites for the La Brea tar pits and a 150-seat red granite amphitheater designed by artist Jackie Ferrara. In 1994, LACMA purchased the adjacent former May Company department store building, an impressive example of streamline moderne architecture designed by Albert C. Martin Sr. LACMA West increased the museum's size by 30 percent when the building opened in 1998. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved a plan for LACMA's transformation by architect Rem Koolhaas, who had proposed razing all the current buildings and constructing an new single, tent-topped structure, estimated to cost $200 million to $300 million.
Kohlhaas edged out French architect Jean Nouvel, who would have added a major building while renovating the older facilities. The list of candidates had narrowed to five in May 2001: Koolhaas, Steven Holl, Daniel Libeskind and Thom Mayne. However, the project soon stalled. In 2004 LACMA's Board of Trustees unanimously approved plans to transform the museum, led by architect Renzo Piano; the planned transformation consisted of three phases. Phase I started in 2004 and was completed in February 2008; the renovations required demolishing the parking structure on Ogden Avenue and with it LACMA-commissioned graffiti art by street artists Margaret Kilgallen and Barry McGee. The entry pavilion is a key point in architect Renzo Piano's plan to unify LACMA's sprawling confusing layout of buildings; the BP Grand Entrance and the adjacent Broad Contemporary Art Museum comprise the $191 million first phase of the three-part expansion and renovation campaign. BCAM is named for Edy Broad, who gave $60 million to LACMA's campaign.
BCAM opened on February 2008, adding 58,000 square feet of exhibition space to the museum. In 2010 the Lynda and Stewart Resnick Exhibition Pavilion opened to the public, providing the largest purpose-built lit, open-plan museum space in the world; the second phase was intended to turn the May building into new offices and galleries, designed by SPF Architects. As proposed, it would have had flexible gallery space, education space, administrative offices, a new restaurant, a gift shop and a bookstore, as well as study centers for the museum's departments of costume and textiles and prints and drawings, a roof sculpture garden with two works by James Turrell. However, construction of this phase was halted in November 2010. Phase two and three were never completed. In October 2011, LACMA entered into an agreement with the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences under which the Academ
Levitated Mass is a 2012 large-scale public art sculpture by Michael Heizer at Resnick North Lawn at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art. The installation consists of a 340-ton boulder sculpture placed above a 456-foot viewing pathway to accommodate 360-degree viewing; the nature and scale of the installation attracted discussion within the public art world, its notable 106-mile transit from the Jurupa Valley Quarry in Riverside County was covered by the media. The piece does not require museum admission. According to Public Art in Public Places, the Levitated Mass sculpture is located less than a 3-minute walk north of Urban Light, the most popularly visited public art sculpture in Southern California; the work is composed of a 21.5-foot tall boulder mounted on the walls of a 456-foot long concrete trench, surrounded by 2.5 acres of compressed decomposed granite. The boulder is bolted to two shelves affixed to the inner walls of the trench, which descends from ground level to 15 feet below the stone at its center, allowing visitors to stand directly below the megalith.
Initial plans for the work described the boulder as being affixed to the trench walls themselves, giving the boulder the appearance of'floating' when viewed from within the trench via optical illusion, hence the work's title. Support shelves were subsequently required. A 1982 Heizer work in Manhattan called Levitated Mass, consists of a much smaller, carved rock set on hidden supports, does preserve this'floating' effect. Heizer explains or comments on his work and has never offered a public explanation of Levitated Mass's meaning or significance, he has however described the piece as being'static art' and emphasized the importance of the boulder's size and of the work's longevity, saying that the work is meant to last 3,500 years. LACMA has published a preliminary sketch of the work by Heizer that contains a handwritten notation saying that the work "destroys'gestalt' concepts". Heizer first conceived of the work in 1968, attempted its construction using a 120-ton boulder in 1969; this attempt was abandoned, when the boom of the crane being used to lift the boulder broke.
In December 2006, Heizer discovered a new 340-ton rock at Stone Valley Quarry in Jurupa Valley, California in Riverside County while preparing a different project. With the help of LACMA director Michael Govan, funding was secured for the boulder's removal and transportation and for the construction of the finished work at the museum; the cost of the project has been estimated at $10 million, was funded via private donations. The boulder was scheduled for transport in August 2011. Due to the difficulty in securing permits for the journey, the trip was delayed, with the boulder leaving the quarry at the end of February 2012; the rock was loaded onto a 295-foot long, 196-wheeled transporter custom-built by Emmert International. Because of the transporter's size and needs, the boulder could only be moved at night at a maximum speed of about seven miles per hour. Though the quarry is located less than 60 miles from the LACMA campus, a circuitous 106-mile route traversing 22 cities in 4 counties was taken in order to avoid busier roads or overpasses that could not support the combined weight of the boulder and transporter.
Numerous trees were cut down, cars towed and traffic lights temporarily removed in order to facilitate the transporter's movement. The rock itself was wrapped in cotton sheets and an outer layer of thick plastic before being loaded onto the transporter; the trip took 11 days, with large crowds gathering to see the boulder both in motion and while parked during the day. Spontaneous block parties and at least one marriage proposal took place at the transporter's various resting places; the transporter arrived at LACMA at 4:30am on March 10, 2012. A crowd estimated at over 1,000 assembled to see the installation's arrival. Completion of the concrete trench and the final securing of the boulder took an additional three months; the installation was opened to the public on June 24, 2012 at a ceremony attended by Govan, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa, County Supervisor Zev Yaroslavsky and the famously reclusive Heizer himself. LA Times art critic Christopher Knight said that Levitated Mass was "a good sculpture if not a great one", describing the dichotomy of a desert landscape cut into Los Angeles's urban metropolis and of the sculpture's permanence in a comparatively fragile cityscape.
Adding "as monoliths go, the stone seems rather modest."During the journey of Levitated Mass's boulder from quarry to museum, French artist Régis Perray moved a toy dump truck carrying 340 grams of dust from the vault of the Chartres Cathedral as a work entitled 340 Grammes Déplacés... during Levitated Mass by Michael Heizer. The work curated by Observatoire du Land Art was a transatlantic action performed as an "echo" of Levitated Mass's simultaneous displacement of 340 tons of rock. Complex magazine listed Levitated Mass as one of its 50 Most Iconic Artworks of the Past Five Years. A parody/tribute work by Mungo Thomson, entitled Levitating Mass, was commissioned by the Aspen Art Museum and appeared at the 2012 Aspen Old-Fashioned Fourth of July Parade, just ten days after the public opening of the original work, it consists of a one-half scale helium balloon replica of Levitated Mass's central boulder. Boulder Mass: The Levitation is a short-subject Avante-Garde Film by Director Joseph Quinn.
Levitated Mass: The Story of Michael Heizer's Monolithic Sculpture, a documentary by filmmaker Doug Pray, debuted at LACMA's Bing Theater on June 20, 2013 as part of the Los Angeles Film Festival. The film focuses on the transport