In Christianity, an archbishop is a bishop of higher rank or office. In some cases, like the Lutheran Church of Sweden, it is the denomination leader title, an archbishop may be granted the title, or ordained as chief pastor of a metropolitan see or another episcopal see to which the title of archbishop is attached. Episcopal sees are generally arranged in groups in which the bishop who is the ordinary of one of them has certain powers and he is known as the metropolitan archbishop of that see. As well as the more numerous metropolitan sees, there are 77 Roman Catholic sees that have archiepiscopal rank. In some cases, such a see is the one in a country, such as Luxembourg or Monaco. In others, the title of archdiocese is for reasons attributed to a see that was once of greater importance. Some of these archdioceses are suffragans of a metropolitan archdiocese, an example is the Archdiocese of Avignon, which is a suffragan of the Archdiocese of Marseille, Another such example is the Archdiocese of Trnava, Slovakia.
Others are immediately subject to the Holy See and not to any metropolitan archdiocese and these are usually aggregated to an ecclesiastical province. An example is the Archdiocese of Hobart in Australia, associated with the Metropolitan ecclesiastical province of Melbourne, the ordinary of such an archdiocese is an archbishop, especially in the Anglican Communion, not all archbishops dioceses are called archdioceses. Since then, the title of Coadjutor Archbishop of the see is considered sufficient, the rank of archbishop is conferred on some bishops who are not ordinaries of an archdiocese. They hold the rank not because of the see that they head, the bishop transferred is known as the Archbishop-Bishop of his new see. An example is Gianfranco Gardin, appointed Archbishop-Bishop of Treviso on 21 December 2009, the title borne by the successor of such an archbishop-bishop is merely that of Bishop of the see, unless he is granted the personal title of Archbishop. The distinction between metropolitan sees and non-metropolitan archiepiscopal sees exists for titular sees as well as for residential ones, the Annuario Pontificio marks titular sees of the former class with the abbreviation Metr.
and the others with Arciv. Many of the sees to which nuncios and heads of departments of the Roman Curia who are not cardinals are assigned are not of archiepiscopal rank. In that case the person who is appointed to such a position is given the title of archbishop. They are usually referred to as Archbishop of the see, not as its Archbishop-Bishop, until 1970, such archbishops were transferred to a titular see. There can be several Archbishops Emeriti of the see, the 2008 Annuario Pontificio listed three living Archbishops Emeriti of Taipei. There is no Archbishop Emeritus of a see, an archbishop who holds a titular see keeps it until death or until transferred to another see
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France. It has an area of 105 square kilometres and a population of 2,229,621 in 2013 within its administrative limits, the agglomeration has grown well beyond the citys administrative limits. By the 17th century, Paris was one of Europes major centres of finance, fashion and the arts, and it retains that position still today. The aire urbaine de Paris, a measure of area, spans most of the Île-de-France region and has a population of 12,405,426. It is therefore the second largest metropolitan area in the European Union after London, the Metropole of Grand Paris was created in 2016, combining the commune and its nearest suburbs into a single area for economic and environmental co-operation. Grand Paris covers 814 square kilometres and has a population of 7 million persons, the Paris Region had a GDP of €624 billion in 2012, accounting for 30.0 percent of the GDP of France and ranking it as one of the wealthiest regions in Europe. The city is a rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports, Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the subway system, the Paris Métro. It is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro, Paris Gare du Nord is the busiest railway station in the world outside of Japan, with 262 millions passengers in 2015. In 2015, Paris received 22.2 million visitors, making it one of the top tourist destinations. The association football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris, the 80, 000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros, Paris hosted the 1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics and is bidding to host the 2024 Summer Olympics. The name Paris is derived from its inhabitants, the Celtic Parisii tribe. Thus, though written the same, the name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. In the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps, since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang.
Inhabitants are known in English as Parisians and in French as Parisiens and they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the areas major north-south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité, this place of land and water trade routes gradually became a town
Daughters of Charity of Saint Vincent de Paul
Its members make annual vows throughout their life, which leaves them always free to leave, without need of ecclesiastical permission. They were founded in 1633 and are devoted to serving Jesus Christ in persons who are poor through corporal and spiritual works of mercy. They have been known in France as the Grey Sisters from the color of their traditional religious habit. The 1996 publication The Vincentian Family Tree presents an overview of related communities from a genealogical perspective and they use the initials DC after their names. In the past, when they were simply as the Sisters of Charity of St. Joseph. The institute was founded by Saint Vincent de Paul, a French priest, and Saint Louise de Marillac, the need of organization in work for the poor suggested to de Paul the forming of a confraternity among the women of his parish in Châtillon-les-Dombes. It was so successful that it spread from the districts to Paris. The majority sent their servants to minister to those in need, Vincent de Paul remedied this by referring young women who inquired about serving persons in need to go to Paris and devote themselves to this ministry under the direction of the Ladies of Charity.
Marguerite Naseau, a 34-year-old woman from the countryside in Suresnes, in 1630 she met up with Vincent and Louise in Paris, where they suggested that she help the Ladies of Charity. These young women formed the nucleus of the Company of the Daughters of Charity now spread over the world, on 29 November 1633, the eve of St. Andrew, de Marillac began a more systematic training of the women, particularly for the care of the sick. The sisters lived in community in order to develop the spiritual life and thus, more effectively. The Daughters of Charity differed from other congregations of that time in that they were not cloistered. They maintained the necessary mobility and availability and lived among those whom they served, from the beginning, the community motto was, The charity of Christ impels us. The hospital of St John the Evangelist in the province of Angers was the first hospital entrusted to the care of the Daughters of Charity, anticlerical forces in the French Revolution were determined to shut down all convents.
In 1789 France had 426 houses, the sisters numbered about 6000 in Europe, in 1792, the sisters were ordered to quit the motherhouse, the community was officially disbanded in 1793. An oath to support the Revolution was imposed on all members of religious orders who performed a service that was remunerated by the state. Taking this oath was seen as breaking off with the Church while those who refused to do so were considered counter-revolutionaries, in Angers, revolutionary authorities decided to make an example of sisters Marie-Anne Vaillot and Odile Baumgarten in order to demonstrate what refusal to take the oath would mean. In early 1794 they faced a public execution, at a ceremony in Rome on 19 February 1984 Pope John Paul II beatified ninety-nine persons who died for the faith in Angers, including Vaillot and Baumgarten
Louise de Marillac
Saint Louise de Marillac, D. C. Louise Le Gras was the co-founder, with Saint Vincent de Paul, of the Daughters of Charity. She is venerated as a saint by the Roman Catholic Church and she was born out of wedlock on August 12,1591 near Le Meux, now in the department of Oise, in Picardy. Louis de Marillac, Lord of Ferrires, claimed her as his natural daughter yet not his legal heir, louis was a member of the prominent de Marillac family and was a widower at the time of Louise’s birth. Her uncle, Michel de Marillac, was a figure in the court of Queen Marie de Medici and, though Louise was not a member of the Queen’s court. Thus Louise grew up amid the affluent society of Paris, when her father married his new wife, Antoinette Le Camus, she refused to accept Louise as part of their family. Nevertheless, Louise was cared for and received an excellent education at the monastery of Poissy near Paris. Louise was schooled among the elite and was introduced to the arts. She remained at Poissy until her fathers death, when she was years old.
Louise stayed with a good, devout spinster, and from her, around the age of fifteen, Louise felt drawn to the cloistered life. She made application to the Capuchin nuns in Paris but was refused admission and it is not clear if her refusal was for her continual poor health or other reasons, but her spiritual directors prophetic response to her application was that God had other plans for her. Devastated by this refusal, Louise was at a loss as to the step in her spiritual development. When she was 22, her family had convinced her that marriage was the best alternative and her uncle arranged for her to marry Antoine Le Gras, secretary to Queen Marie. Antoine was a young man who seemed destined for great accomplishments. Louise and Antoine were wed in the fashionable Church of St. Gervaise on February 5,1613, in October, the couple had their only child, Michel. Louise grew to love Antoine and was a mother to their son. Along with being devoted to her family, Louise was active in ministry in her parish and she had a leading role in the Ladies of Charity, an organization of wealthy women dedicated to assisting those suffering from poverty and disease.
Aided by her directors, the young Louise had entered into profound prayer in the tradition of the Rhenish-Flemish spiritualists or the abstract mystics and she had been initiated in the spirituality of Pierre de Bérulle and so entered into mysticism. The Incarnation became the centre upon which Louise’s theology and spirituality rested, like Duns Scotus, viewed the Incarnation as the moment in which men and women were saved
A devotional medal is a medal issued for religious devotion most commonly associated with Roman Catholic faith, but sometimes used by adherents of the Orthodox and Anglican denominations. In the present article we are concerned only with religious medals and it was at one time doubted whether anything in the nature of a purely devotional medal was known in the early ages of Christianity. Certain objects of this kind were described and figured by seventeenth-century writers on the Catacombs, a moments consideration will establish the intrinsic probability of the existence of such objects. The use of amulets and talismans in pagan antiquity was widespread, the word amuletum itself occurs in Pliny, and many monuments show how objects of this kind were worn around the neck by all classes. Many early Christians no doubt did make use of devotional medals, the letter of Gregory the Great to St. Mellitus about the dedication of pagan temples, preserved to us by Bede, supplies perhaps the most famous example.
Moreover, we know that the same St, hence we find many of the fathers of the fourth and centuries protesting more or less vigorously against these Gnostic phylacteries. In Africa, the molds have been found in which little crosses were cast with rings to hang them by, two or three of these are specially famous. On one side we see represented the martyrdom of a saint, presumably St. Lawrence, the Christian character of the scene is shown by the chi-rho chrisma, the alpha and omega, and the martyrs crown. On the reverse is depicted the tomb of St. Lawrence, the scene no doubt represents the consecration to God of the child as an oblate by his father before the shrine of some martyr, a custom for which there is a good deal of early evidence. Other medals are much more simple, bearing only the chrisma with a name or perhaps a cross and it bears two portrait types of the heads of the Apostles SS. Peter and Paul, and is assigned by de Rossi to the second century, how far the use of such medal of devotion extended in the early Church it is not easy to decide.
One or two passages in the works of St. Zeno of Verona have suggested that a medal of this kind was commonly given as a memorial of baptism, in the life of St. Genevieve, despite the opinion of B. Krusch, is of early date, we read that St. Germanus of Auxerre hung around her neck a perforated bronze coin marked with the sign of the cross, in memo of her having consecrated her virginity to God. These signacula known in English as pilgrims signs often took a form and were carried in a conspicuous way upon the hat or breast. The privilege of casting and selling these pilgrims signs was a valuable one. Then, as manner and custom is, signes there they bought, each man set his silver in such thing as he liked, writes a fourteenth-century satirist of one of these shrines. Moreover, we find that the custom was established in Rome itself. In form and fashion these pilgrims signs are very various and a considerable literature exists upon the subject, with these leaden Signs should be noted the custom of casting coin-like tokens in connection with the Feast of Fools, the celebration of the Boy Bishop and the Innocents
Theotokos is a title of Mary, mother of Jesus, used especially in Eastern Christianity. The usual Latin translations, Dei Genetrix or Deipara, are translated as Mother of God or God-bearer, the Council of Ephesus decreed in 431 that Mary is the Theotokos because her son Jesus is both God and man, one divine person with two natures intimately and hypostatically united. Similar to this is the title of Mother of God, Mother of God is most often used in English, largely due to the lack of a satisfactory equivalent of Greek τόκος / Latin genetrix. The title has been in use since the 3rd century, in the Syriac tradition in the Liturgy of Mari and Addai, Theotokos is an adjectival compound of two the Greek words Θεός God and τόκος childbirth, offspring. A close paraphrase would be whose offspring is God or who gave birth to one who was God, the usual English translation is simply Mother of God, Latin uses Deipara or Dei Genetrix. The Church Slavonic translation is Bogoroditsa, in an abbreviated form, ΜΡ ΘΥ, it often is found on Eastern icons, where it is used to identify Mary.
The Russian term is Матерь Божия, variant forms are the compounds Θεομήτωρ and Μητρόθεος, which are found in patristic and liturgical texts. The theological dispute over the term concerned the term Θεός God vs. Χριστός Christ, and not τόκος vs. μήτηρ, to make it explicit, it is sometimes translated Mother of God Incarnate. This decree created the Nestorian Schism, Cyril of Alexandria wrote, I am amazed that there are some who are entirely in doubt as to whether the holy Virgin should be called Theotokos or not. For if our Lord Jesus Christ is God, how is the holy Virgin who gave birth, not. But the argument of Nestorius was that divine and human natures of Christ were distinct, at issue is the interpretation of the Incarnation, and the nature of the hypostatic union of Christs human and divine natures between Christs conception and birth. Within the Orthodox doctrinal teaching on the economy of salvation, Marys identity, for this reason, it is formally defined as official dogma. The only other Mariological teaching so defined is that of her virginity, both of these teachings have a bearing on the identity of Jesus Christ.
The term was certainly in use by the 3rd century, athanasius of Alexandria in 330, Gregory the Theologian in 370, John Chrysostom in 400, and Augustine all used theotokos. Origen is often cited as the earliest author to use theotokos for Mary, although this testimony is uncertain, the term was used c.250 by Dionysius of Alexandria, in an epistle to Paul of Samosata. The Greek version of the hymn Sub tuum praesidium contains the term, in the vocative, the oldest record of this hymn is a papyrus found in Egypt, mostly dated to after 450. But according to a suggestion by de Villiers possibly older, dating to the mid-3rd century, the use of Theotokos was formally affirmed at the Third Ecumenical Council held at Ephesus in 431. Nestorius opponents, led by Cyril of Alexandria, viewed this as dividing Jesus into two persons, the human who was Son of Mary, and the divine who was not
Vincent de Paul
St. Vincent de Paul was a French Roman Catholic priest who dedicated himself to serving the poor. He is venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church and the Anglican Communion and he was renowned for his compassion and generosity and is known as the Great Apostle of Charity. Vincent was born in 1581 in the village of Pouy in Gascony, in the Province of Guyenne and Gascony, there was in the vicinity, a stream named the Paul and it is believed that this might have been the derivation of the family name. He wrote the name as one word – Depaul, possibly to avoid the inference that he was of noble birth and he had three brothers – Jean and Gayon, and two sisters – Marie and Marie-Claudine. At an early age, he showed a talent for reading and writing but during his childhood, at 15, his father sent him to seminary, managing to pay for it by selling the family’s oxen. Vincents interest in the priesthood at that time was largely with the intent to establish a career and obtain a benefice, with which he could retire early.
For two years, Vincent received his education at a college in Dax, France adjoining a monastery of the Friars Minor where he, in 1597, he began his studies in the Faculty of Theology at the University of Toulouse. The atmosphere at the university was anything but pious or conducive to spiritual contemplation, fights broke out between various factions of students which escalated into many armed battles. During the course of the unrest, an official was murdered by two students, nevertheless, he continued his studies and was finally able to help pay for his education by tutoring others. He was ordained on 23 September 1600 at the age of nineteen in Château-lÉvêque, rather than respond to a lawsuit in which he would probably not have prevailed, he resigned from the position and continued his studies. On 12 October 1604 he received his Bachelor of Theology from the University of Toulouse, he received a Licentiate in Canon Law from the University of Paris. De Paul was auctioned off as a slave to the highest bidder and his first master was a fisherman, but Vincent was unsuitable for this line of work due to sea-sickness and was soon sold.
His next master was a physician and inventor. He became fascinated by his arts and was taught how to prepare, the fame of Vincents master became so great that it attracted the attention of men who summoned him to Istanbul. During the passage, the old man died and Vincent was sold once again and his new master was a former priest and Franciscan from Nice, named Guillaume Gautier. He had converted to Islam in order to gain his freedom from slavery and was living in the mountains with three wives, the second wife, a Muslim by birth, was drawn to and visited Vincent in the fields to question him about his faith. She became convinced that his faith was true and admonished her husband for renouncing his Christianity and her husband became remorseful and decided to escape back to France with his slave. They had to wait ten months, but finally they secretly boarded a boat and crossed the Mediterranean
A pilgrim is a traveler who is on a journey to a holy place. Typically, this is a journey to some place of special significance to the adherent of a particular religious belief system. Pilgrims and the making of pilgrimages are common in many religions, including the faiths of ancient Egypt, Persia in the Mithraic period, India and Japan. The Greek and Roman customs of consulting the gods at local oracles, such as those at Dodona or Delphi, in Greece, pilgrimages could either be personal or state-sponsored. In the early period of Hebrew history, pilgrims traveled to Shiloh, Bethel, while many pilgrims travel toward a specific location, a physical destination is not always a necessity. One group of pilgrims in early Celtic Christianity were the Peregrinari Pro Christ, or white martyrs and this sort of pilgrimage was an ascetic religious practice, as the pilgrim left the security of home and the clan for an unknown destination, trusting completely in Divine Providence. These travels often resulted in the founding of new abbeys and the spread of Christianity among the population in Britain and in continental Europe.
Many religions still espouse pilgrimage as a spiritual activity, the great Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, is an obligatory duty at least once for every Muslim who is able to make the journey. Other Islamic devotional pilgrimages, particularly to the tombs of Shia Imams or Sufi saints, are popular across the Islamic world. International Bible Students Association pilgrims were excellent speakers, and their talks were typically well-publicized and well-attended. A modern phenomenon is the cultural pilgrimage which, while involving a journey, is secular in nature. An example might be a baseball fan visiting Cooperstown, New York, destinations for cultural pilgrims include Auschwitz concentration camp, Gettysburg Battlefield or the Ernest Hemingway House. Under communist regimes, devout secular pilgrims visited locations such as the Mausoleum of Lenin, the Mausoleum of Mao Zedong, sites such as these continue to attract visitors. The distinction between religious, cultural or political pilgrimage and tourism is not necessarily always clear or rigid, pilgrimage could refer symbolically to journeys, largely on foot, to places where the concerned person expect to find spiritual and/or personal salvation.
In the words of adventurer-author Jon Krakauer in his book Into The Wild, many national and international leaders have gone on pilgrimages for both personal and political reasons
Rue du Bac, Paris
Rue du Bac is a street in Paris situated in the 7th arrondissement. The street, which is 1150 m long, begins at the junction of the quais Voltaire and Anatole-France, the street used to be in the fashionable Faubourg Saint-Germain. Rue du Bac is the name of a station on line 12 of the Paris Métro, rue du Bac owes its name to a ferry established toward 1550 on what is now the quai Voltaire, to transport stone blocks for the construction of the Palais des Tuileries. It crossed the Seine at the site of todays Pont Royal, the street was named grand chemin du Bac, ruelle du Bac and grande rue du Bac. N°1, Building by Auguste Rolin and C, n°s 83-85, Former monastery of the Immaculate Conception built in 1637. It occupied numbers 87 and 89 rue de Grenelle onto which the garden extended, n°97, Hôtel de Ségur, This house was built in 1722 for Pierre Henry Lemaître, perhaps for François Debias-Aubry. Some of the interior dates to this period. From 1786 to 1792 and from 1796 to 1798 it was occupied by Madame de Staël, n°101, Hôtel de La Feuillade.
N°s 2-4, The Caisse des dépôts et consignations, the financial institution created in 1816 to control financial affairs in the publics interest. N°40, The door of this building opens on a passage to the rue du Bac. Inside the passage was the Hôtel Cochin where lived Charles de Montalembert, n°44, In 1932, André Malraux composed a portion of Mans Fate, or La Condition humaine. N°46, Outside door has panels representing Prudence and Law sculpted by Michel Varin, the original 18th century interior had sumptuous wood paneling adorned with work by the painters Carle Van Loo, Jean-Baptiste Oudry, Jean II Restout. It was dispersed at the end of the 19th century, some of its elements have been redisplayed at the musée Jacquemart-André, the Hôtel de Pontalba and the castle of Vaux-le-Pénil. N°70, Building from the years 1830-1840, n°102, Hôtel de Sainte-Aldegonde, built in the first half of the 18th century. N°110, Across courtyard and house constructed in 1812 for himself by Pierre-Louis Baltard, the ground floor of the house was occupied by James McNeill Whistler from 1892 to 1901.
N°s 118-120, Two hotels, separated by a party wall, the doors representing the four corners of the world are of exceptional quality, probably the work of Jean-Baptiste Tureau. N°128, Missions étrangères de Paris, an evangelical Catholic organization, catherine Labouré, who was at the origin of the creation of the Miraculous Medal 48. 850974°N2. 323770°E /48.850974,2.323770. This is the address where the character Mr Klein lived in the film Mr Klein, n°84, Former entrance into the garden of the Hôtel de Galliffet which has its main entrance at 73 rue de Grenelle
Incorruptibility is a Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox belief that divine intervention allows some human bodies to avoid the normal process of decomposition after death as a sign of their holiness. Bodies that undergo little or no decomposition, or delayed decomposition, are referred to as incorrupt or incorruptible. Incorruptibility is thought to even in the presence of factors which normally hasten decomposition, as in the cases of saints Catherine of Genoa, Julie Billiart. In Roman Catholicism, if a body is judged as incorruptible after death, canon law allows inspection of the body so that relics can be taken and sent to Rome. The relics must be sealed with wax and the body must be replaced after inspection and these ritual inspections are performed very rarely and can only be performed by a bishop respecting canon law. A pontifical commission can authorize inspection of the relics and demand a written report, after solemn inspection of the relics, it can be decided that the body is presented in an open relicary and displayed for veneration.
Catholic law allows saints to be buried under the altar, so Mass can be celebrated above the corpse, the relics of Saint Bernadette were inspected multiple times, and reports by the church tribunal confirmed that the body was preserved. The opening of the reliquary was attended by multiple canons, the mayor and the bishop in 1919, not every saint, however, is expected to have an incorruptible corpse. Although incorruptibility is recognized as supernatural, it is no longer counted as a miracle in the recognition of a saint, embalmed bodies were not recognized as incorruptibles. Incorruptibility is seen as distinct from the preservation of a body. Incorruptible bodies are said to have the odour of sanctity, exuding a sweet or floral. To the Eastern Orthodox Church, incorruptibility continues to be an important element for the process of glorification, an important distinction is made between natural mummification and what is believed to be supernatural incorruptibility. There are a number of eastern Orthodox saints whose bodies have been found to be incorrupt and are in much veneration among the faithful.
Finally, the relics were sent to Petrograds Military Medical Academy. There they remained for nearly eighty years, a second uncovering of St Alexanders relics took place in December 1997, before their return to the Svir Monastery. In 1927, the cathedral itself was demolished, incorruptibles include, During marble excavations on the Appian Way in Spring 1485, workers found three marble coffins. In one, twelve feet underground, was the corpse of a woman, said to have looked as if it had been buried that day. The corpse attracted 20,000 plus crowds of spectators in the first few days, many of whom believed it to be of Tullia, daughter of Cicero, whose epitaph was on one of the tombs
France, officially the French Republic, is a country with territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The European, or metropolitan, area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, Overseas France include French Guiana on the South American continent and several island territories in the Atlantic and Indian oceans. France spans 643,801 square kilometres and had a population of almost 67 million people as of January 2017. It is a unitary republic with the capital in Paris. Other major urban centres include Marseille, Lille, Toulouse, during the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The area was annexed in 51 BC by Rome, which held Gaul until 486, France emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years War strengthening state-building and political centralisation. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a colonial empire was established.
The 16th century was dominated by civil wars between Catholics and Protestants. France became Europes dominant cultural and military power under Louis XIV, in the 19th century Napoleon took power and established the First French Empire, whose subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War, the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, was formed in 1958 and remains to this day. Algeria and nearly all the colonies became independent in the 1960s with minimal controversy and typically retained close economic. France has long been a centre of art, science. It hosts Europes fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually, France is a developed country with the worlds sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest by purchasing power parity.
In terms of household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, France remains a great power in the world, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a member state of the European Union and the Eurozone. It is a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, originally applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name France comes from the Latin Francia, or country of the Franks
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker