A mirage is a occurring optical phenomenon in which light rays bend via refraction to produce a displaced image of distant objects or the sky. The word comes to English via the French mirage, from the Latin mirari, meaning "to look at, to wonder at". Mirages can be categorized as "inferior", "superior" and "Fata Morgana", one kind of superior mirage consisting of a series of unusually elaborate, vertically stacked images, which form one changing mirage. In contrast to a hallucination, a mirage is a real optical phenomenon that can be captured on camera, since light rays are refracted to form the false image at the observer's location. What the image appears to represent, however, is determined by the interpretive faculties of the human mind. For example, inferior images on land are easily mistaken for the reflections from a small body of water. An inferior mirage is one; the real object in an inferior mirage is any distant object in that same direction. The mirage causes the observer to see a bluish patch on the ground.
Light rays coming from a particular distant object all travel through nearly the same air layers and all are bent over about the same amount. Therefore, rays coming from the top of the object will arrive lower than those from the bottom; the image is upside down, enhancing the illusion that the sky image seen in the distance is a water or oil puddle acting as a mirror. Inferior images are not stable. Hot air rises, cooler air descends, so the layers will mix, giving rise to turbulence; the image will be distorted accordingly. It may be vibrating. If there are several temperature layers, several mirages may mix causing double images. In any case, mirages are not larger than about half a degree high and from objects only a few kilometers away. Heat haze called heat shimmer, refers to the inferior mirage experienced when viewing objects through a layer of heated air; when appearing on roads due to the hot asphalt, it is referred to as a highway mirage. Convection causes the temperature of the air to vary, the variation between the hot air at the surface of the road and the denser cool air above it creates a gradient in the refractive index of the air.
This produces a blurred shimmering effect, which affects the ability to resolve objects, the effect being increased when the image is magnified through a telescope or telephoto lens. Light from the sky at a shallow angle to the road is refracted by the index gradient, making it appear as if the sky is reflected by the road's surface; the mind interprets this as a pool of water on the road, since water reflects the sky. The illusion fades. On tarmac roads it may look as if water, or oil, has been spilled; these kinds of inferior mirages are called "desert mirages" or "highway mirages". Both sand and tarmac can become hot when exposed to the sun being more than 10 °C hotter than the air one meter above, enough to create conditions suitable for the formation of the mirage. Heat haze is not related to the atmospheric phenomenon of haze. A superior mirage occurs; this unusual arrangement is called a temperature inversion, since warm air above cold air is the opposite of the normal temperature gradient of the atmosphere during the daytime.
Passing through the temperature inversion, the light rays are bent down, so the image appears above the true object, hence the name superior. Superior mirages tend to be more stable than inferior mirages, as cold air has no tendency to move up and warm air has no tendency to move down. Superior mirages are quite common in polar regions over large sheets of ice that have a uniform low temperature. Superior mirages occur at more moderate latitudes, although in those cases they are weaker and tend to be less smooth and stable. For example, a distant shoreline may appear to tower and look higher than it is; because of the turbulence, there appear to be dancing towers. This type of mirage is called the Fata Morgana or hafgerdingar in the Icelandic language. A superior mirage can be right-side up or upside down, depending on the distance of the true object and the temperature gradient; the image appears as a distorted mixture of up and down parts. Since Earth is round, if their downward bending curvature of light rays is about the same as the curvature of the Earth, light rays can travel large distances, including from beyond the horizon.
This was observed and documented in 1596, when a ship in search of the Northeast passage became stuck in the ice at Novaya Zemlya, above the Arctic Circle. The Sun appeared to rise two weeks earlier than expected; this effect is called a Novaya Zemlya mirage. For every 111.12 kilometres the light rays can travel parallel to the Earth's surface, the Sun will appear 1° higher on the horizon. The inversion layer must have just the right temperature gradient over the whole distance to make this possible. In the same way, ships that are in reality so far away that they should not be visible above the geometric horizon may appear on the horizon or above the horizon as superior mirages; this may explain some stories about flying ships or coastal cities in the sky, as described by some polar explorers. These are exam
Arthur Swift was an English professional footballer who played in the Football League for Crystal Palace and West Bromwich Albion, as a forward. Swift was born in Hartlepool, England in 1892, he signed for West Bromwich Albion in 1913 and made his debut in a home 1–0 win against Preston North End on 3 January 2014. Between and 1920, he made 28 appearances in all competitions scoring 11 times, it is known. In 1920, Swift signed for Crystal Palace playing in the Football League Third Division in its inaugural season. However, after only one league appearance, in a 0–3 away defeat to Queens Park Rangers in December 1920, Swift retired from playing in 1921 to take up coaching duties. Swift died in 1954, aged 61 or 62. Swift at holmesdale.net
The former Breton and French diocese of Tréguier existed in Lower Brittany from about the sixth century, or to the French Revolution. Its see was in the modern department of Côtes-d'Armor; the title continues in the contemporary diocese of Tréguier. St. Tudgual, said to be the nephew of St. Brieuc, was a bishop who came to Brittany from overseas, was appointed by his uncle Brieuc at the close of the fifth century as superior of the monastery of Tréguier, which Tudual had founded; the biography of St. Tudual, composed after the middle of the ninth century, relates that Tudual, wishing to confirm his authority by royal approval, travelled to the court of King Childebert I, who ordered him consecrated Bishop of Tréguier. Louis Duchesne, argued that it was King Nomenoe who, in the middle of the ninth century, had the monastery of Tréguier raised to the dignity of an episcopal see. Numerous synods were held at Tréguier in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, passed regulations for the discipline of the Breton churches.
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