Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar Naval Auxiliary Air Station Miramar and Naval Air Station Miramar, is a United States Marine Corps installation, home to the 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, the aviation element of the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force. It is located in Miramar, San Diego, about 10 miles north of Downtown San Diego; the airfield is named Mitscher Field after Admiral M. A. Mitscher, the commander of Task Force 58 during World War II; the air station is the former location of Pacific Fleet fighter and Airborne Early Warning and Control aircraft and is best known as the former location of the United States Navy Fighter Weapons School, its TOPGUN training program and the movie of the same name. In 1996, NFWS was relocated to Naval Air Station Fallon in western Nevada and merged into the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center. During the heyday of TOPGUN at NAS Miramar, the station was nicknamed "Fightertown USA". Headquarters and Headquarters Squadron 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 3 Marine Aircraft Group 11 Marine Aircraft Group 16 Marine Air Control Group 38 Combat Logistics Company 11 Naval Consolidated Brig, Miramar The base contains 23,116 acres.
It is bisected by Kearny Villa Road and Interstate 15. The area east of Kearny Villa Road, called "East Miramar", is undeveloped and is used for military training. Kumeyaay Native Americans were the first inhabitants in the vicinity of the base. Spain claimed the San Diego area in 1542 and colonized it beginning in 1769. In 1846 the crown issued a land grant that included the area of the current base to Don Santiago Argüello. After the American Civil War, the land was divided and sold to people such as Edward Scripps, a newspaper publisher from the eastern United States, who developed a ranch on the site, it was Scripps who named the area Miramar, meaning "view of the sea". The land was predominantly used for farming into the early 20th century. During World War I, the U. S. Army acquired 12,721 acres of land on a mesa north of San Diego. Camp Kearny was opened on 18 January 1917 and was named after Stephen W. Kearny, commander of the Army of the West during the Mexican–American War; the base was used to train infantrymen on their way to the battlefields of Europe.
During World War I an airstrip was never built on the property, although Army and Navy aircraft from Naval Air Station North Island did land on the parade deck. Following the Armistice, the base was used to demobilize servicemen and was closed on 20 October 1920. More than 1,200 buildings were demolished. Charles Lindbergh's Spirit of St. Louis airplane was built in nearby San Diego. Lindbergh used the abandoned Camp Kearny parade field to practice landings and take-offs before making his historic solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. During the 1930s, the Navy used the air base for helium dirigibles. In 1932 a mooring mast and hangar were built at the camp for the dirigibles, but when the program was abandoned, the base was quiet again. By the time World War II began, Miramar was undergoing a “precautionary” renovation. Camp Holcomb was built on part of old Camp Kearny, to be used for Marine artillery and machine gun training. Camp Elliott became home to Fleet Marine Force Training Center, West Coast and the 2nd Marine Division, charged with defending the California coast.
Runways were constructed in 1940, the 1st Marine Air Wing arrived on December 21 of that year. The Navy commissioned Naval Auxiliary Air Station Camp Kearny in February 1943 to train crews for the Consolidated PB4Y-2 Privateer, built less than 10 miles away in San Diego. A month the Marines established Marine Corps Air Depot Camp Kearny renamed Marine Corps Air Depot Miramar, to avoid confusion with the Navy facility; the big Privateers proved too heavy for the asphalt concrete runway the Army had installed in 1936 and the longer runways built in 1940, so the Navy added two concrete runways in 1943. During the 1940s, both the Navy and the Marine Corps occupied Miramar. East Miramar was used to train Marine artillery and armored personnel, while Navy and Marine Corps pilots trained on the western side; the bases were combined and designated Marine Corps Air Station Miramar in 1946. In 1947, the Marines moved to MCAS El Toro in Orange County and Miramar was redesignated as NAAS Miramar, it became NAS Miramar on 1 March 1952.
In 1954, the Navy offered NAS Miramar to San Diego for $1 and the city considered using the base to relocate its airport. But it was deemed at the time to be too far away from most residents and the offer was declined. Only the western half of Miramar’s facilities were put to use, the old station began to deteriorate, with many buildings sold as scrap. Miramar found new life as a Navy Master Jet Station in the 1950s; the eastern half, former Camp Elliot, was used by the United States Air Force for Project Orion, by NASA. The base came into its own during the Vietnam War; the Navy needed a school to train pilots in fleet air defense. In 1969 the United States Navy Fighter Weapons School was established organizationally as part of VF-121, the F-4 Phantom Fleet Replacement Aviation Maintenance Personnel, which trained the maintainers who joined the fleet as qualified "Phantom Phixer's" In October 1972, Miramar welcomed the F-14 Tomcat and fighter squadro
Del Mar Mesa, San Diego
Del Mar Mesa is a semi-rural residential community of 2,042 acres located in northern San Diego, California. The majority of the community was developed in the 2000's. Over 900 acres is preserved open space protected habitat; the community has 10 miles of hiking and riding trails. Minimum lot size is half acre. Del Mar Mesa is a part of District 1, represented by Councilmember Barbara Bry on the San Diego City Council. A number of artifacts, including pottery dating back 9,000 to 10,000 years ago, were found in this community and are being studied by the San Diego Archaeological Center. Del Mar Mesa is bordered: to the north by Pacific Highlands Ranch. State Route 56 is north of this community. In the eastern part of the community, a large portion of land is conserved for open space under the City's Multiple Species Conservation Program. Eucalyptus groves in the community were planted around farmsteads in the 1800s. According to January 2006 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments, there were 525 people and 227 households residing in the neighborhood, which increased 1246.2% from 39 people in 2000.
The estimated racial makeup was 68.7% White, 15.2% Asian & Pacific Islander, 12.0% Hispanic, 4.0% from other races, 0.8% American Indian, 0.2% African American. The median age is 37.8 with 29.1% under the age of 18 and 9.3% over the age of 65. The estimated median household income was $139,630; the City of San Diego: Del Mar Mesa Community Profile SANDAG: Del Mar Mesa 2006 demographs SANDAG: Del Mar Mesa 2030 forecast demographs Friends of Del Mar Mesa Scout BSA Troop 667 Scout BSA Troop 1667
Miramare Castle is a 19th-century castle on the Gulf of Trieste near Trieste, northeastern Italy. It was built from 1856 to 1860 for Austrian Archduke Ferdinand Maximilian and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium Emperor Maximilian I and Empress Carlota of Mexico, based on a design by Carl Junker; the castle's grounds include an extensive cliff and seashore park of 22 hectares designed by the archduke. The grounds were re-landscaped to feature numerous tropical species of trees and plants. Miramare Castle and its park were built by order of Ferdinand Maximilian, of the House of Habsburg - younger brother of Franz Joseph, Emperor of Austria. In 1850, at the age of eighteen, Maximilian came to Trieste with his brother Charles and afterwards, he set off on a short cruise toward the Near East; this journey confirmed his intention to get to know the world. In 1852 he was appointed an officer and in 1854 he became Commander in Chief of the Imperial Navy, he decided to move to Trieste and to have a home built facing the sea and surrounded by a park worthy of his name and rank.
According to tradition, when the archduke was caught in a sudden storm in the Gulf, he took shelter in the little harbour of Grignano and he chose that bare rocky spur of limestone origin as the setting for his home. The whole complex, purchased for the first time at the beginning of March 1856, was called Miramar, after the name of Prince Ferdinand of Saxony’s residence in Pena, Portugal. Designed in 1856 by Carl Junker, an Austrian architect, the architectural structure of Miramare was finished in 1860; the style reflects the artistic interests of the archduke, acquainted with the eclectic architectural styles of Austria and England. The craftsman Franz Hofmann and his son, were entrusted with the furnishing and decorations. Hofmann, who worked in the city of Trieste, was a skilful artisan, willing to follow Maximilian’s suggestions. Both the artisan and his patron had a similar cultural formation and they were well acquainted with the eclectic tendencies of the time; the work supervised by Maximilian, was finished only after his departure in 1864 for Mexico.
Maximilian intended to create an intimate atmosphere in the castle in the area reserved for his family – an area which he wanted to be in contact with nature, reflecting both his own spirit and that of an epoch. On the ground floor, destined for the use of Maximilian and his wife, Charlotte of Belgium, worthy of note are the bedroom and the archduke’s office, which reproduce the cabin and the stern wardroom of the frigate Novara, the war-ship used by Maximilian when he was Commander of the Navy to circumnavigate the world between 1857 and 1859. All the rooms still feature the original furnishings, ornaments and objects dating back to the middle of the 19th century. Many coats of arms of the Second Mexican Empire decorate the castle, as well as stone ornamentations on the exterior depicting the Aztec eagle; the first floor includes the Throne Room. Of note are the magnificent panelling on the ceiling and walls and the Chinese and Japanese drawing-rooms with their oriental furnishings. Of particular interest is the room decorated with paintings by Cesare Dell’Acqua, portraying events in the life of Maximilian and the history of Miramare.
The rooms in the castle are arranged according to the original layout decided upon by the royal couple. A valuable photographic reportage commissioned by the archduke himself made accurate reconstruction possible. Nowadays to visit the castle is to experience the fascination of life in the middle of the 19th century in a residence that has remained intact and which gives the visitor an insight into the personality of Maximilian. After having been commissioned as an officer in the Imperial navy in 1852, Maximilian decided to move to Trieste where he stayed for longer and more frequent periods, he rented a villa on the slopes of the hill of San Vito from Niccolò Marco Lazarovich with a clause in the contract that allowed him to make all the modifications he considered necessary. Subsequently, during the completion of Miramare Castle, the archduke had a small castle called the Gartenhaus or Castelletto built which reproduced on a smaller scale the façade of the main castle and which he lived in off and on until Christmas 1860.
The Castelletto, situated in a panoramic area, faces Grignano on one side and on the other a parterre surrounded by trees and on a clearing in front of greenhouses at the centre of which there is a fountain. Modelled on eclectic forms on a square base with a terrace facing the castle, the tower and the arbour entrance, the Castelletto has a small number of furnished rooms. On the ground floor there is a decoration on plaster painted to resemble wood. On the first floor, on the other hand there is a decoration similar to the one in Villa Lazarovich which can be connected to Maximilian’s decision to transfer to the Castelletto his own part of the ornaments of the Villa, his first residence in Trieste. In fact, the rooms in Turkish and German styles and the room decorated with panels of female figures present strong parallels between the two buildings and highlight the artistic tendencies of the time: numerous decorations, walls covered in paintings, many ornaments, heavy curtains and rooms crowded with furniture.
The Castelletto is linked to the history of Charlotte. It was here that Charlotte stayed from the end of 1866 to
Torrey Pines, San Diego
Torrey Pines is a residential community of 2,600 acres in the northern coastal area of San Diego, California. Torrey Pines is bordered to the north by the city of Del Mar, to the south by La Jolla, to the east by Interstate 5, Carmel Valley, Torrey Hills, the Los Peñasquitos Canyon Reserve, Mira Mesa. 42 percent of the community is parks and open spaces, 24 percent is residential, 17 percent is transportation, 15 percent is industrial, 1 percent is schools, 1 percent is commercial. Del Mar Terraces and the Del Mar Heights are neighborhoods within this community. According to January 2013 estimates by the San Diego Association of Governments, there were 6,652 people and 2,889 households residing in the neighborhood; the estimated racial makeup was 81.5% White, 8.6% Asian & Pacific Islander, 5.7% Hispanic, 3.4% from other races, 0.8% African American, 0.1% American Indian. The median age is 46.6 with 20.4 % under the age of 21.7 % age 65 and older. The estimated median household income was $176,362.
The Del Mar Union School District serves two elementary schools in Del Mar Heights neighborhood, Del Mar Hills Academy and Del Mar Heights Elementary. "2050 Regional Growth Forecast: Torrey Pines Community Planning Area". San Diego Association of Governments. Archived from the original on 7 February 2012
Clairemont, San Diego
Clairemont is a community within the city of San Diego, United States. It has a population of about 81,600 residents and an area of 13.3 square miles. Clairemont Mesa is bordered by Interstate 805 on the east, Interstate 5 to the west, State Route 52 to the north, the community of Linda Vista to the south; the community of Clairemont Mesa can be subdivided into the neighborhoods of North Clairemont, Bay Ho, Clairemont Mesa East, Clairemont Mesa West, Bay Park. Developers Lou Burgener and Carlos Tavares named their community Clairemont after Tavares' wife, Claire; the Kumeyaay Indians came to the canyon area within Clairemont centuries ago in search of food and shelter. It was given the name Tecolote, after this native bird. Judge Hyde was one of the first settlers of Clairemont and began farming in Tecolote Canyon back in 1872. Farming and ranching continued in the area until World War II. In 1887 the Morena Subdivision was mapped; the 1,200-acre subdivision was bounded by streets that are known today as Morena Boulevard on the west, Milton Street on the south, Illion Street on the east, on the north by an east-west line 1,000 feet north of Gesner Street.
In 1887 a train depot was constructed in the vicinity of Kane Street and Morena Boulevard to accommodate potential buyers in the Morena Subdivision. It was torn down in the early 1920s. In 1936 the Bay Park Village Subdivision was approved by the City Council; this project, located south of Morena Subdivision and south of Milton Street featured 60 by 100 feet or larger lots for single-family homes. In 1939 Bay Park Elementary School was constructed at 2433 Denver Street. In 1950, Carlos Tavares and Lou Burgener developed what became San Diego's largest post-war subdivision. Dubbed "The Village Within a City", people started living in this new Clairemont subdivision in May 1951; the design of this new subdivision represented a new concept in community living because it did not incorporate the traditional grid system of uniform blocks and streets. Instead, winding streets and scenic view lots took advantage of the canyons and bluffs overlooking Mission Bay; the first homes, built by Burgener and Tavares Construction Company, had customized floor plans.
The developers assembled the necessary acreage to develop Clairemont from three primary land holdings: the Peavey Cattle Ranch, Mission Bay Heights, Tecolote Heights. Before any homes were built in the new development, Tavares & Burgener invested $125,000 in off-street improvements including sewers and access roads; the original subdivision map that used the name “Clairemont” for the first time was approved and recorded by the County of San Diego on October 16, 1950. The map was named "Clairemont Unit #1, Map #2725"; this is the area in Clairemont that includes Deerpark Drive, Burgener Boulevard, Grandview Street from Field Street to Jellett Street. According to Burgener, "Between 1952 & 1954, seven homes were constructed a day", it is noted that Clairemont was the largest development of its kind in the country. Within a few years, several thousand houses had been constructed, including single family homes and apartments. Since Clairemont was somewhat removed from the city proper, commercial business and retail shopping, schools and other city amenities were designed into the overall plan.
Although the concept of suburban living is commonplace today, this approach was considered novel. Tavares' vision for Clairemont had far-reaching implications for San Diego, as it stretched the city limits outward and began the now familiar pattern of migration from city to suburb. Marian Bear Memorial Park and Tecolote Canyon Natural Park were designated as parks by the City of San Diego in the 1960s and 1970s. Clairemont's main geographical characteristics include mesas and streams; the predominant topographical features are the rolling mesas which are separated by canyons. These mesas are. Tecolote Canyon runs north-south through the center of this community. San Clemente Canyon runs east-west. A stream runs through Tecolote Canyon. Trails extend through the bottom of the canyons for mountain biking; the soil in Clairemont is clay based. The native vegetation includes short brush and cactus. Wildlife in the canyons includes coyotes, feral parrots, owls. Many neighborhoods have views of Mission Bay and the Pacific Ocean on the west, Fortuna Mountain and Cowles Mountain to the east.
Neighborhoods along Tecolote Canyon have views of this preserved open space canyon system. Tecolote Canyon Natural Park - Tecolote Canyon runs through the community of Clairemont Mesa and was dedicated by the City of San Diego as Tecolote Canyon Natural Park in 1977; this park is about 903 acres and is six miles long. There are multiple entrances to park throughout the community. Marian Bear Memorial Park - Also known as San Clemente Canyon, it was renamed to Marian Bear Memorial Park by the City of San Diego in 1960. Marian Park is 467 acres and runs parallel to the south side of the 52 freeway; the main entrances to the park are off of Genesee Avenue. Both of these entrances provide public parking and picnic benches. Tecolote Golf Course - This 18-hole 3,161-yard g
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
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Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies immediately south and east of the city, it is located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres south. Trieste is located at the head of the Gulf of Trieste and throughout history it has been influenced by its location at the crossroads of Latin and Germanic cultures. In 2018, it had a population of about 205,000 and it is the capital of the autonomous region Friuli-Venezia Giulia; the metropolitan population of Trieste is 410,000, with the city comprising about 240,000 inhabitants. Trieste was one of the oldest parts of the Habsburg Monarchy, belonging to it from 1382 until 1918. In the 19th century the monarchy was one of the Great Powers of Europe and Trieste was its most important seaport; as a prosperous seaport in the Mediterranean region, Trieste became the fourth largest city of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. In the fin de siècle period at the end of the 19th century it emerged as an important hub for literature and music.
Trieste underwent an economic revival during the 1930s, Trieste was an important spot in the struggle between the Eastern and Western blocs after the Second World War. The original pre-Roman name of the city, with the -est- suffix typical of Illyrian, is speculated to be derived from a hypothetical Venetic word *terg- "market", etymologically related to Old Church Slavonic tьrgъ "market". Roman authors transliterated the name as Tergestum. Modern names of the city include: Italian: Trieste, Slovene: Trst, German: Triest, Hungarian: Trieszt, Croatian: Trst, Serbian: Трст/Trst, Greek: Τεργέστη/Tergesti and Czech: Terst. Trieste lies in the northernmost part of the high Adriatic in northeastern Italy, near the border with Slovenia; the city lies on the Gulf of Trieste. Built on a hillside that becomes a mountain, Trieste's urban territory lies at the foot of an imposing escarpment that comes down abruptly from the Karst Plateau towards the sea; the karst landforms close to the city reach an elevation of 458 metres above sea level.
It lies on the borders of the Italian geographical region, the Balkan Peninsula, the Mitteleuropa. The territory of Trieste is composed of several different climate zones depending on the distance from the sea and elevation; the average temperatures are 24.1 °C in July. The climatic setting of the city is humid subtropical climate. On average, humidity levels are pleasantly low, while only two months receive less than 60 mm of precipitation. Trieste along with the Istrian peninsula has evenly distributed rainfall above 1,000 mm in total. Snow occurs on average 0 – 2 days per year. Temperatures are mild—lows below zero are somewhat rare and highs above 30 °C aren't as common as in other parts of Italy. Winter maxima are lower than with quite high minima. Two basic weather patterns interchange—sunny, sometimes windy but very cold days connected to an occurrence of northeast wind called Bora as well as rainy days with temperatures about 6 to 11 °C. Summer is warm with maxima about 28 °C and lows above 20 °C, with the hot nights being influenced by the warm sea water.
The absolute maximum of the last 30 years is 38.0 °C in 2003, whereas the absolute minimum is −7.9 °C in 1996. The Trieste area is divided into 8a–10a zones according to USDA hardiness zoning; the climate can be affected by the Bora, a dry and cool north-to-northeast katabatic wind that can last for some days and reach speeds of up to 140 km/h on the piers of the port, thus sometimes bringing subzero temperatures to the entire city. Trieste is administratively divided in seven districts: Altipiano Ovest: Borgo San Nazario · Contovello · Prosecco · Santa Croce Altipiano Est: Banne · Basovizza · Gropada · Opicina · Padriciano · Trebiciano Barcola · Cologna · Conconello · Gretta · Grignano · Guardiella · Miramare · Roiano · Scorcola Barriera Nuova · Borgo Giuseppino · Borgo Teresiano · Città Nuova · Città Vecchia · San Vito · San Giusto · Campi Elisi · Sant'Andrea · Cavana Barriera Vecchia · San Giacomo · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore Cattinara · Chiadino · San Luigi · Guardiella · Longera · San Giovanni · Rozzol · Melara Chiarbola · Coloncovez · Santa Maria Maddalena Inferiore · Raute · Santa Maria Maddalena Superiore · Servola · Poggi Paese · Poggi Sant'Anna · Valmaura · Altura · Borgo San SergioThe iconic city center is Piazza Unità d'Italia, between the large 19th-century avenues and the old medieval city, composed of many narrow and crooked streets.
Since the second millennium BC, the location was an inhabited site. An Illy