In the United States, the Miranda warning is a type of notification customarily given by police to criminal suspects in police custody advising them of their right to silence. These rights are referred to as Miranda rights; the purpose of such notification is to preserve the admissibility of their statements made during custodial interrogation in criminal proceedings. The language used in a Miranda warning is derived from the 1966 U. S. Supreme Court case Miranda v. Arizona, 384 US 436; the specific language used in the warning varies between jurisdictions, but the warning is deemed adequate as long as the defendant's rights are properly disclosed such that any waiver of those rights by the defendant is knowing and intelligent. For example, the warning may be phrased. Anything you say can be used against you in court. You have the right to talk to a lawyer for advice. You have the right to have a lawyer with you during questioning. If you can not afford a lawyer, one will be appointed for you before any questioning.
If you decide to answer questions now without a lawyer present, you have the right to stop answering at any time. The Miranda warning is part of a preventive criminal procedure rule that law enforcement are required to administer to protect an individual, in custody and subject to direct questioning or its functional equivalent from a violation of their Fifth Amendment right against compelled self-incrimination. In Miranda v. Arizona, the Supreme Court held that the admission of an elicited incriminating statement by a suspect not informed of these rights violates the Fifth Amendment and the Sixth Amendment right to counsel, through the incorporation of these rights into state law. Thus, if law enforcement officials decline to offer a Miranda warning to an individual in their custody, they may interrogate that person and act upon the knowledge gained, but may not use that person's statements as evidence against them in a criminal trial; the concept of "Miranda rights" was enshrined in U. S. law following the 1966 Miranda v. Arizona Supreme Court decision, which found that the Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights of Ernesto Arturo Miranda had been violated during his arrest and trial for armed robbery and rape of a mentally handicapped young woman.
Miranda was subsequently retried and convicted, based on his estranged ex-partner, tracked down by the original arresting officer via Miranda's own parents claiming that Miranda had confessed to her when she had visited him in jail. The circumstances triggering the Miranda safeguards, i.e. Miranda rights, are "custody" and "interrogation". Custody means formal arrest or the deprivation of freedom to an extent associated with formal arrest. Interrogation means explicit questioning or actions that are reasonably to elicit an incriminating response; the Supreme Court did not specify the exact wording to use. However, the Court did create a set of guidelines; the ruling states:... The person in custody must, prior to interrogation, be informed that he/she has the right to remain silent, that anything the person says will be used against that person in court. In Berkemer v. McCarty, the Supreme Court decided that a person subjected to custodial interrogation is entitled to the benefit of the procedural safeguards enunciated in Miranda, regardless of the nature or severity of the offense of which they are suspected or for which they were arrested.
As a result, American English developed the verb Mirandize, meaning "read the Miranda rights to" a suspect. Notably, the Miranda rights do not have to be read in any particular order, they do not have to match the language of the Miranda case as long as they are adequately and conveyed. In Berghuis v. Thompkins, the Supreme Court held that unless a suspect expressly states that they are invoking this right, subsequent voluntary statements made to an officer can be used against them in court, police can continue to interact with the alleged criminal; every U. S. jurisdiction has its own regulations regarding what must be said to a person arrested or placed in a custodial situation. The typical warning states: You have the right to remain silent and refuse to answer questions. Anything you say may be used against you in a court of law. You have the right to consult an attorney before speaking to the police and to have an attorney present during questioning now or in the future. If you can not afford an attorney, one will be appointed for you before any questioning.
If you decide to answer questions now without an attorney present, you will still have the right to stop answering at any time until you talk to an attorney. Knowing and understanding your rights as I have explained them to you, are you willing to answer my questions without an attorney present? The courts have since ruled that the warning must be "meaningful", so it is required that the suspect be asked if they understand their rights. Sometimes, firm answers of "yes" are required; some departments and jurisdictions require that an officer ask "do you understand?" after every sentence in the warning
Palmers Green is a suburban area of the London Borough of Enfield in north London, England. It is located within the N13 postcode district, around 8 miles north of Charing Cross, it is home to the largest population of Greek Cypriots outside Cyprus and is nicknamed "Little Cyprus" or "Palmers Greek". Recorded as Palmers grene 1608,'village green associated with a family called Palmer', from the Middle English grene. Palmers Green was once a tiny hamlet in the parish of Edmonton, situated at the junction of Green Lanes and Fox Lane, its population was small, there were no more than a few isolated houses in the mid-17th century. Local records mention a Palmers Field in 1204 and a Palmers Grove in 1340. Palmers Green is mentioned as a highway in 1324. By 1801 the area had grown to a village including two inns. In 1871 the railway line from Wood Green to Enfield was opened and a station was built in Aldermans Hill to serve Palmers Green; the area remained undeveloped for thirty more years, as local landowners refused to sell their large estates for building.
In 1902, large tracts of land were sold for building and the area began to develop rapidly. The first large-scale developments were on the Old Park estate between Fox Lane and Aldermans Hill, the Hazelwood Park Estate between Hazelwood Lane and Hedge Lane. Within the latter development the building that now serves as Hazelwood Infant School and Hazelwood Junior School was built in Hazelwood Lane in 1908. Notable local buildings include Truro House; the former Southgate Town Hall is now flats. The former Pilgrims Rest has been demolished for housing; the Fox public house, in its present guise since 1904, was once the site of the Electric Mouse comedy venue. The poet and novelist Stevie Smith lived in Palmers Green from 1905 until her death in 1971; that same year Joe Strummer shared a flat at 18 Ash Grove with several others. Paul Scott, the author of The Jewel in the Crown, was born in Palmers Green on 25 March 1920. Victoria Cross recipient Alfred Herring lived locally. Local author Douglas Hill was killed by a bus on a zebra crossing at The Triangle in 2007.
The Intimate Theatre was opened in a building, built in 1931 as St Monica's Church Hall. Among the actors who performed there were Richard Attenborough, Vivien Leigh, Roger Moore and David Bowie, it is no longer a repertory theatre and the building is no longer used for theatrical performances, but it is still referred to as the Intimate Theatre. In 1992 the building housed a Radio Cracker studio. In 1988 Palmers Green's only hospital, Greentrees Hospital, was demolished. There is a parade of shops known as Palmers Green Shopping Centre along Green Lanes, with many restaurants, clothing shops, independently owned cafes, beauty salons, branches of Superdrug, Boots UK, Morrisons. Broomfield House, in Broomfield Park, remains a burnt-out shell despite numerous redevelopment proposals and an appearance on the BBC2 programme Restoration; the Conservatory in the park has reopened after a refurbishment. Palmers Green railway station car park is the location of a Sunday farmers' market and of the Waiting Rooms cafe, which hosts live blues music on a Friday evening with performers including "Mad Dog" Dave Barnes and Graham Hine, guitarist of Brett Marvin and the Thunderbolts.
There is a small platform coffee counter and art exhibitions are held in a second waiting room. After more than 20 years of discussion, the North Circular A406 was widened to two lanes each way at Bounds Green, with various junction improvements; some major congestion still exists on the A406. Continuous segregated cycle lanes, junction improvements and rearranged on-street parking on and around Green Lanes have been created by Enfield Council following a successful bid for Mini Holland funding from the Mayor of London via TfL; the lanes extend as far south as the A406. The aim is to encourage more commuter, school journeys and leisure cycling than was possible under the previous road layout, which combined four lane sections subject to speeding and other dangers to cyclists. Less than one year into their full opening, automated cycle counts at September 2018 suggest 10-12k trips by bike per month within Palmers Green. Public access to the New River canal has been improved with waterside paths and access gates.
According to the 2011 census, 64% of the ward's population is white. 6% was Indian and 5% of'Any other ethnic group'. The main foreign languages are Turkish, spoken by 795 people, Greek, spoken by 605. Green Lanes, the high street of Palmers Green, is featured in the "Knight Bus" sequence in the film Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban. Palmers Green is mentioned in Jona Lewie's song "You'll Always Find Me in the Kitchen at Parties"; the song's lyrics were written by Lewie's friend Keef Trouble, a fellow member of Brett Marvin and the Thunderbolts. The reference to Palmers Green was prompted by the fact that Trouble had split up with his girlfriend and was at a party thrown by his friend Charles "Charlie Farley" Hallinan near The Fox public house in Palmers Green. Jona Lewie amended the words, but still mentioned the "do in Palmers Green". In his second autobiographical book, “Snakes and Ladders”, Dirk Bogarde writes of joining the army at the same time as a man he refers to as
The Neshoba County School District is a public school district based in Neshoba County, Mississippi. The district does not includes the communities of Pearl River and Tucker, the Neshoba County portion of Bogue Chitto, which are owned and operated by the sovereign nation of the Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians. Prior to 1970, a dual system of schools was maintained: one system for white students, another for non-whites. In the late 1920s, the first school for black children in Philadelphia, the Neshoba County School met in the Black Masonic Lodge on the east side of the railroad track along Rea Street. In 1939 the Rosenwald foundation assisted in financing a new school, renamed the Neshoba County Training School. In 1948 a new building was adopted the name Booker T. Washington School; this school closed when the schools were integrated in 1970. In 1928, a group of black farmers organized a club to build the first black high school, on country road 553 in Hopewell; each of the black families donated an acre of cotton, R.
H. Molpus a lumber dealer, obtained materials; the white county agent supervised the cotton project to ensure consistency. Additional funds were provided by the Rosenwald Foundation. In 1929, a Jeanes teacher from the Negro Rural School Fund arrived. In 1936 funds were obtained by the county to expand the school to 8 months a year. In 1963, the Hopewell School was replaced by the county with a single high school for all black children in the county, named George Washington Carver High School. In 1965, Thelma Moore became the first black student to attend Neshoba County High School. After one year, she returned to George Washington Carver High School because of the difficulties faced in attending an integrated school. In 1970, due to federally mandated integration, the school was closed and the black students attended Neshoba Central High School alongside white students. Neshoba Central High School Neshoba Central Middle School Neshoba Central Elementary School There were a total of 3,079 students enrolled in the Neshoba County School District during the 2006-2007 school year.
The gender makeup of the district was 49 % male. The racial makeup of the district was 20.88% African American, 69.28% White, 8.77% Native American, 0.75% Hispanic, 0.32% Asian. 45.6% of the district's students were eligible to receive free lunch. List of school districts in Mississippi Neshoba County School District
Warragamba is a town in New South Wales, Australia, in Wollondilly Shire. Located on the eastern edge of the Blue Mountains, Warragamba is one and a half hour's drive west of Sydney; the name Warragamba comes from the aboriginal words Warra and Gamba meaning water running over rocks. In 1804, George William Evans became the first white man to discover the Warragamba River, penetrating upstream to the present site of Warragamba Dam. However, for Indigenous peoples, the river and the valley were an integral part of daily life, remain today a significant place of cultural heritage. Constructed as a workers' settlement during the construction of Warragamba Dam, Sydney's primary water source, in the 1940s the modern town of Warragamba remains on the same site adjacent the dam; the town was built from scratch, including homes, shops and other facilities. On completion of the dam being built many workers bought their homes from the Water Board and stayed on in the township. Warragamba Public School celebrated its fiftieth anniversary in September 1998 despite the fact it was to be demolished after the completion of Warragamba Dam in the 1960s.
Warragamba is unusual for an Australian town, as the streets do not have typical names, but are numbered. Ongoing dam works have reduced weekend visitors; the town lost 30 homes and businesses in the 2001 Warragamba bushfires. It was home to African Lion Safari until 1991. A new Warragamba Dam Visitor Centre and Haviland Park are becoming a popular tourist attractions thanks in part to the excellent picnic facilities. Lake Burragorang Warragamba Dam has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: Coxs River Arms: Coxs River track Warragamba DamWarragamba Dam: Megarritys Bridge Warragamba Dam: Warragamba Dam - Haviland Park At the 2016 census, Warragamba had a population of 1,241. 85.4% of people were born in Australia and 92.4% of people only spoke English at home. The most common responses for religion were Catholic 31.8%, Anglican 26.4% and No Religion 25.6%. Warragamba Website – Local and Tourist Information Warragamba weather info – Local weather station
Alexandra Uteev "Alix" Johnson was a United States Foreign Service Officer from 1972 to 1979. She is notable for the controversy that arose in 1979 over two reports that she wrote alleging that Israeli authorities systematically used physical abuse to interrogate Palestinian detainees. Born in Sacramento, Johnson graduated from the University of California, Davis with a degree in history in 1967 and received an M. A. in political science from the University of California, Los Angeles in 1970. As a Foreign Service Officer she worked as an analyst in the Department of State's Bureau of Intelligence and Research specializing in Soviet relations with Arab countries, she received Arabic language training from 1975 to 1977 in Beirut and Tunis and was assigned in February 1977 to the United States Consulate General in Jerusalem as vice-consul and post visa officer. In her work as a visa officer Johnson investigated 29 "visa security cases" involving Palestinians seeking entry into the United States, convicted by Israeli military courts of being members of illegal organizations, including the Palestine Liberation Organization.
Individuals found to be terrorists would be barred by law from entering the United States. According to Johnson, all 29 individuals she interviewed gave similar accounts of being beaten or tortured by Israeli interrogators. In May 1978, Johnson's superiors at the consulate approved her draft of a cable to the Department of State describing the abusive interrogation methods that her interviewees claimed that Israeli authorities had used, including "beating with sticks and whips, prolonged immersion in cold water, hanging by the hands and sexual sadism." Classified "confidential," the cable was designated "Jerusalem 1500." It was followed in November by "Jerusalem 3239," classified "secret," in which Johnson concluded that physical mistreatment of Arab detainees in the West Bank was a "systematic practice" of Israeli authorities. Returning to Washington in January 1979, Johnson was denied promotion, which led to her automatic dismissal from the Foreign Service for not achieving promotion within her mandatory six-year "probationary" period as a junior officer.
Johnson told The New York Times that she believed her human rights reporting was what led to her dismissal, a charge that the Department of State denied. On February 7, 1979, The Washington Post published a story about Johnson's cables, indicating that they had influenced the Department of State's decision to describe Israeli abuse of Arab detainees as a "systematic practice" in its annual human rights country report on Israel sent to Congress a few days earlier. Time magazine reported that Israel's security agency Shin Bet, with the approval of Federal Bureau of Investigation attachés at the United States Embassy in Tel Aviv, had put Johnson under surveillance and wiretapped her telephone while she was still posted to Jerusalem. In a cable to the American Embassy in Tel Aviv and the American Consulate General in Jerusalem, the Department of State denied that American authorities had either received or consented to such a request. Time reported Shin Bet's allegations that Johnson was involved with terrorists.
Johnson was engaged to be married to one of the alleged torture victims whom she interviewed for her reports. Explaining the relationship to The New York Times, Johnson said that after the man received his visa and went to the United States, he wrote her a letter proposing marriage and that she accepted after visiting him in Chicago in 1978. Johnson said that she broke off the engagement after a few weeks and had not had any contact with her former fiancé since then; the Israeli embassy in Washington, D. C. "categorically denied" the allegations in Johnson's cables. Following the controversy over her cables, Johnson became a court reporter and professional genealogist, she died in Enid, Oklahoma, in 2002. Johnson, Alexandra U.. Israeli Torture of Palestinian Political Prisoners in Jerusalem and the West Bank: Three State Department Reports. Public Affairs Series No. 14. New York: Americans for Middle East Understanding. OCLC 006311020. Johnson, Alexandra Uteev. A Union Soldier's Story, Crafting your Ancestor's Military Biography: With a Sample Biography & Regimental History of 2nd U.
S. Reserve Corps of Missouri. Enid, OK: Alexandra Johnson Court Reporting Service. OCLC 49631023. Retrieved November 2, 2013. Johnson, Alexandra Uteev. Watrous, Waters Family Bibles. Enid, OK: A. U. Johnson. OCLC 46947540. Johnson, Alexandra Uteev. Preliminary Census History of Walter Watrus and His Descendants: With Additional Documents. Enid, OK: Alexandra U. Johnson. OCLC 732906243. Johnson, Alexandra Uteev. Sallie Peacheater Tent 18. Another Album of Ancestors. Oklahoma City, OK: Oklahoma Historical Society. OCLC 52425650
New Orleans Emergency Medical Services is the primary provider of advanced life support emergency medical services to the city of New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. Mission Statement: To provide the highest quality pre-hospital emergency care to individuals living in and visiting New Orleans; as public servants, our sense of purpose will be reflected in our time sensitive, medically sound and respectful, compassionate delivery of professional emergency medical services. Emergency medical transportation began in the city of New Orleans with hospital-based horse-drawn ambulances in the early 1900s. Charity Hospital was one of the first hospitals in the nation to provide emergency medical transportation; the current EMS agency began in 1947 as the EMS division within the New Orleans Police Department. The ambulances were staffed with emergency medical technicians beginning in the 1960s, the first paramedics started in 1979; the EMS division was transferred from the police department to the New Orleans Health Department on July 1, 1985.
After Hurricane Katrina, the management of New Orleans EMS was changed to the New Orleans Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness. The department still resides within the health department financially, but the Office of Homeland Security and Emergency Preparedness provides administrative oversight; the Directors of New Orleans EMS are listed as follows: New Orleans EMS operates on a four shift rotation schedule and schedules swing units as necessary. On each shift there is a shift supervisor, responsible for the operations of that shift. Within the administrative staff, several positions are utilized to offer administrative support and assistance, guidance to the field personnel. New Orleans EMS sponsors a fellowship in prehospital emergency medical services, recognized by the American College of Emergency Physicians. New Orleans EMS, as the sole provider of 911 emergency medical services in the City of New Orleans, is responsible for the provision of medical care at several major events every year.
To adequately cover these special events and provide medical coverage to all areas of the city, New Orleans EMS relies on several types of specialized response vehicles and trained emergency medical technicians and paramedics. The New Orleans EMS Bike Team consists of pairs of emergency medical technicians and paramedics who have taken the International Police Mountain Bike Association course for Emergency Medical Services; the bike teams are utilized at outdoor festivals, music events, extensively throughout the French Quarter. The bike teams carry an automated external defibrillator, cardiac monitoring equipment, all the medications and supplies necessary for any medical or traumatic complaint. New Orleans EMS operates three special response vehicles at various times; these vehicles consist of one modified John Deere Gator and two Alternative Support Apparatus Off-Road specialty vehicles. Both the Gator and the ASAP are used to extract sick or injured patients from areas with limited accessibility or large crowds.
The Gator and ASAP are used in parks, along parade routes, in the area around the Louisiana Superdome, in the French Quarter where narrow streets and large crowds can make it difficult for full sized ambulances to maneuver. The SRVs are equipped with all the equipment found on a full-size ambulance and can transport a patient from the confined area to an aid station or transfer care to a waiting ambulance for transport to a hospital. In February, 2010, New Orleans EMS acquired a medical ambulance bus from Inc.. The MAB was named Emergency Medical Surge Unit -1 and has the capacity to transport 18 patients on stretchers and litters and 2 wheelchair patients, as well as six emergency medical technicians or paramedics. EMSU-1 was introduced to the public during the New Orleans Saints Super Bowl XLIV Championship Parade on Tuesday, February 9, 2010. EMSU-1 saw extensive use as an on site treatment unit in support of the Rock'n' Roll Mardi Gras Marathon, serving to expand the ability and capacity of New Orleans EMS, allowing on site delivery of acute medical care by emergency physicians and personnel.
Led by Elizabeth Belcher, the Community Outreach Program of New Orleans EMS is focused on "preventative health and safety education for the citizens of Orleans parish. The overall goal is to develop and implement interactive programs to aid in the mission of saving lives. New Orleans EMS believes that prevention is key in this mission, strives to supply the public with the knowledge and tools necessary to stay safe and healthy."The Community Outreach Program teaches children safety and awareness through the T. A. S. K in child care centers and community centers; the Community Outreach Program is developing a program to target senior citizens and those with limited mobility and provide education and resources regarding environmental modification and fall prevention. Emergency medical technicians and paramedics with New Orleans EMS mentor local students, teach public cardiopulmonary resuscitation and first aid classes. New Orleans EMS Official Website