Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway
The Lancashire and Yorkshire Railway was a major British railway company before the 1923 Grouping. It was incorporated in 1847 from an amalgamation of several existing railways, it was the third-largest railway system based in Northern England. The intensity of its service was reflected in the 1,650 locomotives it owned – it was by far the most densely trafficked system in the British Isles with more locomotives per mile than any other company – and that one third of its 738 signal boxes controlled junctions averaging one every 3.5 miles. No two adjacent stations were more than 5.5 miles apart and its 1,904 passenger services occupied 57 pages in Bradshaw, a number exceeded only by the Great Western Railway, the London and North Western Railway, the Midland Railway. It was the first mainline railway to introduce electrification of some of its lines, it ran steamboat services across the Irish Sea and North Sea, being a bigger shipowner than any other British railway company, it amalgamated with the London and North Western Railway on 1 January 1922.
One year the merged company became the largest constituent of the London and Scottish Railway. The L&YR was incorporated in 1847, being an amalgamation of several important lines, the chief of, the Manchester and Leeds Railway; the following companies, in order, were amalgamated into the L&YR. The dates shown are, in most cases, the Acts of Parliament authorising the incorporation and amalgamation of each company. In a few instances the effective date is used. Manchester and Leeds Railway, 4 July 1836 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Bury Canal Navigation and Railway, 23 August 1831 – 18 July 1846 Huddersfield and Sheffield Junction Railway, 30 June 1845 – 27 July 1846, now the Penistone Line. Liverpool and Bury Railway, 31 July 1845 – 27 July 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Dock Company, 1 July 1839 – 3 August 1846 Preston and Wyre Railway and Harbour Company, 3 July 1835 – 1 July 1839 West Riding Union Railway, 18 August 1846 – 17 November 1846 West Yorkshire Railway, 1845 – 18 August 1846 Leeds and West Riding Junction Railway,?
– 18 August 1846 Ashton and Liverpool Junction Railway, 19 July 1844 – 9 July 1847 Wakefield and Goole Railway, 31 July 1845 – 9 July 1847 Manchester and Southport Railway, 22 July 1847 – 3 July 1854 Liverpool and Southport Railway, 2 July 1847 – 14 June 1855 Blackburn Railway, 24 July 1851 – 12 July 1858 Bolton, Blackburn and West Yorkshire Railway, 9 July 1847 – 24 July 1851 Blackburn and Bolton Railway, 30 June 1845 – 9 July 1847 Blackburn and North Western Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 9 July 1847 Sheffield, Barnsley, Wakefield and Goole Railway, 7 August 1846 – 2 August 1858 East Lancashire Railway, 21 July 1845 – 13 May 1859 Manchester and Rossendale Railway, 4 July 1844 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn, Burnley and Colne Extension Railway, 30 June 1845 – 21 July 1845 Blackburn and Preston Railway, 6 June 1844 – 3 August 1846 Liverpool and Preston Railway, 18 August 1846 – October 1846 Fleetwood and West Riding Junction Railway, 27 July 1846 – 17 June 1866 Preston and Longridge Railway, 14 July 1836 – 23 June 1856 Blackpool and Lytham Railway, 17 May 1861 – 29 June 1871 Lancashire Union Railway, 25 July 1864 – 16 July 1883 North Union Railway, 22 May 1834 – 26 July 1889 Wigan Branch Railway, 29 May 1830 – 22 May 1834 Preston and Wigan Railway, 22 April 1831 – 22 May 1834 Bolton and Preston Railway, 15 June 1837 – 10 May 1844 Bury and Tottington District Railway, 2 August 1877 – 24 July 1888 West Lancashire Railway, 14 August 1871 – 15 July 1897 Liverpool and Preston Junction Railway, 7 August 1884 – 15 July 1897 The system consisted of many branches and alternative routes, so that it is not easy to determine the location of its main line.
For working purposes the railway was split into three divisions: Western Division: Manchester to Blackpool and Fleetwood. It included the connection to the LNWR at Stockport for through traffic to London. Eastern Division: Todmorden to Halifax, Leeds, Wakefield, Normanton and Doncaster. Whereas there were various lines between the Central and Western Divisions there was only one route between the Eastern and Central Divisions; this line cut through the Pennines between Lancashire and Yorkshire using a number of long tunnels, the longest of, Summit Tunnel near Rochdale. There were six other tunnels each more than 1,000 yards long. Victoria railway station was one of the largest railway stations in the country at the time, was the first of four stations to be named Victoria, pre-dating those in London and Nottingham, it had 17 platforms with a total length of 9,332 feet. After the grouping, a structural change led No. 11 platform to run through and join with No. 3 platform in the adjacent Manchester Exchange railway station, at 2,238 feet between ramps becoming the longest railway platform in Britain.
The station capacity has been reduced to two platforms for Metrolink trams, two bay platforms, four through platforms under the Manchester Evening News Arena, which now replaces a significant area once occupied by the station. The main facade and station building of
Leeds is a city in West Yorkshire, England. Leeds has one of the most diverse economies of all the UK's main employment centres and has seen the fastest rate of private-sector jobs growth of any UK city, it has the highest ratio of private to public sector jobs of all the UK's Core Cities, with 77% of its workforce working in the private sector. Leeds has the third-largest jobs total by local authority area, with 480,000 in employment and self-employment at the beginning of 2015. Leeds is ranked as a gamma world city by World Cities Research Network. Leeds is the cultural and commercial heart of the West Yorkshire Urban Area. Leeds is served by four universities, has the fourth largest student population in the country and the country's fourth largest urban economy. Leeds was a small manorial borough in the 13th century, in the 17th and 18th centuries it became a major centre for the production and trading of wool, in the Industrial Revolution a major mill town. From being a market town in the valley of the River Aire in the 16th century, Leeds expanded and absorbed the surrounding villages to become a populous urban centre by the mid-20th century.
It now lies within the West Yorkshire Urban Area, the United Kingdom's fourth-most populous urban area, with a population of 2.6 million. Today, Leeds has become the largest legal and financial centre, outside London with the financial and insurance services industry worth £13 billion to the city's economy; the finance and business service sector account for 38% of total output with more than 30 national and international banks located in the city, including an office of the Bank of England. Leeds is the UK's third-largest manufacturing centre with around 1,800 firms and 39,000 employees, Leeds manufacturing firms account for 8.8% of total employment in the city and is worth over £7 billion to the local economy. The largest sub-sectors are engineering and publishing, food and drink and medical technology. Other key sectors include retail and the visitor economy and the creative and digital industries; the city saw several firsts, including the oldest-surviving film in existence, Roundhay Garden Scene, the 1767 invention of soda water.
Public transport and road communications networks in the region are focused on Leeds, the second phase of High Speed 2 will connect it to London via East Midlands Hub and Sheffield Meadowhall. Leeds has the third busiest railway station and the tenth busiest airport outside London; the name derives from the old Brythonic word Ladenses meaning "people of the fast-flowing river", in reference to the River Aire that flows through the city. This name referred to the forested area covering most of the Brythonic kingdom of Elmet, which existed during the 5th century into the early 7th century. Bede states in the fourteenth chapter of his Ecclesiastical History, in a discussion of an altar surviving from a church erected by Edwin of Northumbria, that it is located in...regione quae vocatur Loidis. An inhabitant of Leeds is locally known as a word of uncertain origin; the term Leodensian is used, from the city's Latin name. The name has been explained as a derivative of Welsh lloed, meaning "a place".
Leeds developed as a market town in the Middle Ages as part of the local agricultural economy. Before the Industrial Revolution, it became a co-ordination centre for the manufacture of woollen cloth, white broadcloth was traded at its White Cloth Hall. Leeds handled one sixth of England's export trade in 1770. Growth in textiles, was accelerated by the building of the Aire and Calder Navigation in 1699 and the Leeds and Liverpool Canal in 1816. In the late Georgian era, William Lupton, Lord of the Manor of Leeds, was one of a number of central Leeds landowners with the mesne lord title, some of whom, like him, were textile manufacturers. At the time of his death in 1828, Lupton's land in Briggate in central Leeds included a mill, manor house and outbuildings; the railway network constructed around Leeds, starting with the Leeds and Selby Railway in 1834, provided improved communications with national markets and for its development, an east-west connection with Manchester and the ports of Liverpool and Hull giving improved access to international markets.
Alongside technological advances and industrial expansion, Leeds retained an interest in trading in agricultural commodities, with the Corn Exchange opening in 1864. Marshall's Mill was one of the first of many factories constructed in Leeds from around 1790 when the most significant were woollen finishing and flax mills. Manufacturing diversified by 1914 to printing, engineering and clothing manufacture. Decline in manufacturing during the 1930s was temporarily reversed by a switch to producing military uniforms and munitions during World War II. However, by the 1970s, the clothing industry was in irreversible decline, facing cheap foreign competition; the contemporary economy has been shaped by Leeds City Council's vision of building a'24-hour European city' and'capital of the north'. The city has developed from the decay of the post-industrial era to become a telephone banking centre, connected to the electronic infrastructure of the modern global economy. There has been growth in the corporate and legal sectors, increased local affluence has led to an expanding retail sector, including the luxury goods market.
Leeds City Region Enterprise Zone was launched in April 2012 to promote development in four sites along the A63 East Leeds Link Road. Leeds was a manor and townshi
Northern (train operating company)
Northern is a train operating company in Northern England. A subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, it began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. Central to franchise commitments will be the introduction of 101 new-built units – the Class 195 and 331; these will be the first new-build trains for the Northern franchise since the introduction of the Class 333 in 2000 and the new rolling stock will enable all 102 Pacer trains in service with Northern to be retired by the end of 2019. Additionally, it is planned that a franchise sub-brand, known as Northern Connect, will provide inter-urban services between major cities and towns in Northern England, as well as serving a number of major commuting stations; however since the franchise began in April 2016, it has been beset by falling punctuality, poor customer service, regular industrial action by staff and delays in introducing new rolling stock due to issues encountered during testing.
Despite passenger growth at the vast majority of train operating companies in the United Kingdom and the Northern franchise operating more services, the number of passengers carried since the franchise commenced in 2016 has declined and has been attributed to worsening performance. The franchise will run to 2025 with an option for an additional year, dependent on performance. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced that Abellio and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next Northern franchise; the franchise was awarded to Arriva in December 2015. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority launched an investigation into the transport department's decision to award the Northern network to Arriva. Arriva operated the CrossCountry franchise and owned many bus companies in the Northern trains operating area in which'a significant overlap occurs without competition from other service providers.'In April 2018, a penalty fare scheme under the Railways Regulations 2018 commenced to encourage passengers to purchase a ticket before boarding trains.
Although this scheme is not wholly enforced across the Northern network, passengers are liable to paying a £20 penalty fare if they are deemed to have travelled without a valid ticket and had the ability to purchase a ticket prior to boarding the train at the station of origin. Customers who need to purchase a ticket at the station of origin with cash may do so by collecting a'Promise to Pay' notice prior to boarding from a ticket machine as these are not capable of accepting cash; these notices can be exchanged with the on-board conductor or with a member of railway staff at the destination station for a paid ticket. Section 6 of the Railways Regulations 2018 covers a number of scenarios that prohibit penalty fares being issued such'no facilities in operation for the sale of a travel ticket for that passenger’s journey'; the franchise was criticised for implementing a new timetable in May 2018 which resulted in widespread delays and cancellations. Network Rail and Northern announced an independent inquiry to learn lessons and identify route alterations in readiness for the next timetable change in December 2018.
In an attempt to counter operational problems, Northern implemented an emergency timetable on 4 June 2018 – it stemmed some delays and cancellations but was still problematic compared with performance before the timetable change. Punctuality was bad in the North West due to the delay in the Blackpool-Preston electrification scheme and the number of trains per hour through Manchester increased with more services utilising the Ordsall Chord which became operational in December 2017. Network Rail only informed train operating companies in January 2018 that the electrification scheme would be delayed until November – Northern had planned for the scheme to be complete as scheduled by May and had trained drivers to operate new routes with electric rolling stock. An alternative timetable had to be drafted up and many train drivers were not sufficiently trained to drive the existing diesel rolling stock which resulted in widespread cancellations. Furthermore, the additional services through the Manchester corridor resulted in increased congestion and which had a knock-on effect.
Performance statistics published by the Office of Rail and Road in October 2018 showed that from April to June 2018, the franchise recorded the lowest PPM – measured by train service departing within 5 minutes of its scheduled time – of any quarter since punctuality records began on the Northern franchise in 2009. Performance towards the latter half of the 2018 continued to be poor with many passengers protesting and the network beset by a reduced service on Saturdays due to industrial action. In October 2018 it was announced that Manchester Oxford Road station, the busiest station managed by Northern with over 8 million passengers, was the most delayed station in the United Kingdom in 2018 – this was attributed to the chaos following the May 2018 timetable. Between 14 October and 10 November 2018, Northern recorded the worst monthly performance on record with more trains late than on time. Less than 40% of services arrived on time and only 71.9% departed within 5 minutes of the scheduled departure time.
By November 2018, Arriva were re-evaluating their future involvement in the franchise due to a combination of declining passenger numbers as a result of the chaotic May 2018 timetable change and increasing compensation claims as a result of falling punctuality. Both have pushed the franchise into a loss-making entity and face a £282 million government subsidy shortfall, due to be passed onto the franchise. Since the franchise commenced in April 2016 and despite an increase
Wakefield Westgate railway station
Wakefield Westgate railway station is a mainline railway station in Wakefield, West Yorkshire, England. It is 10 miles south of Leeds to the west of the city centre, on the Wakefield Line and Leeds branch of the East Coast Main Line; the first Westgate station opened in 1856 a few years after the town's first station, Wakefield Kirkgate. In 1867, the station was rebuilt on the opposite side of Westgate on the main line between Leeds and Doncaster. British Rail modernised the station in 1967 when large parts of the 19th-century station were demolished and replaced with austere but functional facilities. By the 21st century, there was pressure to modernise the station and between 2009 and 2013 the station was rebuilt and modernised as a result of regeneration efforts focused upon the wider area. On 3 February 2014, the rebuilt station was opened. During 1856, shortly after the spur line from Wakefield's first station, Wakefield Kirkgate was built, the first Westgate station opened, its southern side was built for the Great Northern Railway on part of the private estate belonging to wealthy cloth merchant John Milnes and his mid-18th century mansion was demolished and its remains were incorporated into the station.
The station was used for ten years before further developments necessitated its demolition and rebuilding. No traces remain of the original station as the site was levelled and premises for Wakefield School were built on the site; the school has since been demolished. A new station opened on the opposite side of Westgate in 1867, it was constructed for the GNR, the Manchester and Lincolnshire and the Lancashire and Yorkshire Railways on the main line from Leeds to Doncaster which approached Westgate from the north on an embankment before passing through the station and over the bridge in Westgate, at the start of a 95-arch viaduct. The station was designed by Leeds engineer, J. B. Fraser. Built at a cost of £60,000, it was described by a local newspaper as "one of the most perfect stations in England – special care in designing the works having been taken…in order that every facility might be given for the easy and expeditious working of the goods and passenger traffic". A prominent feature was a turreted tower, which, as a result of lobbying by the Wakefield Tradesmen's Association, was converted into a four-faced clock tower in June 1880.
The clock's mechanism was designed by the horologist and lawyer Sir Edmund Beckett and made by Potts of Leeds. Starting in 1967, British Rail embarked on an extensive rebuild of the second station, resulting in the removal of the clock tower and most of the station buildings; the station's decorative and elegant frontage and pavilion roof were demolished and replaced with an austere counterpart. The rebuilt station was "aesthetically inferior to its earlier incarnation, soon proved to be too cramped to cope with a rise in passenger numbers", it was poorly laid out with few opportunities for other services. Infilling the station forecourt to the level of the first-storey platform provided direct access to the Up platform level but there was no level access to the Down platform except via a barrow crossing. Westgate became the main station serving Wakefield because of its location on the main line from Leeds to London; until the mid-1960s, it had regular services to Bradford Exchange via Batley and Ossett and via Morley Top and to Castleford via the Methley Joint Railway, but these services fell victim to the Beeching cuts between 1964 and 1966.
Improvements to Westgate Station were constrained by a lack of funding. In early 2007 Network Rail announced that a £1.4 million redevelopment scheme was planned for the station to take place by the end of 2009. The scheme was a part of the Westgate Key Development Area authorised by Wakefield Council; the scheme involved constructing offices, small-scale retail, hotel and housing on the site of an old dairy and disused railway goods yards. In 2009, work on the Merchant Gate development commenced and work on the first phase was completed by September 2010. Four years Westgate Station was rebuilt at the northern end of the platforms and the former overflow car park. Key aims of the project were nearly doubling station's retail facilities, an improved forecourt area, station management centre, staff offices, a customer information point, a first class waiting room and standard class waiting facilities and the installation of new passenger information technologies and automated ticket barriers to reduce fare evasion.
Better pedestrian access to the multi-storey car park and taxi ranks were provided. Few elements of the modernisation programme interfered with the operational railway except for the installation of additional canopies and the replacement footbridge; the old footbridge and some 1960's station buildings were removed. Wakefield Westgate was the first newly-built station on the East Coast Main Line in decades; the programme was an element of the third phase of Merchant Gate redevelopment scheme and promoted by its backers as being a key part of the area's renewal. Network Rail was appointed by East Coast as the principal contractor for the programme and the Buckingham Group was the design-and-build subcontractor. In January 2013, after planning permission was granted onsite preparations began and in March rebuilding commenced at a cost of £8.8 million, a large portion was provided via the Station Commercial Project Facility, 1 million each from the Access for All programme and the English Cities Fund.
On 23 December 2013, the station opened to service and on 3 February 2014, it was opened by Secretary of State for Transport Patrick McLoughlin and blessed by the Bishop of Wakefield, Stephen Platten. In total, there are 6 tph to Leeds with additional peak services. All northbound servi
Mirfield is a small town and civil parish in Kirklees, West Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it is on the A644 road between Brighouse and Dewsbury. At the 2011 census it had a population of 19,563; the town is served by Mirfield railway station. From 1894 to 1974, Mirfield was an urban district in the West Riding of Yorkshire until it was merged into the Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees. In 1988 a parish council was formed, one of five in Kirklees, the others being:- Denby Dale, Meltham and Holme Valley; as a parish council an additional tax precept to the Kirklees Metropolitan Borough Council tax is levied on the town's residents. It is made up of 16 councillors who serve for a fixed four-year term, represent wards within the parish; the members elect a town mayor. In addition to the town council Mirfield is represented by three councillors on Kirklees Metropolitan Council, the local Mirfield Area Committee In May 2005, Mirfield became the first Fairtrade Town in Kirklees and only the fourth in West Yorkshire.
The Mirfield Show is an annual agricultural event held on the third Sunday in August at Mirfield showground. It is organised and run by the Mirfield Agricultural Society as a non-profit making event for the families of Mirfield and district. Local residents introduced the Mirfield Food & Craft Fayre in April 2012, scheduled to be run the last Saturday of each month and "help raise the profile of Mirfield, be a benefit to local traders, businesses and charities, add more destination events to the Yorkshire calendar". There are two secondary schools in Mirfield: Mirfield Free Grammar and Sixth Form and Castle Hall School. Primary schools include Battyeford CE Primary School, Crossley Fields, Old Bank, Hopton Primary School and Crowlees Junior and Infant School, all of which were assessed by Ofsted as'Grade 1 – Outstanding' in the March 2007 inspection; the 13th century St Mary's Church was rebuilt in 1826 but proved too small for the growing population and was regarded as too minor for the growing district.
A new church, designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, was built a few yards to the northwest, on the site of Castle Hall, a mansion home to the families of Mirfields and Beaumonts. At Scott's suggestion, the tower of the earlier church, which retains some medieval work, was retained. St. Mary's Church was the boyhood church of Sir Patrick Stewart, of Star Trek fame; the College of the Resurrection is a Church of England theological college. There, Rowan Williams the Archbishop of Canterbury, lectured from 1975 for two years and Archbishop Trevor Huddleston spent his last days. During the 18th century, a canal was constructed through the town linking the River Calder with other rivers in the area; the canal is part of the Hebble Navigation. Its construction resulted in many industries such as the textiles and boat yards; the canal is still in use for recreational users, with a high popularity of the pastime "duck feeding" being present along the waters edge. Mirfield is the base of the Safe Anchor Trust, a charity founded in 1995 to provide canal boat trips for vulnerable and special needs people.
In 2012, Princess Anne commissioned a new boat for the Trust. Lee Blakeley, theatre director. Alun Cochrane, comedian, co-host on The Frank Skinner Show. Debbie Lindley, TV weather presenter. Richard Reed, co-founder of Innocent Drinks. Brian Robinson, cyclist the first Briton to win a stage of the Tour de France. Mary Snell-Hornby, translation scholar. Patrick Stewart, actor. There are many national businesses based in Mirfield including John Cotton Group Ltd and Furniture Choice; the town has a variety of local independent shops as well as national chains such as Lidl, Bargain Booze, Tesco and Co-op Food. Mirfield is the home of Mirfield Petanque Club who play in the West Yorkshire Petanque League. Náchod, Czech Republic Mirfield Reporter Mirfield Town Council homepage Mirfield in Pictures Mirfield to Low Moor railway line Kirklees Council Website, Mirfield Information page
Kirklees is a local government district of West Yorkshire, governed by Kirklees Council with the status of a metropolitan borough. The largest town and administrative centre of Kirklees is Huddersfield, the district includes Batley, Cleckheaton, Denby Dale, Heckmondwike, Kirkburton, Meltham and Slaithwaite. Kirklees had a population of 422,500 in 2011 and is therefore the most populous borough in England, not a city; the borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972 as part of a reform of local government in England. Eleven former local government districts were merged: the county boroughs of Huddersfield and Dewsbury, the municipal boroughs of Batley and Spenborough and the urban districts of Colne Valley, Denby Dale, Holme Valley, Kirkburton and Mirfield; the name Kirklees was chosen by the merging councils from more than fifty suggestions, including Upper Agbrigg and Wooldale. It was named after Kirklees Priory, legendary burial place of Robin Hood, situated midway between Huddersfield and Dewsbury.
The priory was located within the present-day Kirklees Park estate, most of which lies in the neighbouring borough of Calderdale. The name Kirklees is made up of Lees meaning Meadows. Under the original draft of the Act, the district would have included Ossett, part of the Dewsbury Parliamentary constituency at that time, it was decided that Ossett was too remote to be governed from Huddersfield and the town was included within the Wakefield district instead. The principal settlements of Kirklees are mill towns in the Colne Valley, Holme Valley, Calder Valley and Spen Valley; those areas of the district with a more urban character bound Calderdale to the west, Bradford to the northwest, Leeds to the northeast and Wakefield to the east. The district includes several rural villages, with the largest rural area extending from the south of Huddersfield; the Pennine countryside to the southwest of Meltham and Holme lies within the Peak District National Park. This moorland area bounds Saddleworth, a traditional part of Yorkshire but now locally governed from Oldham, Greater Manchester.
There is a short border with the High Peak district of Derbyshire running across the summit of Black Hill, the main border to the south of Kirklees is with Barnsley. The inclusion of two county boroughs resulted in a district without an obvious centre. Over the years there have been suggestions of splitting the district into two, administered from Huddersfield and Dewsbury. Graham Riddick, as MP for Colne Valley, campaigned for a split in the early 1990s. A similar ambition was mentioned by Elizabeth Peacock, MP for Batley and Spen in 1991; the boundaries of metropolitan boroughs were outside the remit of the Banham Commission appointed to review local government structures in 1992 or its successors, only minor boundary changes were made with neighbouring districts in 1994. The district includes parts of three postcode areas. Huddersfield and the rural areas to the south have HD postcodes, Birkenshaw and Gomersal have BD postcodes, the rest of the Heavy Woollen area has WF postcodes; the district is split between several telephone dialling codes, with most residents in the 01484, 01274 and 01924 codes.
A small number of residents in Birchencliffe and Birkenshaw villages fall within the 01422 and 0113 codes respectively. The stated religion of the population of Kirklees, as recorded at the 2001 census of population was as follows: Christian 261,128 No religion 54,445 Muslim 39,312 Religion not stated 28,394 Sikh 2,726 Hindu 1,222 Other Religions 772 Buddhist 397 Jewish 171 Public transport information is provided by Metro, as is the case across West Yorkshire. Kirklees lies along the core Huddersfield Line of the TransPennine Express network, with services calling at Huddersfield and Dewsbury. Direct Grand Central services to London King's Cross call at Mirfield. Other railway stations in the district on these routes and on the Penistone Line have local Northern services; some towns in Kirklees have not been served by rail transport since the Beeching cuts. Most bus services in the Huddersfield area are operated by Yorkshire Tiger and First, most bus services in the Heavy Woollen area are operated by Arriva.
The urban areas of Kirklees are served by the M1 motorways. Parts of the local road network are considered to require improvement, such as the main route from Huddersfield to the southbound M1 which narrows as it passes through Flockton. Kirklees Council has developed a number of traffic-free cycle paths called Greenways in partnership with Sustrans. Tourism in Kirklees is based around the area's countryside and industrial heritage: Bagshaw Museum Castle Hill Colne Valley Museum Holmfirth, setting of long-running sitcom Last of the Summer Wine Kirklees Light Railway Kirklees Way, 72 miles circular walking route Marsden Moor Estate Oakwell Hall Standedge Tunnels and Visitor Centre Tolson MuseumKirklees Council closed Dewsbury Museum and Red House Museum at the end of 2016, claiming it could not afford to continue running them following cuts to its budget. Tourist information in Kirklees can be obtained from major libraries. Huddersfield Town play football in the Premier League as of the 2017-18 season.
They were the first English club to win three successive league titles. The birthplace of rugby league was at the George Huddersfield.
Thornhill, West Yorkshire
Thornhill is a village and former township in Dewsbury, West Yorkshire, England. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Thornhill was absorbed into Dewsbury County Borough in 1910, it is located on a hill on the south side of the River Calder, has extensive views of Dewsbury and Wakefield. It is known for its collection of Anglo-Saxon crosses. Thornhill is mentioned in the Domesday Book of 1086 as within the ancient wapentake of Agbrigg, but Anglian crosses and other remains indicate that there was a settlement here by the 9th century. A hoard of 27 Roman denarii found in Turnip lane and pottery at the cross indicates earlier settlement; the tombstone of a certain high-ranking Anglian called Osberht was found in the graveyard of Thornhill Parish Church. Some historians claim that the grave bearing the name Osbehrt is that of King Osberht, killed on 21 March 867 while fighting the Viking Great Heathen Army led by Ivar the Boneless; the gravestone is on display in the church. The local place-names of Ludd Well and the Combs indicate Celtic settlement.
This is reinforced by the dedication of the Parish Church to St Michael, typical for churches in high places in Celtic parts of northern England. The Celtic kingdom of Elmet collapsed in AD 617. In 1320 Edward II granted a charter for a fair. In the reign of Henry III Thornhill Hall was the seat of the Thornhill family, who intermarried with the De Fixbys and Babthorpes in the reigns of Edward I and Edward II. In the reign of Edward III, Elizabeth Thornhill, the only child of Simon Thornhill, married Sir Henry Savile; this extinguished the family line of Thornhills of Thornhill which now passed its property down the Savile line. Thornhill now became the seat of the powerful Savile family; the Saviles intermarried with the Calverley family as well, so that when Sir John Savile died in 1503 in Thornhill, he left provision in his will for his sister Alice, married to Sir William Calverley. Sir William Savile, the third baronet of the family, fortified the hall; the Saviles remained here until the English Civil War.
As royalist heroine since the siege of Sheffield Castle in 1644, Lady Anne Savile's troops under Capt. Thomas Paulden in August 1648 defended Thornhill Hall against the Parliamentary forces under Col. Sir Thomas Fairfax, they were forced to surrender and the hall was destroyed. The Old Rectory survived and was home to several prominent vicars, most notably John Michell, who first rose to international prominence by developing an understanding of earthquakes devised an experiment to determine the mass of planet Earth, but most intriguingly for Thornhill, attracted Benjamin Franklin, Joseph Priestley, Jan Ingenhousz, John Smeaton and others to a scientific meeting and overnight stay in 1771. Benjamin Franklin's stay in Thornhill remained unknown until 2015; some ruins of the house and the moat still remain at Thornhill Rectory Park. The moat still retains water; this large hall had a secret underground passage, that lead to the parish church of St. Michael and All Angels, just a few hundred yards away from the park.
The passage remained until the early 1990s. Monuments to members of the Thornhill and Savile families are in Thornhill Parish Church. Thornhill has close ties to coal mining; the demand for coal increased due to the development of the steam engine. The local population increased. In 1893 a mining disaster at Combs Pit killed 139 coal miners. Thornhill Colliery resulted from the merging of Inghams and Combs Collieries in 1948 but closed in 1971. Thornhill was a large ecclesiastical parish in the wapentake of Agbrigg, West Riding of Yorkshire which joined the Dewsbury Poor Law Union in 1837. In 1894 it was an urban district and in 1910 it was incorporated into Dewsbury County Borough. Thornhill is situated on a hill on the south side of the River Calder and the Calder and Hebble Navigation; the township covered the underlying rock comprises coal measures. Thornhill encompasses the areas of Thornhill Edge and Fox Royd overlooking the valleys of the Howroyd Beck and Smithy Brook; the Thornhill area has two junior schools: Overthorpe Junior and Infants and Thornhill Junior and Infants School.
Thornhill Community Academy is the area's secondary school, with a GCSE pass rate of 84% in 2010, an increase of 22 percentage points from 2009. The school has undergone various modifications, is now a Science College. Much of the school has been modernised. Construction of a new sports hall was completed in April 2007 and includes a new Multi-Use Games Area. Thornhill has several public houses; the small Black Horse is in the south. The Scarborough is a medium-sized traditional public house on the edge of Frank Lane; the Flatt Top is a small public house on the corner of Albion Road that serves traditionally-brewed local ales. Next to the church is the Savile Arms, which serves a range of traditionally-brewed real ales and regular guest ales; the Alma was the north of Thornhill. There are several working men's clubs. Thornhill is home to the Thornhill Trojans a rugby league team who are in the National Conference League Premier Division; the area boasts several football teams Overthorpe Sports who play in the West Riding County Amateur League on Saturdays and Overthorpe Town who play in the Heavy Woollen Sunday League.
The club h