Presidencies and provinces of British India
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in India. Collectively, they were called British India. In one form or another, they existed between 1612 and 1947, conventionally divided into three historical periods: Between 1612 and 1757 the East India Company set up "factories" in several locations in coastal India, with the consent of the Mughal emperors or local rulers, its rivals were the merchant trading companies of Portugal, the Netherlands and France. By the mid-18th century three "Presidency towns": Madras and Calcutta, had grown in size. During the period of Company rule in India, 1757–1858, the Company acquired sovereignty over large parts of India, now called "Presidencies". However, it increasingly came under British government oversight, in effect sharing sovereignty with the Crown. At the same time it lost its mercantile privileges. Following the Indian Rebellion of 1857 the Company's remaining powers were transferred to the Crown.
In the new British Raj, sovereignty extended such as Upper Burma. However, unwieldy presidencies were broken up into "Provinces". In 1608, Mughal authorities allowed the English East India Company to establish a small trading settlement at Surat, this became the company's first headquarters town, it was followed in 1611 by a permanent factory at Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast, in 1612 the company joined other established European trading companies in Bengal in trade. However, the power of the Mughal Empire declined from 1707, first at the hands of the Marathas and due to invasion from Persia and Afghanistan. By the mid-19th century, after the three Anglo-Maratha Wars the East India Company had become the paramount political and military power in south Asia, its territory held in trust for the British Crown. Company rule in Bengal from 1793, ended with the Government of India Act 1858 following the events of the Bengal Rebellion of 1857. From known as British India, it was thereafter directly ruled by the British Crown as a colonial possession of the United Kingdom, India was known after 1876 as the Indian Empire.
India was divided into British India, regions that were directly administered by the British, with Acts established and passed in British Parliament, the Princely States, ruled by local rulers of different ethnic backgrounds. These rulers were allowed a measure of internal autonomy in exchange for British suzerainty. British India constituted a significant portion of India both in population. In addition, there were French exclaves in India. Independence from British rule was achieved in 1947 with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh; the term British India applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in 1824, a small part of Burma, by 1886 two-thirds of Burma had come under British India. This arrangement lasted until 1937, when Burma commenced being administered as a separate British colony. British India did not apply to other countries in the region, such as Sri Lanka, a British Crown colony, or the Maldive Islands, which were a British protectorate.
At its greatest extent, in the early 20th century, the territory of British India extended as far as the frontiers of Persia in the west. It included the Aden in the Arabian Peninsula; the East India Company, incorporated on 31 December 1600, established trade relations with Indian rulers in Masulipatam on the east coast in 1611 and Surat on the west coast in 1612. The company rented a small trading outpost in Madras in 1639. Bombay, ceded to the British Crown by Portugal as part of the wedding dowry of Catherine of Braganza in 1661, was in turn granted to the East India Company to be held in trust for the Crown. Meanwhile, in eastern India, after obtaining permission from the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to trade with Bengal, the Company established its first factory at Hoogly in 1640. A half-century after Mughal Emperor Aurengzeb forced the Company out of Hooghly due to tax evasion, Job Charnock purchased three small villages renamed Calcutta, in 1686, making it the Company's new headquarters.
By the mid-18th century, the three principal trading settlements including factories and forts, were called the Madras Presidency, the Bombay Presidency, the Bengal Presidency — each administered by a Governor. Madras Presidency: established 1640. Bombay Presidency: East India Company's headquarters moved from Surat to Bombay in 1687. Bengal Presidency: established 1690. After Robert Clive's victory in the Battle of Plassey in 1757, the puppet government of a new Nawab of Bengal, was maintained by the East India Company. However, after the invasion of Bengal by the Nawab of Oudh in 1764 and his subsequent defeat in the Battle of Buxar, the Company obtained the Diwani of Bengal, which included the right to administer and collect land-revenue in Bengal
C. P. Ramaswami Iyer
Sachivottama Sir Chetpat Pattabhiraman Ramaswami Iyer, KCSI, KCIE called "C. P.", was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as the Advocate-General of Madras Presidency from 1920 to 1923, Law member of the Executive council of the Governor of Madras from 1923 to 1928, Law member of the Executive Council of the Viceroy of India from 1931 to 1936 and the Diwan of Travancore from 1936 to 1947. Ramaswami Iyer was born in 1879 in Madras city and studied at Wesley College High School and Presidency College, Madras before qualifying as a lawyer from the Madras Law College, he practised as a lawyer in Madras and succeeded S. Srinivasa Iyengar as the Advocate-General of the Madras Presidency, he subsequently served as the Law member of the Governor of Madras and of the Viceroy of India before being appointed Diwan of Travancore in 1936. Ramaswami Iyer served as Diwan from 1936 to 1947. However, at the same time, he is remembered for the ruthless suppression of the communist-organised Punnapra-Vayalar revolt, his controversial stand in favour of an independent Travancore.
He resigned in 1947 following a failed assassination attempt. He served as a leader of the Indian National Congress in his early days, he was made a Knight Commander of the Indian Empire in 1926 and a Knight Commander of the Star of India in 1941. He returned these titles when India attained independence in 1947, he was a member of the 1926 and 1927 delegations to the League of Nations. In his life he served in numerous international organisations and on the board of several Indian universities. Ramaswami Iyer died in 1966 at the age of 86 while on a visit to the United Kingdom; the ancestors of C. P. Ramaswami Iyer were Vadadesa Vadama Brahmins whose seat was the town of Chetpet in the North Arcot of Tamil Nadu; the family traces their lineage to Dikshitars whom they believed, were Deshastha Brahmins who migrated from Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh to the town of Chittoor in Andhra Pradesh from where they migrated to the northern part of Tamil Nadu in the 16th century AD. As a reward for their piety and scholarship, the migrants were granted the villages of Chetput and Morakkaniyur by a local chieftain.
Ramaswami Iyer's family originated from the group. C. P. was related to Achan Dikshitar, brother of the famous Advaitist savant Appayya Dikshitar. C. P.'s grandfather, Chetput Ramaswami Iyer served the British East India Company as Tehsildar of Kumbakonam. His family was attached to the Sringeri mutt. Chetpet Pattabhiraman Ramaswami Iyer was born on Deepavali day, 13 November 1879 to C. R. Pattabhirama Iyer, a prominent judge, his wife Seethalakshmi Ammal called Rangammal in the town of Wandiwash, North Arcot. C. P. had his schooling at the Wesley College High School in Madras. He had an strict upbringing as a result of a prediction that the child would not pass a single exam in his life. On completion of his schooling, C. P. enrolled at the Presidency College, Madras. In college, C. P. won prizes in English and Mathematics and the Elphinstone Prize for his paper on the Nebular theory. C. P. passed his degree with a gold medal and graduated with distinction from the Madras Law College. C. P. had always desired to become an English professor.
However, his father, Pattabhirama Iyer wished that his son become a lawyer and accordingly, C. P. chose a career in law. C. P. spent his college vacations in the Mysore kingdom with the Diwan, Sir K. Seshadri Iyer whom he always claimed as his inspiration. In 1903, C. P. joined V. Krishnaswamy Iyer as an apprentice. Just before the death of Pattabhirama Iyer the same year, he arranged for C. P.'s admission as a junior to Sir V. Bhashyam Aiyangar but the latter was not able to accommodate him; as a result, C. P. made a reputation as a lawyer. He fought and won over 300 cases and was offered a judgeship of the Madras High Court which he, turned down. In 1920, he was appointed Advocate-General of Madras by the Governor, Lord Willingdon. During his tenure as a lawyer, C. P. handled a number of prominent cases as the Besant Narayaniah case. In his early days, C. P. was an admirer of Gopal Krishna Gokhale and desired to join the Servants of India society in Poona. In 1912, he fought on behalf of Jiddu Narayaniah against Annie Besant for the custody of his sons J. Krishnamurti and Nityananda in the famous Besant Narayaniah trial and won.
Besant, however got the verdict annulled by appealing to the Privy Council in England. However, as a result of this case, C. P. developed an admiration for Annie Besant and collaborated with her in organising the Home Rule League and served as its vice-president. In 1917, he became the Secretary of the Indian National Congress. C. P. edited Annie Besant's newspaper New India during her incarceration. At the same time, campaigning vigorously for her release. C. P. distanced himself from the Indian Independence after disagreeing with Mahatma Gandhi over the Swadeshi and Non-Cooperation movements. In 1920, C. P. was nominated as the Advocate-General of Madras Presidency. He was responsible for the introduction of the City Municipalities Act and the Madras Local Boards Act. In 1923, he was nominated to the executive council of the Governor of Madras and was charged with the portfolios of law and order, Public Works Department, irrigation and electricity; as a member of the executive council, C. P. laid the foundation of the Pykara Dam, constructed between 1929 and 1932 at a cost of Rs. 67.5 million.
He started the construction of Mettur Dam over the Cauvery river. While the Pykara Hydro-electric project t
K. R. Market
K. R. Market known as City Market, is the largest wholesale market dealing with commodities in Bangalore, India, it is named after a former ruler of the princely state of Mysore. The market is located in the Kalasipalyam area, adjacent to the Tipu Sultan's Summer Palace, on Mysore Road at its junction with Krishnarajendra Road, it is the first locality in the whole of Asia to get electricity and considered to be one of the biggest flower markets in Asia. K R Market was established in 1928; the location of the market is said to have been a water tank and a battlefield in the 18th century during the Anglo-Mysore Wars. From the British era, two buildings remain, at the back of the market area. A new concrete 3-story structure was erected in the 1990s between the two older buildings to provide more space for vendors and better overall conditions. At the basement is an underground parking above which stand three commodity-specialised floors: flowers and vegetables on the lower ground floor, dry goods on the upper ground floor and tools and machine-tools accessories on the first floor.
Jaipur State was a kachwaha Rajput princely state of India from 1128 to 1947. It was centred on Jaipur town, it existed from the 12th century until Indian Independence in 1947. According to the different periods of history it was known as Jaipur Kingdom, Amber Kingdom, Dhundhar Kingdom and Kachwaha Kingdom. Jaipur's predecessor state was the Dhundhar kingdom, founded in 1093 by Duleh Rai known as Dulha Rao. Jaipur state was known as Amber between the fourteenth century and 1727. In that year, a new capital was built and named Jayapura the kingdom was renamed Jaipur; the Kachwahas of Dhundhar claim to be descendants of Raja Dhola of Narwar. After 31 generations they migrated to Rajputana. Dulha Rao, one of the ancestors of the Kachwaha rulers defeated the Meenas of Manchi and Amber and completed the conquest of Dhundhar by defeating the Bargurjars of Dausa and Deoti; the rulers of Amber fought as generals in the army of Prithviraj Chauhan and under the banner of Rana Sanga against the Mughals under Babur.
However, due to the aggressive expansion of Maldev Rathore and Amber's vulnerability due to its close proximity to Delhi, Bharmal Kachwaha, sought alliance with Akbar, the Mughal emperor. He was formally recognised as a Raja by the Mughals and was invested into the Mughal nobility in return for his daughter's marriage to Akbar. Raja Bharmal's daughter, Harkha Bai, who married Akbar became the mother of the fourth Mughal emperor Jahangir, she gained prestige in Mughal court during Jahangir's reign as the emperor's mother. By this relation, the Rajas of Amer gained significant prominence in the Mughal court. A governor was appointed to oversee Bharmal's territory and a tribute arrangement saw Bharmal given a salaried rank, paid for from a share of the area's revenue; the ruling dynasty of Amber prospered under Mughal rule and provided the Mughal Empire with some distinguished generals. Among them were Bhagwant Das, Man Singh I, who fought and governed from Kabul to Orissa and Assam and Jai Singh I.
Jai Singh I was succeeded by Ram Singh I, Bishan Singh and Jai Singh II. Jai Singh II known as Sawai Jai Singh, ruled the state from 1699 to 1743 was a famous mathematician and astronomer and during his rule the new capital city of Jaipur was founded in 1727. Throughout the disintegration of the Mughal Empire, the armies of Jaipur were in a constant state of warfare. Towards the end of the 18th century, the Jats of Bharatpur and the Kachwaha chief of Alwar declared themselves independent from Jaipur and each annexed the eastern portion of Jaipur's territory; this period of Jaipur's history is characterised by internal power-struggles and constant military conflicts with the Marathas, other Rajput states, as well as the British and the Pindaris. Jaipur suffered against the Rathors of Marwar in the Battle of Gangwana with appalling losses; the kingdom again suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the Maratha forces of Mahadji Scindia in the Battle of Patan in 1790, forcing the rulers of Jaipur to pay heavy tributes.
Enough wealth remained in Jaipur for the patronage of fine temples/palaces, continuity of its courtly traditions and the well-being of its citizens and merchant communities. Jaipurs last attempt to gain freedom from Gwalior ended in a defeat at the Battle of Malpura. A treaty was made by Maharaja Sawai Jagat Singh and the British under Governor General Marquis Wellesley in 1803, however the treaty was dissolved shortly afterwards by Wellesley's successor, Lord Cornwallis. In this event, Jaipur's Ambassador to Lord Lake observed that "This was the first time, since the English government was established in India, that it had been known to make its faith subservient to its convenience". In 1818 Jaipur became a British protectorate. In 1835 there was a serious disturbance in the city because of a false rumour that the British had murdered the infant raja to ensure the annexation, after which the British government intervened; the state became well-governed and prosperous. During the Indian rebellion of 1857 when the British invoked the treaty to request assistance in the suppression of rebellious sepoys, the Maharaja opted to preserve his treaty, thus sent in troops to subdue the uprisings in the area around Gurgaon.
Jaipur's last princely ruler signed the accession to the Indian Union on 7 April 1949. The Chanda clan of Meena tribe ruled this area till 947 CE; the Kachwaha Dynasty defeated the Meena's and established their rule in the area. Dūlaha Rāya Bhau Singh Jai Singh I Ram Singh I Bishan Singh 1699 – 21 Sep 1743: Jai Singh II 1743 – 12 Dec 1750: Ishwari Singh 1750 – 5 Mar 1768: Madho Singh I 1768 – 13 Apr 1778: Prithvi Singh II 1778 – 1803: Pratap Singh 1803 – 21 Nov 1818: Jagat Singh II 22 Dec 1818 – 25 Apr 1819: Mohan Singh 25 Apr 1819 – 6 Feb 1835: Jai Singh III Feb 1835 – 18 Sep 1880: Ram Singh II 18 Sep 1880 – 7 Sep 1922: Madho Singh II 7 Sep 1922 – 15 Aug 1947: Sawai Man Singh II 24 June 1970 – 17 April 2011: Sawai Bhawani Singh The Jaipur Residency was established in 1821, it included the states of Jaipur and Lawa. The latter had belonged to the Haraoti-Tonk Agency until 1867. History of Jaipur
Order of the Indian Empire
The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire is an order of chivalry founded by Queen Victoria in 1878. The Order includes members of three classes: Knight Grand Commander Knight Commander Companion No appointments have been made since 1947, the year that India and Pakistan became independent from the British Raj. With the death of the last surviving knight, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the order became dormant in 2010; the motto of the Order is Imperatricis auspiciis, a reference to Queen Victoria, the first Empress of India. The Order is the junior British order of chivalry associated with the British Indian Empire; the British founded the Order in 1878 to reward native officials who served in India. The Order had only one class, but expanded to comprise two classes in 1887; the British authorities intended the Order of the Indian Empire as a less exclusive version of the Order of the Star of India. On 15 February 1887, the Order of the Indian Empire formally became "The Most Eminent Order of the Indian Empire" and was divided into two classes: Knights Commander and Companions, with the following first Knights Commander: General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Edward Drummond Sir Alfred Comyns Lyall Bhagvat Singh Robert Anstruther Dalyell Maxwell Melvill Alexander Cunningham Rana Shankar Baksh Singh Dietrich Brandis Sir Monier Williams Pusapati Ananda Gajapati Raju, Maharaja of Vizianagram Donald Campbell Macnabb Nawab Munir ud-Daula Salar Jang, the Prime Minister of Hyderabad George Christopher Molesworth Birdwood Ranjit Singh, Raja of Ratlam Surgeon-General Benjamin Simpson Albert James Leppoc Cappel Sayyid Hassan Ali Khan Bahadur, Nawab of Murshidabad Lachmessur Singh, Maharaja of Darbhanga Sir Nawab Imam Buksh Khan Mazari Sir Nawab Bahram Khan Mazari Sir Parashuram Bhausaheb Patwardhan Rai Sahib Madan Mukund Shuja ul-Mulk, the Mehtar of Chitral Bapu Sahib Avar Donald Mackenzie Wallace Alfred Woodley Croft Bradford Leslie James Houssemayne Du Boulay Baba Sir Khem Singh Bedi, Spiritual Head of the SikhsHowever, on 21 June 1887, a further proclamation regarding the Order was made.
Seven Knights Grand Commander were created, namely: HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duke of Edinburgh HRH The Duke of Connaught and Strathearn HRH The Duke of Cambridge Lord Reay, Governor of Bombay Lord Connemara, Governor of Madras General Sir Frederick Sleigh Roberts Appointments to both Orders ceased after 14 August 1947. The Orders have never been formally abolished, as of 2012 Queen Elizabeth II remains the Sovereign of the Orders. There are no living members of the order; the last Grand Master of the Order was Rear Admiral The 1st Viscount Mountbatten of Burma, the last Viceroy of India. Lord Mountbatten was killed in an IRA bombing in County Sligo on 27 August 1979; the last surviving GCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir Chithira Thirunal Balarama Varma, the Maharaja of Travancore, died on 19 July 1991 in Trivandrum; the last surviving KCIE, H. H Maharaja Sri Sir the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra, the Maharaja of Dhrangadhra-Halvad, died at Dhrangadhra on 1 August 2010; the last surviving CIE, Sir Ian Dixon Scott, died on 3 March 2002.
The fictional characters Purun Dass and Harry Paget Flashman each held a KCIE. The British Sovereign serves as the Sovereign of the Order; the Grand Master held the next-most senior rank. Members of the first class were known as "Knights Grand Commanders" rather than "Knights Grand Cross" so as not to offend the non-Christian Indians appointed to the Order. At the time of foundation in 1878 the order had only one class, that of Companion, with no quota imposed. In 1886, the Order was divided into the two classes of Knights Companions; the following year the class of Knight Grand Commander was added. The statute provided that it was "competent for Her Majesty, Her heirs and successors, at Her or their pleasure, to appoint any Princes of the Blood Royal, being descendants of His late Majesty King George the First, as Extra Knights Grand Commanders". By Letters Patent of 2 Aug 1886, the number of Knights Commander was increased to 82, while Commanders were limited to 20 nominations per year. Membership was expanded by Letters Patent of 10 June 1897, which permitted up to 32 Knights Grand Commander.
A special statute of 21 October 1902 permitted up to 92 Knights Commander, but continued to limit the number of nominations of Commanders to 20 in any successive year. On 21 December 1911, in connection with the Delhi Durbar, the limits were increased to 40 Knights Grand Commander, 120 Knights Commander, 40 nominations of companions in any successive year. British officials and soldiers were eligible for appointment, as were rulers of Indian Princely States; the rulers of the more important states were appointed Knights Grand Commanders of the Order of the Star of India, rather than of the Order of the Indian Empire. Women, save the princely rulers, were ineligible for appointment to the Order. Female princely rulers were admitted as "Knights" rather than as "Dames" or "Ladies". Other Asian and Middle Eas
Sir Mokshagundam Viswesvarayya KCIE, FASc spelled as Sir Mokshagondam Visweswarayya, popularly known as Sir MV was an Indian chief civil engineer, statesman and the 19th Diwan of Mysore, who served from 1912 to 1919. He received India's highest honour, the Bharat Ratna, in 1955, he was knighted as a Knight Commander of the British Indian Empire by King George V for his contributions to the public good. 15 September is celebrated as Engineer's Day in Sri Lanka and Tanzania in his memory. He is held in high regard as a pre-eminent Engineer of India, he was the chief engineer responsible for the construction of the Krishna Raja Sagara dam in the North-West suburb of Mysuru city and chief engineer of the flood protection system for the city of Hyderabad. Mokshagundam Viswesvarayya was born on 15 September 1861 in Muddenahalli village in the princely state of Mysore, India, his father, Mokshagundam Srinivasa Sastry, was a school teacher and a noted Sanskrit scholar, while his mother, was a homemaker.
Viswesvarayya lost his father at the age of 12. He got his primary education at Bandahalli Primary School and attended a high school in Bangalore. In 1881, he received a BA degree from Central College, Bangalore, a rare accomplishment in India of that era, he enrolled at College of Engineering, Pune. He received LCE equivalent to DCE from the University of Bombay to which the College of Engineering was affiliated. Viswesvarayya took a job with the PWD of Bombay and was invited to join the Indian Irrigation Commission, he implemented an intricate system of irrigation in Deccan. He designed and patented a system of automatic weir water floodgates that were first installed in 1903 at Khadakvasla Reservoir near Pune; these gates were employed to raise flood supply level of storage in reservoir to the highest level to be attained without causing any damage to the dam. Based on the success of these gates, the same system was installed at the Tigra Dam in Gwalior and Krishna Raja Sagara Dam in Mandya/Mysore, Karnataka.
In 1906 -- 07, Government of India sent him to Aden to study water drainage systems. The project prepared by him was implemented in Aden successfully. Viswesvarayya achieved celebrity status when he designed a flood protection system for city of Hyderabad, he was instrumental in developing a system to protect Visakhapatnam port from sea erosion. This dam created the biggest reservoir in Asia. Viswesvarayya gave his valuable technical advice for the location of Mokama Bridge over Ganga in Bihar. At the time, he was over 90 years old, he was called "Father of Modern Mysore State". During his service with the government of Mysore State, he was responsible for founding of Mysore Soap Factory, Parasitoid Laboratory, Mysore Iron & Steel Works in Bhadravathi, Sri Jayachamarajendra Polytechnic in Bangalore, Bangalore Agricultural University, State Bank of Mysore, Century Club, Mysore Chamber of Commerce (presently known as the Federation of Karnataka Chambers of Commerce & Industry, the apex Chamber of Commerce in Karnataka, University Viswesvarayya College of Engineering and numerous other industrial ventures.
He encouraged private investment in the industry during his tenure as Diwan of Mysore. He was instrumental in charting out the plan for road construction between Tirupati, he was known for sincerity, time management, dedication to a cause. Bangalore Press and Bank of Mysore were established during his tenure. A important part of his nature was his love for Kannada, he set up the Kannada Parishat for the upliftment of Kannada. He wanted seminars for Kannada lovers to be conducted in Kannada itself. Viswesvarayya is known to have planned the entire area of Jayanagar in south Bangalore; the foundation of Jayanagar was laid in 1959. It was one of first planned neighbourhoods in Bangalore and, at the time, the largest in Asia, it is believed. Joined service as assistant engineer in Bombay, 1885. After, for a short period, he worked for the Nizam of India, he suggested flood relief measures for Hyderabad town, under constant threat by the Musi river. During November 1909, Visw
Ali Yavar Jung
Nawab Ali Yavar Jung Bahadur was an eminent Indian diplomat. He was governor of the Indian state of Maharashtra from 1971 to 1976, he was born in Hyderabad to a distinguished Hyderabadi family of scholars and educators, studied at Queen's College, earning a degree in History. Nawab Ali Yavar Jung served as the Vice-chancellor of Osmania University from 1945 to 1946 and from 1948 to 1952. In year 1965 to 1968 he was Vice-Chancellor of Aligarh Muslim University, he opposed reservation on religious ground at AMU. In 1946-47 he was Minister Constitutional Affairs and Educational, Public Health and Local Government in the Nizam's Governor, he resigned from that post in 1947. He was India's ambassador to Argentina, Egypt and Greece, the United States, his personal rapport with Juan Perón, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Josip Broz Tito, Charles de Gaulle, Lyndon B. Johnson contributed to their understanding and appreciation of India's independent foreign policy, he was appointed as governor of Maharashtra in 1971, died during his term as governor at Mumbai's Raj Bhavan in December 1976.
He was awarded the Padma Bhushan and the Padma Vibhushan, India's highest civilian honors, in 1959 and 1977, respectively. The Western Express Highway in Mumbai and The National Institute for the Hearing Handicapped located there are named after him. Bilkees I. Latif, social worker, Padma Shri awardee and the wife of I. H. Latif, former Air Chief Marshal, is his daughter. Zehra Ali Yavar Jung