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Miscegenation

Miscegenation is a term given to the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, sexual relations, or procreation mixing, perceived to negatively impact the purity of a particular race or culture. Anti-miscegenation is a prominent theme of racial supremacist movements. Though the notion that racial mixing is undesirable has arisen at different points in history, it gained particular prominence in Europe during the era of colonialism; the term miscegenation entered the English language in the 19th century as racial segregation began to become more formalized in the United States. It was used to refer to interracial marriage and interracial sexual relations; the term came to be associated with laws banning interracial marriage and sex, known as anti-miscegenation laws. Although the term "miscegenation" was formed from the Latin miscere "to mix" plus genus "race" or "kind", could therefore be perceived as value-neutral, it is always used in a negative way, as something to be avoided, punished or outlawed.

More neutral terms for mixed-race relationships, such as "interracial", "interethnic", or "cross-cultural" are more common in contemporary usage. In Spanish America, the term mestizaje, derived from Mestizo—the blending of European whites and Indigenous peoples of the Americas, is used for racial mixing. In the present day, the word miscegenation is avoided by many scholars, because the term suggests that race is a concrete biological phenomenon, rather than a categorization imposed on certain relationships; the term's historical use in contexts that implied disapproval is a reason why more unambiguously neutral terms such as interracial, interethnic or cross-cultural are more common in contemporary usage. The term remains in use among scholars when referring to past practices concerning multiraciality, such as anti-miscegenation laws that banned interracial marriages. In Spanish and French, the words used to describe the mixing of races are mestizaje, mestiçagem and métissage; these words, much older than the term miscegenation, are derived from the Late Latin mixticius for "mixed", the root of the Spanish word mestizo.

These non-English terms for "race-mixing" are not considered as offensive as "miscegenation", although they have been tied to the caste system, established during the colonial era in Spanish-speaking Latin America. Today, the mixes among races and ethnicities are diverse, so it is considered preferable to use the term "mixed-race" or "mixed". In Portuguese-speaking Latin America, a milder form of caste system existed, although it provided for legal and social discrimination among individuals belonging to different races, since slavery for black people existed until the late 19th century. Intermarriage occurred from the first settlements, with their descendants achieving high rank in government and society. To this day, there are controversies if Brazilian class system would be drawn around socio-economic lines, not racial ones. Conversely, people classified in censuses as black, brown or indigenous have disadvantaged social indicators in comparison to the white population; the concept of miscegenation is tied to concepts of racial difference.

As the different connotations and etymologies of miscegenation and mestizaje suggest, definitions of race, "race mixing" and multiraciality have diverged globally as well as depending on changing social circumstances and cultural perceptions. Mestizo are people of mixed white and indigenous Amerindian ancestry, who do not self-identify as indigenous peoples or Native Americans. In Canada, the Métis, who have Amerindian and white French-Canadian, have identified as an ethnic group and are a constitutionally recognized aboriginal people; the differences between related terms and words which encompass aspects of racial admixture show the impact of different historical and cultural factors leading to changing social interpretations of race and ethnicity. Thus the Comte de Montlosier, in exile during the French Revolution, equated class difference in 18th-century France with racial difference. Borrowing Boulainvilliers' discourse on the "Nordic race" as being the French aristocracy that invaded the plebeian "Gauls", he showed his contempt for the lowest social class, the Third Estate, calling it "this new people born of slaves... mixture of all races and of all times".

Miscegenation comes from the Latin miscere, "to mix" and genus, "kind". The word was coined in the U. S. in 1863, the etymology of the word is tied up with political conflicts during the American Civil War over the abolition of slavery and over the racial segregation of African-Americans. The reference to genus was made to emphasize the distinct biological differences between whites and non-whites, though all humans belong to the same genus and the same species, Homo sapiens; the word was coined in an anonymous propaganda pamphlet published in New York City in December 1863, during the American Civil War. The pamphlet was entitled Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro, it purported to advocate the intermarriage of whites and blacks until they were indistinguishably mixed, as a desirable goal, further asserted that this was the goal of the Republican Party. The pamphlet was a hoax, concocted by Democrats, to discredit the Republicans by imputing to them what were radical views that offended against the attitudes of the vast majority of whites, including those w

Delia, Kansas

Delia is a city in Jackson County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city population was 169. Delia was laid out and platted in 1905, its founder, David Cunningham, named the town in honor of Mrs. Delia Cunningham; the first post office in Delia was established in January 1906. Delia is located at 39°14′22″N 95°57′52″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.11 square miles, all of it land. Delia is part of Kansas Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 169 people, 52 households, 40 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,536.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 58 housing units at an average density of 527.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 85.8% White, 10.7% Native American, 3.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.8% of the population. There were 52 households of which 48.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 65.4% were married couples living together, 5.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.8% had a male householder with no wife present, 23.1% were non-families.

15.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.25 and the average family size was 3.68. The median age in the city was 33.5 years. 30.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 53.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 179 people, 53 households, 46 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,571.0 people per square mile. There were 58 housing units at an average density of 509.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 86.03% White, 12.85% Native American, 1.12% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.56% of the population. There were 53 households out of which 47.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.6% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 13.2% were non-families. 13.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.

The average household size was 3.38 and the average family size was 3.72. In the city, the population was spread out with 38.5% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 24.0% from 25 to 44, 20.1% from 45 to 64, 10.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 113.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $36,667, the median income for a family was $37,250. Males had a median income of $29,375 versus $43,750 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,665. About 11.7% of families and 12.8% of the population and 11.7% of families were below the poverty line, including 17.1% of those under the age of 18 and 24.0% of those 65 and older. David Bawden, sedevacantist claimant to the papacy CityDelia - Directory of Public OfficialsSchoolsUSD 321, local school districtMapsDelia City Map, KDOT

Mu Phoenicis

Μ Phoenicis, Latinized as Mu Phoenicis, is a suspected astrometric binary star system in the southern constellation of Phoenix. It is visible to the naked eye as a faint, yellow-hued star with an apparent visual magnitude of 4.59. This system is located 246 light years distant from the Sun based on parallax, is drifting further away with a radial velocity of +17.4 km/s. The visible component is an aging G-type giant star with a stellar classification of G8III. Having exhausted the supply of hydrogen at its core, this star cooled and expanded off the main sequence. At present it has 13 times the girth of the Sun, it is 1.4 billion years old with 2.5 times the mass of the Sun. It is radiating 97 times the luminosity of the Sun from its swollen photosphere at an effective temperature of 4,900 K