Mischief Makers, released in Japan as Yuke-Yuke!! Trouble Makers is a 1997 side-scrolling platform video game developed by Treasure and published by Enix and Nintendo for the Nintendo 64; the player assumes the role of Marina, a robotic maid who journeys to rescue her creator from the emperor of Planet Clancer. The gameplay revolves around grabbing and throwing objects. There are five worlds and 52 levels, the game is displayed in 2.5D. The game was the first 2D side-scrolling game for the Nintendo 64, Treasure's first release for a Nintendo console; the company began Mischief Makers's development in mid-1995 with little knowledge of the console's features. The 12-person team wanted to make a novel gameplay mechanic, implementing the resultant "catching" technique became their most difficult task; the game appeared at the 1997 Electronic Entertainment Expo and was released in Japan on June 27, 1997, in the United States and Australia. The game received "mixed or average reviews", according to video game review score aggregator Metacritic.
Critics praised Mischief Makers's inventiveness and boss fights, but criticized its brevity, low difficulty, low replay value and harsh introductory learning curve. Retrospective reviewers disagreed with the poor reception, multiple reviewers noted Marina's signature "Shake, shake!" Sound bite as a highlight. Video game journalists cited Mischief Makers as ripe for reissue either through the Nintendo eShop or in a sequel or franchise reboot. In 2009, GamesRadar called it "possibly the most underrated and ignored game on the N64". Mischief Makers is the first single-player 2D side-scrolling platform game on the Nintendo 64 console, its gameplay combines platform game mechanics with aspects from the puzzle genres. The characters and backgrounds are modeled in pre-rendered 3D similar to Donkey Kong Country's "Advanced Computer Modeling"; this style, with 3D backgrounds behind 2D gameplay, is known as "2 1⁄2D". Compared to previous Treasure run and gun games, Mischief Makers's gameplay is more exploratory in nature.
The player-character, a robotic maid named Marina, journeys to save her kidnapped creator. The story takes place on Planet Clancer, a world on the cusp of civil war due to the actions of its Emperor and his Imperial forces; the Emperor brainwashes Clancers to kidnap the visiting robotics genius Professor Theo. Theo's creation, the player-character Ultra-InterGalactic-Cybot G Marina Liteyears, pursues the professor and grabs and shakes the obstacles in her way, such as enemies, floating "Clanball" platforms, warp stars, missiles. All game objects can be grabbed, which lends towards the shake-based combat system. Marina can shake "grabbed" objects to find loot. Objects sometimes change functions when shaken, such as items that become homing missiles and guns with multi-directional shots; some drop red and green gems, which restore player health. The health gauge in the corner of the screen shows the amount of damage; the player can store up to two additional stock lives. Yellow gems hidden in each level extend the final cutscene's length.
Marina can run and boost in the eight cardinal and ordinal directions. She can slide and roll; the game has five worlds with twelve levels apiece. Some levels are action-only; the player's goal is to reach a warp star at each level's end. En route, Marina shakes enemies, breaks blocks, uses weapons, rides "bikes" and objects along wire path mazes; each world has both mid-level bosses. The levels and boss fights use screen rotation special effects to vary the gameplay. All things on Planet Clancer—including people and pets—either wear or are inscribed with identical "sad" faces with red, glowing eyes. A Clancer named Teran substitutes for Marina in several brief areas and uses non-shake mechanics like punching and double jumping. A character named Calina, a petulant Clancer who imitates Marina, recurs throughout the game as a comedic device. Treasure began to develop Mischief Makers in mid 1995. At the time, they knew little about the Nintendo 64's final technical specifications, graphics implementation, development kit, but were interested in the console and its improved "pixel quality".
Treasure developed games for Sega consoles, which made Mischief Makers their first release for a Nintendo console. Bringing Mischief Makers to the Nintendo 64 was a hardware-based decision: the Nintendo 64's cartridges were more expensive than CD-ROMs, but they loaded data and were thus more conducive for action games such as Mischief Makers. However, Treasure CEO Masato Maegawa said that development for the Nintendo 64 had a harsher learning curve than the Sega Saturn. Other than the special attention required to build a single boss in 3D, the team did not use features specific to the Nintendo 64 hardware. Treasure's founders had come from Konami, where they worked on Nintendo Entertainment System games such as Castlevania and Contra, they found their development environment restrictive and left to try riskier concepts and to singularly focus on making "great games". In the three years between Treasure's founding and Mischief Makers's development, the company released regarded games such as Gunstar Heroes—known as "one of the definitive 16-bit action games"—and Dynamite Headdy.
An average of 12 people worked with up to 15 at times. Though the team was different in composition from that of previous Treasure titles, it included the lead programmer and character designer from Gunstar Heroes. Treasure's CEO said t
Roger Bourland is an American composer, publisher and Professor-Emeritus of Music at the UCLA Herb Alpert School of Music. Born in Evanston, Bourland received a Bachelor of Music in Music Theory and Composition from the University of Wisconsin, studying with Leslie Thimmig and Randall Snyder. D. in Music Composition from Harvard University, studying with Randall Thompson, Earl Kim and Leon Kirchner. Bourland studied at Tanglewood with Gunther Schuller and was awarded the Koussevitzky Prize in Composition. Other awards include the John Knowles Paine Fellowship, two ASCAP Grants to Young Composers, numerous Meet the Composers grants, was a co-founder of the Boston-based consortium "Composers in Red Sneakers." Bourland has composed over one hundred fifty works for all media: film, instrumental, chamber and choral music, electro-acoustic music, music for orchestra, wind ensemble, other large ensembles. From 1983 to 2013, Bourland taught composition, music theory, orchestration, electro-acoustic composition, other classes and seminars in the UCLA Herb Alpert School of Music.
He was awarded the UCLA Distinguished Teaching Award for 2005-6, served as Chair of the UCLA Herb Alpert School of Music, Department of Music from 2007-2011. Professor Bourland retired from UCLA in 2013 and moved to Northern California to devote his time to composition. Homer in Cyberspace Book and lyrics by Mel Shapiro The Crocodile's Christmas Ball and other odd tales for chorus and wind ensemble. McClatchy and Thom Gunn Hidden Legacies for chorus, four synthesizers and drums. A. Kolve Serenade No.2: Paintings for violin, piano, clarinet in Bb Saxophone Quintet for soprano saxophone, string quartet Montana Suite for string quartet Dances from the Sacred Harp for flute, alto fl. in G, clarinet in Bb, violin, cello, percussion Nostos" for flute, alto flute, bass clarinet, soprano saxophone, alto saxophone Stone Quartet for soprano sax, viola and piano Cantilena for flute, soprano sax, or clarinet in Bb and organ Three Dark Paintings for strings, soprano sax and piano The Death of Narcissus for piano and wind ensemble Beowulf Trio for flute, cello Personae for
In mathematical logic, the ancestral relation of a binary relation R is its transitive closure, however defined in a different way, see below. Ancestral relations make their first appearance in Frege's Begriffsschrift. Frege employed them in his Grundgesetze as part of his definition of the finite cardinals. Hence the ancestral was a key part of his search for a logicist foundation of arithmetic; the numbered propositions below are taken from his Begriffsschrift and recast in contemporary notation. A property P is called R-hereditary if, whenever x is P and xRy holds y is P: → P y Frege defined b to be an R-ancestor of a, written aR*b, if b has every R-hereditary property that all objects x such that aRx have: 76: ⊢ a R ∗ b ↔ ∀ F The ancestral is a transitive relation: 98: ⊢ → a R ∗ c Let the notation I denote that R is functional: 115: ⊢ I ↔ ∀ x ∀ y ∀ z If R is functional the ancestral of R is what nowadays is called connected: 133: ⊢ → The Ancestral relation R ∗ is equal to the transitive closure R + of R. Indeed, R ∗ is transitive, R ∗ contains R, R ∗ is contained in R +.
See Boolos's book below, page 8. Principia Mathematica made repeated use of the ancestral. However, it is worth noting, it is controversial whether second-order logic with standard semantics is "logic" at all. Quine famously claimed that it was really'set theory in logic's clothing.' In his books setting out formal systems related to PM and capable of modelling significant portions of Mathematics, namely - and in order of publication -'A System of Logistic','Mathematical Logic' and'Set Theory and its Logic', Quine's ultimate view as to the proper cleavage between logical and extralogical systems appears to be that once axioms that allow incompleteness phenomena to arise are added to a system, the system is no longer purely logical. Begriffsschrift Gottlob Frege Transitive closure George Boolos, 1998. Logic and Logic. Harvard Univ. Press. Ivor Grattan-Guinness, 2000. In Search of Mathematical Roots. Princeton Univ. Press. Willard Van Orman Quine, 1951. Mathematical Logic. Harvard Univ. Press. ISBN 0-674-55451-5.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: "Frege's Logic and Foundations for Arithmetic" -- by Edward N. Zalta. Section 4.2
The Andover Center Historic District encompasses the historic town center of Andover, Connecticut. Centered on the junction of Hebron Road with Center Street and Cider Mill Road, the district includes houses dating to the town's early history, civic buildings including a library and former town hall, the town's first cemetery; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003. The central Connecticut town of Andover was established as a separate Congregational parish out of portions of Hebron and Coventry, in 1748, but was not incorporated until a century later; the location where its first meeting house was built was near its geographic center, on Hebron Road between Center Street and Boston Hill Road. The village benefited economically in the early 19th century from the early establishment of a small flaxseed oil mill, by the establishment of the Hartford-Norwich Turnpike, which ran along portions of Center Street and Hebron Road, the routing of a railroad line just north of the village.
Many of the town's commercial and civic functions were relocated to the US 6 corridor in the mid-20th century. The historic district is a 270 acres in size, includes buildings on Hebron Road, Center Street, Boston Hill Road, Cider Mill Road, US 6; the district includes 60 contributing buildings, 2 contributing sites, 4 contributing structures. It includes the town's first cemetery, five 18th-century houses, including the Georgian Phelps-Bingham House, built in 1740. Buildings include the Greek Revival John Bingham House, the 1833 Greek Revival First Congregational Church. North Andover Center Historic District, North Andover, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Tolland County, Connecticut
Te Kao is a district on the Aupouri Peninsula of Northland, New Zealand. State Highway 1 passes through the district. Cape Reinga is 46 km to the north, Houhora is 24 km to the south; the Aupouri Forest and Ninety Mile Beach are to the west. The New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage gives a translation of "the dried kūmara" for Te Kao; the Te Aupōuri athlete Te Houtaewa started his legendary run along Ninety Mile Beach at Te Kao. The local Pōtahi Marae is a traditional meeting ground for Te Aupōuri, includes the Waimirirangi|Waimirirangi or Haere-ki-te Rā meeting house. Te Kura o Te Kao is a coeducational full primary school with a roll of 35 students as of March 2019; the school started as Te Kao Native School in 1881. It became Te Kao Area School providing education up to seventh form until 1999, when it became a primary school; the school celebrated its 125th anniversary on Labour Weekend, 2006. From the start of 2019, it became a designated character school, will extend to include years 9 and 10 in 2020
James Simpson was a British civil engineer. He was president of the Institution of Civil Engineers from January 1853 to January 1855. James Simpson was the fourth son of engineer of the Chelsea Waterworks. James succeeded his father in that of engineer of the Lambeth Waterworks Company, it was under Simpson's instruction that the Chelsea Waterworks became the first in the country to install a slow sand filtration system to purify the water they were drawing from the River Thames. This filter consisted of successive beds of loose brick and sand to remove solids from the water, he designed waterworks at Windsor Castle and Bristol as well as The Wooden Pier at Southend on Sea. James Simpson established J. Co. a manufacturer of steam engines and pumps. He made several improvements to the design of these machines