Mischling was the legal term used in Nazi Germany to denote persons deemed to have both Aryan and Jewish ancestry. The Germanic root is cousin to the Latin term whence the Spanish term mestizo and French term métis originate. In German, the word has the general denotation of hybrid, half-breed. Outside its use in official Nazi terminology, the term Mischlingskinder was used to refer to war babies born to non-white soldiers and German mothers in the aftermath of World War II; as defined by the Nuremberg Laws in 1935, a Jew was a person – regardless of religious affiliation or self-identification – who had at least three grandparents, enrolled with a Jewish congregation. A person with two Jewish grandparents was legally "Jewish" if that person met any of these conditions: Was enrolled as member of a Jewish congregation when the Nuremberg Laws were issued, or joined Was married to a Jew. Was the offspring from a marriage with a Jew, concluded after the ban on mixed marriages. Was the offspring of an extramarital affair with a Jew, born out of wedlock after 31 July 1936.

A person who did not belong to any of these categorical conditions but had two Jewish grandparents was classified as a Jewish Mischling of the first degree. A person with only one Jewish grandparent was classified as a Mischling of the second degree. See Mischling Test. Soon after passage of the Enabling Act of 1933, the Nazi government promulgated several antisemitic statutes, including the Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service on 7 April 1933. Using this law, the regime aimed to dismiss—along with all politically-suspect persons such as social democrats, socialists and many liberals of all religions—all "non-Aryans" from all government positions in society, including public educators, those practicing medicine in state hospitals; as a result, the term "non-Aryan" had to be defined in a way compatible with Nazi ideology. Under the "First Racial Definition" supplementary decree of 11 April, issued to clarify portions of the act passed four days prior, a "non-Aryan" was defined as one who had at least one Jewish parent or grandparent.

German citizens with only one Jewish grandparent were defined by the Nuremberg Laws as Mischling of the second degree. Their employment restrictions remained, but they were permitted to marry non-Jewish and non-Mischling Germans, were not imprisoned; this distinction was not applied to non-German citizens. According to the philosophy of Nazi antisemitism, Jewry was considered a group of people bound by close, genetic ties who formed an ethnic unit that one could neither join nor secede from. Early 20th-century books on Nordicism such as Madison Grant's The Passing of the Great Race, had a profound effect on Hitler's antisemitism, he was convinced that the Nordic Race/Culture constituted a superior branch of humanity, viewed International Jewry as a parasitic and inferior race, determined to corrupt and exterminate both Nordic peoples and their culture through Rassenschande and cultural corruption. Hitler declared that Marxism was constructed by International Jewry, with the aim of Bolshevising the earth allowing Jewry to dominate/exterminate the Aryan race.

With this in mind, Hitler viewed Russia as a nation of Untermenschen dominated by their Judaic masters, which posed the gravest threat to both Germany and Europe as a whole. The Nazis defined Jewishness as genetic, but did not always use formal genetic tests or physiognomic features to determine one's status. In practice, records concerning the religious affiliation of one's grandparents were the deciding factor; the Schutzstaffel used a more stringent standard: In order to join, a candidate had to prove that all direct ancestors born since 1750 were not Jewish, or they would have to apply for a German Blood Certificate instead. When the stresses of the war made it impracticable to confirm the ancestry of officer candidates, the extended proof of ancestry regulation was diminished to the standard laws requiring certified evidence of non-Judaism within two generations. In the 19th century, many Jewish Germans converted to Christianity. Two-thirds of the German population were Protestant until 1938, when the Anschluss annexation of Austria to Germany added six million Catholics.

The addition of 3.25 million Catholic Czechoslovaks of German ethnicity increased the percentage of Roman Catholics in Greater Germany to 41% in a 1939 population estimated at 79 million. One percent of the population was Jewish. German converts from Judaism adopted whichever Christian denomination was most dominant in their community. Therefore, about 80% of the Gentile Germans persecuted as Jews according to the Nuremberg Laws were affiliated with one of the 28 regionally-delineated Protestant church bodies. In 1933 77% of German Gentiles with Jewish ancestry were Protestant, the percentage dropped to 66% in the 1939 census, after the annexations of 1938. Converts to Christianity and their descendants had married Chri

Al Rayyan SC Volleyball Team

Al Rayyan Volleyball is a professional Volleyball team based in Al-Rayyan, Qatar. It competes in the Qatari Volleyball League, they participated in the 2012 edition of the FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship held in Qatar after winning the Heir Apparent Cup. The club hired four top athletes to strengthen the team before the 2012 Club World Championships; these include Rodrigão from Brazil, the Bulgarian brothers Georgi and Valentin Bratoev, the American David Lee, a Gold medalist in Beijing 2008. They did not advance past the group stage; the best achievement for the Al Rayyan volleyball team was in 2014 when they came in the second place in the World Club championship. The squad included Michael Sánchez, Raphael Vieira de Oliveira, Matey Kaziyski and Robertlandy Simón as foreign players in the team. Al Rayan won the GCC Champions Cup in 2011 and 2015 as well as Asian cup. Qatar Volleyball LeagueWinners: 1993, 1995, 1998, 2001, 2007, 2013, 2014, 2015Emir CupWinners: 1987, 1989, 1994, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2010, 2012, 2013, 2017, 2018Crown Prince CupWinners: 1993, 1995, 2002, 2003, 2007, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2016 Asian Club ChampionshipRunners-up: 2013, 2014 Third place: 2019 Fourth place: 2002World Club ChampionshipRunners-up: 2014GCC Volleyball Club ChampionshipWinners: 2011,2015,2016 Runners-up: 2014Arab Volleyball Clubs ChampionshipWinners: 2018Arab Volleyball Clubs Championship Cup WinnersWinners: 2000 Squad for 2014 FIVB Volleyball Men's Club World Championship Head Coach: Igor Arbutina As of August 1st, 2017/ This list of former players includes those who received international caps while playing for the team, made significant contributions to the team in terms of appearances or goals while playing for the team, or who made significant contributions to the sport either before they played for the team, or after they left.

It is not yet complete and all inclusive, additions and refinements will continue to be made over time. Ashraf Mehdi Eid Mubarak Mohammed Faraj Dragan Mihailović Mohammed Al Bahri Dragan Popović Ljubomir Travica Daniele Bagnoli Igor Arbutina Carlos Eduardo Schwanke Al Rayyan Official Website


In materials science, liquefaction is a process that generates a liquid from a solid or a gas or that generates a non-liquid phase which behaves in accordance with fluid dynamics. It occurs both and artificially; as an example of the latter, a "major commercial application of liquefaction is the liquefaction of air to allow separation of the constituents, such as oxygen and the noble gases." Another is the conversion of solid coal into a liquid form usable as a substitute for liquid fuels. In geology, soil liquefaction refers to the process by which water-saturated, unconsolidated sediments are transformed into a substance that acts like a liquid in an earthquake. Soil liquefaction was blamed for building collapses in the city of Palu, Indonesia in October 2018. In a related phenomenon, liquefaction of bulk materials in cargo ships may cause a dangerous shift in the load. In physics and chemistry, the phase transitions from solid and gas to liquid may be referred to as liquefaction; the melting point is the pressure at which a solid becomes a liquid.

In commercial and industrial situations, the process of condensing a gas to liquid is sometimes referred to as liquefaction of gases. Coal liquefaction is the production of liquid fuels from coal using a variety of industrial processes. Liquefaction is used in commercial and industrial settings to refer to mechanical dissolution of a solid by mixing, grinding or blending with a liquid. In kitchen or laboratory settings, solids may be chopped into smaller parts sometimes in combination with a liquid, for example in food preparation or laboratory use; this may be done with a liquidiser in British English. In biology, liquefaction involves organic tissue turning into a more liquid-like state. For example, liquefactive necrosis in liquefaction as a parameter in semen analysis. Seminal Clot Liquefaction