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Mishnah

The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah". It is the first major work of rabbinic literature; the Mishnah was redacted by Judah the Prince at the beginning of the third century CE in a time when, according to the Talmud, the persecution of the Jews and the passage of time raised the possibility that the details of the oral traditions of the Pharisees from the Second Temple period would be forgotten. Most of the Mishnah is written in Mishnaic Hebrew; the Mishnah consists of six orders, each containing 7–12 tractates, 63 in total, further subdivided into chapters and paragraphs. The word Mishnah can indicate a single paragraph of the work, i.e. the smallest unit of structure in the Mishnah. For this reason the whole work is sometimes referred to in Mishnayot; the term "Mishnah" referred to a method of teaching by presenting topics in a systematic order, as contrasted with Midrash, which followed the order of the Bible. As a written compilation, the order of the Mishnah is by subject matter and includes a much broader selection of halakhic subjects, discusses individual subjects more than the Midrash.

The Mishnah consists of each containing 7 -- 12 tractates, 63 in total. Each masechet is divided into chapters and paragraphs. In this last context, the word mishnah means a single paragraph of the work, i.e. the smallest unit of structure, leading to the use of the plural, "Mishnayot", for the whole work. Because of the division into six orders, the Mishnah is sometimes called'Shas', though that term is more used for the Talmud as a whole; the six orders are: Zeraim, dealing with prayer and blessings and agricultural laws Moed, pertaining to the laws of the Sabbath and the Festivals Nashim, concerning marriage and divorce, some forms of oaths and the laws of the nazirite Nezikin, dealing with civil and criminal law, the functioning of the courts and oaths Kodashim, regarding sacrificial rites, the Temple, the dietary laws and Tohorot, pertaining to the laws of purity and impurity, including the impurity of the dead, the laws of food purity and bodily purity. In each order, tractates are arranged from biggest to smallest.

A popular mnemonic consists of the acronym "Z'MaN NaKaT."The Babylonian Talmud states that there were either six hundred or seven hundred orders of the Mishnah. Hillel the Elder organized them into six orders to make it easier to remember; the historical accuracy of this tradition is disputed. There is a tradition that Ezra the scribe dictated from memory not only the 24 books of the Tanakh but 60 esoteric books, it is not known whether this is a reference to the Mishnah, but there is a case for saying that the Mishnah does consist of 60 tractates. Reuvein Margolies posited that there were seven orders of Mishnah, citing a Gaonic tradition on the existence of a seventh order containing the laws of Sta"m and Berachot. A number of important laws are not elaborated upon in the Mishnah; these include the laws of tzitzit, mezuzot, the holiday of Hanukkah, the laws of conversion to Judaism. These were discussed in the minor tractates. Nissim ben Jacob's Hakdamah Le'mafteach Hatalmud argued that it was unnecessary for Judah the Prince to discuss them as many of these laws were so well known.

Margolies suggests that as the Mishnah was redacted after the Bar Kokhba revolt, Judah could not have included discussion of Hanukkah, which commemorates the Jewish revolt against the Seleucid Empire. There were several decrees in place aimed at suppressing outward signs of national identity, including decrees against wearing tefillin and tzitzit. David Zvi Hoffmann suggests that there existed ancient texts analogous to the present-day Shulchan Aruch that discussed the basic laws of day to day living and it was therefore not necessary to focus on these laws in the Mishnah. Rabbinic commentaries on the Mishnah from the next four centuries, done in the Land of Israel and in Babylonia, were redacted and compiled as well. In themselves they are known as Gemara; the books which set out the Mishnah in its original structure, together with the associated Gemara, are known as Talmuds. Two Talmuds were compiled, the Jerusalem Talmud. Unlike the Hebrew Mishnah, the Gemara is written in Aramaic; the Mishnah teaches the oral traditions by example, presenting actual cases being brought to judgment along with the debate on the matter and the judgment, given by a notable rabbi based on halakha and spirit of the teaching that guided his decision.

In this way, it brings to everyday reality the practice of the mitzvot as presented in the Torah, aims to co

Bart Macomber

Franklin Bart Macomber was an American football player. He played halfback and quarterback for the University of Illinois from 1914 to 1916 and helped the school to its first national football championship and consecutive undefeated seasons in 1914 and 1915, he played professional football for the Canton Bulldogs and Youngstown Patricians. He was the coach and owner of the Oakland Oaks in the Pacific Coast professional football league founded in 1926, he was elected to the College Football Hall of Fame in 1972. A native of Oak Park, Illinois, his father, Frank Macomber, had once been the mayor of Oak Park. Macomber played high school football for Hall of Fame coach Bob Zuppke at Oak Park High School. Macomber played on three consecutive undefeated teams at Oak Park and once kicked 16 extra points in a single game against Chicago Englewood in October 1911. At Oak Park, Macomber set state high school records for most extra points in a season, his records were not broken for more than 70 years. In 1911, Zuppke persuaded the team from St. John's of Danvers, one of the top high school teams in the east, to travel to Chicago for what was billed as a match for the "national interscholastic football title."

Oak Park won the game 17–0, the Chicago Daily News reported: "The winners outclassed the eastern men using open style of football. The visitors played the old style football, hammering Oak Park’s line on nearly every play … Macomber used the forward pass combined with trick formations with great success." Zuppke's Oak Park team was considered one of the best in the country, he scheduled several other intersectional games, all of which were won by Oak Park. The games scores of the intersectional games played by Zuppke and Macomber follow: December 26, 1910: Oak Park defeats Wenatchee, 22 to 0 December 31, 1910: Oak Park defeats Washington, 6 to 3 December 2, 1911: Oak Park defeats St John's, 17 to 0 November 30, 1912: Oak Park defeats Everett, 32 to 14When Zuppke was hired as head coach at the University of Illinois, Macomber followed Zuppke and enrolled at Illinois. Macomber played halfback and quarterback at Illinois from 1914 to 1916, he helped the Illini to the school's first national championship in 1914 and consecutive undefeated seasons in 1914 and 1915.

The 1914 team allowed only 22 total points during an undefeated 7–0 season. Macomber was selected as a first-team All-American in 1915. In naming Macomber to his All-American team, Walter Camp praised Macomber's "kicking and field generalship." Macomber was elected captain of the 1916 Illinois team. He played halfback for the Illini in 1914 and 1915 before switching to quarterback in 1916. Macomber handled kicking duties at Illinois. At the end of the 1916 season, Macomber was selected by Walter Eckersall as the All-Big Ten Conference quarterback. Eckersall wrote of Macomber:"Bart Macomber, leader of the University of Illinois eleven, is selected to play quarterback and to act as captain of the All-Conference eleven, he is one of the best players. It was through his efforts and defensively, that the Illini have held a commanding position in Conference football for the last three years. Macomber is one of the most dependable kickers, he can punt for an average of forty-five yards, kick goals from the fleld either by placement or drop kick, is sure on kicking goals after touchdowns.

… The Illinois captain has been a factor in all games played by the Zuppke eleven this year. In the Ohio State game, in which his eleven was beaten, 7 to 6, he kicked two goals from the fleld. In the Minnesota game, which resulted in an unexpected victory Macomber was the one player who brought victory to his team, his forward passing and stellar defensive play hardly could have been improved upon." Macomber was selected in 1916 as a second-team All-American quarterback by Eckersall and sports writer, Paul Purman, as a first-team All-American quarterback by Michigan coach Fielding H. Yost. Zuppke and Macomber combined for five undefeated seasons, three at Oak Park High School and two at Illinois. However, in Macomber's senior year, the Illini lost three games to Ohio State and Chicago. Late in the 1916 season, Illinois was scheduled to play the west's top team, the University of Minnesota. Minnesota had beaten Iowa 67–0, Wisconsin 54–0, Chicago 49–0. Before the game, sports writer Ring Lardner published a letter to Zuppke urging him to stay in Chicago and see a play.

Lardner joked that "the lucky players were those on crutches, since they would not have to face the northern monster." Macomber recalled Zuppke's pre-game strategy as follows:"We began practicing. We were so nervous and upset we could not hang onto the ball. Coach Bob soon saw, he was afraid. So he called practice off, he waited a bit for full attention and said,'If you are going to be slaughtered tomorrow, you might as well break training and have a good time tonight.' He told to eat and drink whatever we liked, maybe see a show. We trooped back to the Radison; the whole squad of 25, including coaching staff and idled the afternoon away. That evening we went on the town. No one counted the beers. We moved the celebration over to a burlesque house. There was no bed check." According to a 1964 account of the game published by Sports Illustrated, Macomber called for a spread formation against Minnesota, "employed in this game for the first t

Chic Mystique

"Chic Mystique" is a song by American disco and R&B act Chic. Written and produced by guitarist Nile Rodgers, it was the second single from the album Chic-Ism and was a number-one hit on the Billboard Hot Dance Club Play in the US and achieved a moderate success in many European countries where it was only a top 25 hit. CD single / 7" single "Chic Mystique" – 4:04 "Chic Mystique" – 4:42CD maxi "Chic Mystique" – 4:04 "Chic Mystique" – 4:42 "Chic Mystique" – 7:03 "Chic Mystique" – 6:40 "Chic Mystique" – 7:59 "Chic Mystique" – 6:46 "Chic Mystique" – 1:24CD maxi "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" "Chic Mystique" 12" maxi "Chic Mystique" – 6:40 "Chic Mystique" – 7:03 "Chic Mystique" – 7:41 "Chic Mystique" – 7:59 "Chic Mystique" – 6:4612" maxi "Chic Mystique" – 7:59 "Chic Mystique" – 8:06 "Chic Mystique" – 1:24 "Chic Mystique" (6:50 "Chic Mystique" – 6:46 "Chic Mystique" – 7:03 Engineered by Doug DeAngelis Keyboards by James Preston Mixed by Doug DeAngelis and Roger S. Remixed by Roger S. Saxophone by Deji Coker Backing vocals by Robin Clark and Fonzi Thornton The lyrics were used in Manix's 2013 song "Rave Fantasy", where the title came from