New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Self-defense is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm. The use of the right of self-defense as a legal justification for the use of force in times of danger is available in many jurisdictions. Physical self-defense is the use of physical force to counter an immediate threat of violence; such force can be either unarmed. In either case, the chances of success depend on a large number of parameters, related to the severity of the threat on one hand, but on the mental and physical preparedness of the defender. Many styles of martial arts include self-defense techniques; some styles train for self-defense, while other martial or combat sports can be applied for self-defense. Some martial arts train how to escape from a knife or gun situation, or how to break away from a punch, while others train how to attack. To provide more practical self-defense, many modern martial arts schools now use a combination of martial arts styles and techniques, will customize self-defense training to suit individual participants.
A wide variety of weapons can be used for self-defense. The most suitable depends on the threat presented, the victim or victims, the experience of the defender. Legal restrictions greatly influence self-defence options. In many cases there are legal restrictions. While in some jurisdictions firearms may be carried or concealed expressly for this purpose, many jurisdictions have tight restrictions on who can own firearms, what types they can own. Knives those categorized as switchblades may be controlled, as may batons, pepper spray and personal stun guns and Tasers - although some may be legal to carry with a license or for certain professions. Non-injurious water-based self-defense indelible dye-marker sprays, or ID-marker or DNA-marker sprays linking a suspect to a crime scene, would in most places be legal to own and carry. Everyday objects, such as flashlights, baseball bats, keyrings with keys, kitchen utensils and other tools, hair spray aerosol cans in combination with a lighter, can be used as improvised weapons for self-defense.
Tie-wraps double as an effective restraint. Weapons such as the Kubotan have been built for ease of to resemble everyday objects. Ballpoint pen knives, cane guns and modified umbrellas are similar categories of concealed self-defense weapons that serve a dual purpose. Being aware of and avoiding dangerous situations is one useful technique of self-defense. Attackers will select victims they feel they have an advantage against, such as greater physical size, numerical superiority or sobriety versus intoxication. Additionally, any ambush situation inherently puts the defender at a large initiative disadvantage; these factors make fighting to defeat an attacker unlikely to succeed. When avoidance is impossible, one has a better chance at fighting to escape, such methods have been referred to as'break away' techniques. Understanding the'mindset' of a potential attacker is essential if we are to avoid or escape a life-threatening situation. Verbal Self Defense known as Verbal Judo or Verbal Aikido, is defined as using one's words to prevent, de-escalate, or end an attempted assault.
This kind of'conflict management' is the use of voice and body language to calm a violent situation before violence ensues. This involves techniques such as deflecting the conversation to individuals who are less passionately involved, or entering into a protected empathetic position to understand the attacker better. Lowering an attacker's defense and raising their ego is one way to de-escalate a violent situation. Personal alarms are a way to practice passive self-defense. A personal alarm is a small, hand-held device that emits strong, high-pitched sounds to deter attackers because the noise will sometimes draw the attention of passersby. Child alarms can function as locators or device alarms such as for triggering an alert when a swimming pool is in use to help prevent dangerous situations in addition to being a deterrent against would-be aggressors. Self-defense techniques and recommended behavior under the threat of violence is systematically taught in self-defense classes. Commercial self-defense education is part of the martial arts industry in the wider sense, many martial arts instructors give self-defense classes.
While all martial arts training can be argued to have some self-defense applications, self-defense courses are marketed explicitly as being oriented towards effectiveness and optimized towards situations as they occur in the real world. There are a large number of systems taught commercially, many tailored to the needs of specific target audiences. Notable systems taught commercially include: civilian versions of modern military combatives, such as Krav-Maga, Defendo and Systema Jujutsu and arts derived from it, such as Aikijujutsu, Bartitsu, German ju-jutsu, Kodokan Goshin Jutsu. Model Mugging Traditional unarmed fighting styles like Karate, Kung fu, Pencak Silat, etc; these styles can include competing. Traditional armed fighting styles like Kali Eskrima and Arnis; these include competing, as well as unarmed combat. Street Fighting oriented, unarmed systems, such as. A course in self defense will compr
Wendy Raquel Robinson
Wendy Raquel Robinson is an American actress. Robinson is best known for her roles as high school principal Regina "Piggy" Grier on The WB comedy sitcom The Steve Harvey Show, as sports agent Tasha Mack on The CW/BET sitcom The Game. Robinson was born in Los Angeles, she attended Howard University. She made her acting debut in 1993 on an episode of Martin; that same year she guest starred on episodes of The Sinbad Show. From 1995 to 1996, Robinson co-starred on the short-lived NBC sitcom Minor Adjustments, starring Rondell Sheridan; the following year she won the role of Regina "Piggy" Grier in The WB sitcom The Steve Harvey Show which aired for six seasons. After the series ended its run in 2002, she appeared on the short-lived sketch comedy series Cedric the Entertainer Presents with her former Steve Harvey co-star Cedric the Entertainer. Robinson made guest appearances on The Parkers, All of Us, The New Adventures of Old Christine. Robinson has appeared in several films including The Walking Dead, followed by roles in A Thin Line Between Love and Hate, Two Can Play That Game, Rebound.
In 2000, she played Miss California in the film Miss Congeniality. In 2006, Robinson began portraying the role of Tasha Mack, in the comedy The Game. After three seasons, the series was canceled by The CW in May 2008. BET struck a deal with The Game's parent company CBS to develop new episodes of the series, relocating taping of the show from Los Angeles to Atlanta, announcing its renewal at the April 2010 upfronts; the Game returned to the air for a fourth season on January 11, 2011, The series ended in 2015. She appeared on Shonda Rhimes' Grey's Anatomy in 2010. In 2014, she was cast as Cruella de Vil in the Disney's Descendants. In 2017, she has appeared in the film Flatliners, had a recurring role on the short-lived ABC comedy series, The Mayor. In 2018, Robinson was cast in the ABC comedy-drama series Grand Hotel opposite Demián Bichir and Roselyn Sánchez. In 1996, Robinson co-founded the Amazing Grace Conservatory, a school that predominately serves children from 8 to 18 years old from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds in the fields of the arts and media production.
Robinson has served as the school's Executive Director since its inception. The school has provided a safe training for thousands of young people; some of the most notable members are: Rhyon Nicole Brown, Elle Varner, Selena Thurmond. Wendyraquel.com Wendy Raquel Robinson Official Website Wendy Raquel Robinson on IMDb
The Driskill, a Romanesque-style building completed in 1886, is the oldest operating hotel in Austin, United States, one of the best-known hotels in Texas generally. The Driskill was conceived and built by Col. Jesse Driskill, a cattleman who spent his fortune constructing "the finest hotel south of St. Louis"; the hotel was completed at a cost of $400,000. Its four stories occupied half a block, with three arched entryways on the south and north sides. Carved limestone busts of Driskill and his two sons and Tobe, crowned the hotel on each of these sides. Six million bricks went into the structure, along with limestone features; the hotel's 60 rooms included 12 corner rooms with attached baths, an unheard-of feature in any hotel of the region at that time. The hotel included an open design to keep it cool. Other embellishments included an electric bell system, marble bureaus and washstands, steam heating, gas lighting; the gas pipes throughout the building led Driskill to make the hotel as fireproof as possible, with 18-inch-thick walls between the rooms and two layers of iron between each floor.
The steam boilers and laundry facilities were relegated to the back side of the hotel to prevent their odors from permeating the hotel. The building was built with a special ladies' entrance that allowed female guests to proceed directly to their rooms, thereby avoiding the rough talk of the cattlemen in the lobby. Jesse Driskill, a successful cattle baron, had moved to Texas from Missouri in 1849. Flush with cash from his service to the Confederate Army, to which he supplied beef throughout the Civil War, he decided to diversify by constructing a grand hotel in Austin, his adopted hometown. In 1884, Driskill announced his plans, he hired the architectural firm of Jasper N. Son to design the structure; the hotel enjoyed a grand opening on December 20, 1886, was featured in a special edition of the Austin Daily Statesman. On January 1, 1887, Governor Sul Ross held his inaugural ball in its ballroom, beginning a tradition for every Texas governor since. Driskill did not have the clientele to match the splendor of his four-star hotel.
At a time when other hotels were 50 cents to one dollar per night, Driskill charged $2.50 to $5.00, an exorbitant sum at what was still a Wild West town. Following the loss of a great fortune in cattle drives, Driskill was forced to close the hotel in May 1887, less than a year after it opened, when half his staff was poached by the Beach Hotel in Galveston. According to legend, he lost the hotel in a game of poker in 1888 to his brother-in-law, Jim "Doc" Day, who became its second owner. Driskill died of a stroke in 1890; the hotel changed hands several times through the turn of the 20th century, went through boom and bust cycles along with the city of Austin. Local magnate George Littlefield, responsible for other Austin landmarks such as the Littlefield House, obtained the hotel for $106,000 in 1895, vowed that it would never close again. Littlefield invested over $60,000 in renovations, including ceiling frescoes and 28 additional lavatories, but still sold the hotel at a loss of $25,000 in 1903.
The original building was expanded in 1930 with a 13-story tower designed by the El Paso architecture firm, Trost & Trost. During the same renovation, each of the original 60 rooms was converted to include a private bathroom. In 1934, future President Lyndon Johnson met his future wife, Claudia Taylor, for their first date at the Driskill dining room; the Johnsons continued a lifelong love of the Driskill, stayed there dozens of times during the rest of their lives. It became his campaign headquarters during his congressional career during his famous 1948 Senate race, became a favorite place on return trips to Austin during his presidency, he watched the results of the 1964 Presidential Election from its presidential suite and addressed supporters from its ballroom after his victory. In a 1950 renovation, air conditioning was added to the building, the dramatic skylit rotunda was permanently removed; the Driskill was threatened with demolition in 1969. Most of its furnishings were sold, an American-Statesman article declared, "Driskill Hotel's Fate'Sealed'."
The hotel was saved from the wrecking ball at the last minute, when a nonprofit organization called the Driskill Hotel Corporation raised $900,000. Braniff International Hotels, Inc. a division of Braniff Airways, Inc. of Dallas, bought the hotel in 1972, began a $350,000 restoration of the grand lobby of the historic facility. Braniff reopened the hotel to customers on January 15, 1973, to strong bookings and conference business. Braniff threw a party to celebrate the grand reopening of the Hotel Driskill on February 10, 1973. Over 1000 guests attended the gala event, hosted by Braniff President C. Edward Acker, Robert H. Burck, Vice President of Public Affairs, Braniff Hotels President John W. Leer. Guests arrived at the event in beautifully restored antique cars that were reminiscent of the grandeur of the early Hotel Driskill; the highlight of the evening was a Parade of Texas Governors, and/or their descendants, since 1886, when the hotel first opened 87 years earlier. Texas legendary humorist and KLBJ Radio personality, Cactus Jack Pryor, who served as Master of Ceremonies for the special event, introduced the living Texas Governors.
Governors Allan Shivers, Price Daniel, Sr. and Preston Smith represented the former
Animal rights is the idea in which some, or all, non-human animals are entitled to the possession of their own existence and that their most basic interests—such as the need to avoid suffering—should be afforded the same consideration as similar interests of human beings. Its advocates oppose the assignment of moral value and fundamental protections on the basis of species membership alone—an idea known since 1970 as speciesism, when the term was coined by Richard D. Ryder—arguing that it is a prejudice as irrational as any other, they maintain that animals should no longer be viewed as property or used as food, research subjects, entertainment, or beasts of burden. Multiple cultural traditions around the world such as Jainism, Hinduism and Animism espouse some forms of animal rights. In parallel to the debate about moral rights, animal law is now taught in law schools in North America, several prominent legal scholars support the extension of basic legal rights and personhood to at least some animals.
The animals most considered in arguments for personhood are bonobos and chimpanzees. This is supported by some animal rights academics because it would break through the species barrier, but opposed by others because it predicates moral value on mental complexity, rather than on sentience alone. Critics of animal rights argue that nonhuman animals are unable to enter into a social contract, thus cannot be possessors of rights, a view summed up by the philosopher Roger Scruton, who writes that only humans have duties, therefore only humans have rights. Another argument, associated with the utilitarian tradition, is that animals may be used as resources so long as there is no unnecessary suffering. Certain forms of animal rights activism, such as the destruction of fur farms and animal laboratories by the Animal Liberation Front, have attracted criticism, including from within the animal rights movement itself, as well as prompted reaction from the U. S. Congress with the enactment of laws allowing these activities to be prosecuted as terrorism, including the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act.
Aristotle argued that animals lacked reason, placed humans at the top of the natural world, yet the respect for animals in ancient Greece was high. Some animals were considered e.g. dolphins. In the Book of Genesis 1:26, Adam is given "dominion over the fish of the sea, over the fowl of the air, over the cattle, over all the earth, over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth." Dominion need not entail property rights, but it has been interpreted, by some, over the centuries to imply ownership. Contemporary philosopher Bernard Rollin writes that "dominion does not entail or allow abuse any more than does dominion a parent enjoys over a child." Rollin further states that the Biblical Sabbath requirement promulgated in the Ten Commandments "required that animals be granted a day of rest along with humans. Correlatively, the Bible forbids'plowing with an ox and an ass together'. According to the rabbinical tradition, this prohibition stems from the hardship that an ass would suffer by being compelled to keep up with an ox, which is, of course, far more powerful.
One finds the prohibition against'muzzling an ox when it treads out the grain', an environmental prohibition against destroying trees when besieging a city. These ancient regulations forgotten, bespeak of an eloquent awareness of the status of animals as ends in themselves", a point corroborated by Norm Phelps; the philosopher and mathematician, urged respect for animals, believing that human and nonhuman souls were reincarnated from human to animal, vice versa. Against this, student to the philosopher Plato, argued that nonhuman animals had no interests of their own, ranking them far below humans in the Great Chain of Being, he was the first to create a taxonomy of animals. Theophrastus, one of Aristotle's pupils, argued that animals had reasoning and opposed eating meat on the grounds that it robbed them of life and was therefore unjust. Theophrastus did not prevail. Plutarch in his Life of Cato the Elder comments that while law and justice are applicable to men only and charity towards beasts is characteristic of a gentle heart.
This is intended as a correction and advance over the utilitarian treatment of animals and slaves by Cato himself. Tom Beauchamp writes that the most extensive account in antiquity of how animals should be treated was written by the Neoplatonist philosopher Porphyry, in his On Abstinence from Animal Food, On Abstinence from Killing Animals. According to Richard D. Ryder, the first known animal protection legislation in Europe was passed in Ireland in 1635, it prohibited pulling wool off sheep, the attaching of ploughs to horses' tails, referring to "the cruelty used to beasts." In 1641, the first legal code to protect domestic animals in North America was passed by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The colony's constitution was based on The Body of
A tiara is a jeweled, ornamental crown traditionally worn by women. It is worn during formal occasions if the dress code is white tie. Today, the word "tiara" is used interchangeably with the word "diadem", tiara is translated to a word similar to diadem in other languages. Both words come from head ornaments worn by ancient women to denote high status; as Geoffrey Munn notes, "The word'tiara' is Persian in origin—the name first denoted the high-peaked head-dresses of Persian kings, which were encircled by'diadems'. Now, it is used to describe every form of decorative head ornament." Ancient Greeks and Romans used gold to make wreath-shaped head ornaments, while the Scythians' resembled a stiff halo that would serve as the inspiration for Russian kokoshniks. The use of tiaras and diadems declined along with the decline of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity. In the late 18th century, Neoclassicism gave rise to a revival of tiaras, but this time it was a female adornment. Jewelers taking inspiration from Ancient Greece and Rome created new wreaths made from precious gemstones.
Napoleon and his wife Joséphine de Beauharnais are credited with popularizing tiaras along with the new Empire style. Napoleon wanted the French court to be the grandest in Europe and had given his wife many fabulous parures which included tiaras. Queen Elizabeth II is said to have the largest and most valuable collection of tiaras in the world, many of which are heirlooms of the British royal family, she is seen wearing them on state occasions. The Queen inherited many of them from Queen Alexandra. Queen Mary purchased the Grand Duchess Vladimir tiara in the 1920s, it consists of numerous interlocking diamond circles. Pearl drops can be attached inside the emeralds. Queen Mary had a tiara made for the Delhi Durbar held in 1911 in India, it is now on loan for wearing by wife of Charles, Prince of Wales. Queen Elizabeth II commissioned a diamond tiara. A gift of aquamarines she received as a present from the people of Brazil were added to diamonds to make a new tiara. Other queens and princesses wear tiaras at formal evening occasions.
The Swedish Royal Family have a magnificent collection as do the Danish, the Dutch, Spanish monarchies. Many of the Danish royal jewels came into the collection when Princess Louise of Sweden married the future King Frederick VIII of Denmark; the Romanov dynasty had a superb collection up until the revolution of 1917. The Iranian royal family had a large collection of tiaras. Since the Iranian Revolution, they are housed at the National Jewelry Museum in Tehran. Although associated with women of reigning and noble families, tiaras have been worn by commoners as well rich American socialites like Barbara Hutton. Tiaras are a semi-circular or circular band of precious metal, decorated with jewels and are worn as a form of adornment. Tiaras are worn by women around their head or on the forehead as a circlet on formal or high social occasions. Tiaras are used to "crown" the winners of beauty pageants. During the Victorian Age in the United States, tiaras were being seen on non-royal ladies of means.
“In Paris great aigrette balls were organized by aristocrate families who were proud of their name and their past, such as Dutcesse de Gramount with her ‘Crinoline Ball’ and Princess Jacques de Broglie with her ‘Gemstone Ball’ of 1914. In distant New York, Philadelphia an Newport on the other hand, Mrs. William Astor, Mrs. George J. Gould, Mrs. W. K. Vanderbilt and Eva Stotesbury entertained with a degree of magnificence which made European balls appear insignificant; the moneyed classes of the United States, who had raised themselves above their bourgeois origins through their own hard work, set out to rival the historical aristocracy of Europe. In friendly competition with her rivals, the well-to-do American women refused to forgo any of the attributes sanctioned by society; these accessories included country houses imported from Europe complete with ancestral portraits and furnishings, as well as tiaras order from Cartier’s in Paris and New York.” – Cartier By Hans Nadelhoffer By the 1920s, the tiara and similar tiara headbands became popular in the United States.
They were worn not only with formal ballroom gowns, but became popular with the flappers and their parties. Tiaras made of plastic, Swarovski crystals, or any other non-precious material are considered costume jewelry, they are worn by women on special occasions such as homecoming or prom and at their quinceañera or wedding. They are worn by the winners of beauty pageants and girls dressing up as Disney princesses. Tiaras are worn by actresses in film and television. In 2013, Cartier created a replica of the ruby and diamond tiara they had made in 1956 for Princess Grace of Monaco for the film, Grace of Monaco starring Nicole Kidman. Aigrette Circlet Coronet Diadem Headband Military tiara Papal tiara Elizabeth II's jewels The Royal Collection tiaras of Queen Elizabeth II New York Times - Are Tiaras the New Power Scrunchies? Maclean's - Rocking the Tiara Wall Street Journal - Fit for a Queen