A beauty pageant or beauty contest is a competition that has traditionally focused on judging and ranking the physical attributes of the contestants, although most contests have evolved to incorporate personality traits, intelligence and answers to judges' questions as judged criteria. The term refers to contests for women such as the Big Four international beauty pageants; the organizers of each pageant may determine the rules of the competition, including the age range of contestants. The rules may require the contestants to be unmarried, be "virtuous", "amateur", available for promotions, besides other criteria, it may set the clothing standards in which contestants will be judged, including the type of swimsuit. Beauty pageants are multi-tiered, with local competitions feeding into the larger competitions. For example, the international pageants have thousands of local competitions. Child beauty pageants focus on beauty, sportswear modelling and personal interviews. Adult and teen pageants focus on makeup and gowns, swimsuit modelling, personal interviews.
A winner of a beauty contest is called a beauty queen. The rankings of the contestants are referred to as placements. Possible awards of beauty contests include titles, tiaras or crowns, scepters, savings bonds and cash prizes; however and teen pageants have been moving more towards judging speaking. Some pageants award college scholarships, to multiple runners-up. European festivals dating to the medieval era provide the most direct lineage for beauty pageants. For example, English May Day celebrations always involved the selection of a May Queen. In the United States, the May Day tradition of selecting a woman to serve as a symbol of bounty and community ideals continued, as young beautiful women participated in public celebrations. A beauty pageant was held during the Eglinton Tournament of 1839, organized by Archibald Montgomerie, 13th Earl of Eglinton, as part of a re-enactment of a medieval joust, held in Scotland; the pageant was won by Georgiana Seymour, Duchess of Somerset, the wife of Edward Seymour, 12th Duke of Somerset, sister of Caroline Norton, she was proclaimed as the "Queen of Beauty".
Entrepreneur Phineas Taylor Barnum staged the first modern American pageant in 1854, but his beauty contest was closed down after public protest. Beauty contests became more popular in the 1880s. In 1888, the title of'beauty queen' was awarded to an 18-year-old Creole contestant at a pageant in Spa, Belgium. All participants had to supply a photograph and a short description of themselves to be eligible to enter and a final selection of 21 was judged by a formal panel; such events were not regarded as respectable. Beauty contests came to be considered more respectable with the first modern "Miss America" contest held in 1921; the oldest pageant still in operation today is the Miss America pageant, organized in 1921 by a local businessman as a means to entice tourists to Atlantic City, New Jersey. The pageant hosted the winners of local newspaper beauty contests in the "Inter-City Beauty" Contest, attended by over one hundred thousand people. Sixteen-year-old Margaret Gorman of Washington, D. C. was crowned Miss America 1921, having won both the popularity and beauty contests, was awarded $100.
In May 1920, promoter C. E. Barfield of Galveston, Texas organized a new event known as "Splash Day" on the island; the event featured a "Bathing Girl Revue" competition as the centerpiece of its attractions. The event was the kick-off of the summer tourist season in the city and was carried forward annually; the event became known outside of Texas and, beginning in 1926, the world's first international contest was added, known as the International Pageant of Pulchritude. This contest is said to have served as a model for modern pageants, it featured contestants from England, Russia and many other nations and the title awarded at the time was known as "Miss Universe". The event was discontinued in the United States in 1932 because of the Depression; the popularity of the Miss America pageant prompted other organizations to establish similar contests in the 1950s and beyond. Some were significant; the Miss World contest started in 1951, Miss Universe started in 1952 as did Miss USA. Miss International started in 1960.
Miss Asia Pacific International started in 1968. The Miss Black America contest started in 1968 in response to the exclusion of African American women from the Miss America pageant; the Miss Universe Organization started the Miss Teen USA in 1983 for the 14-19 age group. Miss Earth started in 2001, which channels the beauty pageant entertainment industry as an effective tool to promote the preservation of the environment; these contests continue to this day. The requirement for contestants to wear a swimsuit was a controversial aspect of the various competitions; the controversy was heightened with the increasing popularity of the bikini after its introduction in 1946. The bikini was banned for the Miss America contest in 1947 because of Roman Catholic protesters; when the Miss World contest started in 1951, there was an outcry when the winner was crowned in a bikini. Pope Pius XII condemned the crowning as sinful, countries with religious traditions threatened to withdraw delegates; the bikini was banned for other contests.
It was not until the late 1990s that they became permitted again, but still generated controversy when finals were held in countries where bikinis were disapproved. For example, in 2003, Vida Samadzai from Afghanistan caused
Prachuap Khiri Khan Province
Prachuap Khiri Khan is one of the western provinces of Thailand. It is in the northern part of the Malay Peninsula, some 240 km south of Bangkok. Neighboring provinces are Chumphon to the south. To the west it borders Tanintharyi Region of Myanmar. Prachuap Khiri Khan covers an area of 6,367 square kilometres; the province is on the Kra Isthmus, the narrow land bridge connecting the Malay Peninsula with mainland Asia. The province has the narrowest part of Thailand, just 13 km from the Gulf of Thailand to the border with Myanmar in the Tenasserim Hills. Geographically, Prachuap Khiri Khan is a moderate plain with elevations varying from sea level to 1,200 m; the maximum elevations are found in the northeastern and central west regions, which make up 30 percent of the province.. The long coast of the Gulf of Thailand has many sandy beaches. One of the best known, Hua Hin, has been a popular resort since King Prajadhipok built a summer palace there. From the coast the land rises into the Tenasserim Hills, the mountain chain that forms the border with Myanmar.
Due to its narrow watershed, the rivers in the province are all small. The only one of significance is the Pranburi River in the north. Among the smaller rivers is the Khlong Kui. Khao Sam Roi Yot National Park was established in 1966 to protect Thailand's largest freshwater marshes; the park contains some mangrove mudflats. Most of the marshes were converted despite being in a national park; the city of Muang Na Rang was reconstructed in 1845, after it had been abandoned during the fall of the Ayutthaya Kingdom in 1767. The town was rebuilt at the mouth of the Ron River and renamed "Prachuap Khiri Khan", which means'city in the mountains'. King Mongkut gathered the people of three towns—Bang Nangrom, Kui Buri, Khlong Wan—and resettled them in the rebuilt city. At the same time, he renamed Koh Kong, a city on the opposite side of Gulf of Thailand, Prachanta Khiri Khet. Koh Kong is a now a province of Cambodia. In 1868, King Mongkut invited foreign guests to the province to watch a solar eclipse he had predicted for 18 August.
The dignitaries viewed it from an observation point in the marshes near Sam Roi Yot. He contracted malaria. In the reign of King Rama II, a new city was established at the mouth of the I Rom Canal known as Muang Bang Nang Rom. Prachuap became a seaside resort during the reign of King Rama V. Besides tourism, the province is agricultural. Coconuts are a major crop; as much as 40 percent of farmers in Prachuap Khiri Khan cultivate coconuts. At the beginning of World War II, Japanese troops invaded Thailand. On 8 December 1941, they struck first near the city of Prachuap Khiri Khan. After resisting the Japanese in the Battle of Prachuap Khiri Khan, after several hours the defenders were ordered to cease fire by the government in Bangkok; the provincial seal shows the Kuha Karuhas Pavilion, built when King Chulalongkorn visited the Praya Nakorn Cave. Depicted behind the pavilion is the island of Ko Lak in Prachuap Bay, the historic center of administration; the provincial tree as well as the provincial flower is the manilkara.
The provincial slogan is'City of pure gold, delectable coconuts and pineapples, delightful beaches and caves, land of spiritual beauty'. The province is divided into eight districts; the districts are further subdivided into 388 villages. Hua Hin Airport is in Hua Hin District. AirAsia serves the airport with a direct flight to Kuala Lumpur that commenced on 18 May 2018; the railway in Prachuap Khiri Khan is on the southern route from Bangkok. There are five major stations in Prachuap Khiri Khan: Hua Hin Railway Station, Pran Buri Railway Station, Prachuap Khiri Khan Railway Station, Bang Saphan Yai Railway Station, Bang Saphan Noi Railway Station. Prachuap is on Thailand Route 4. Thailand's royal family and former kings were the first to set this location on the map as the original seashore destination in Thailand; the long white sandy beaches themselves are pretty. Besides sunbathing snorkeling and swimming, visitors can enjoy golf, caves, waterfalls and nearby national parks. Prachuap Khiri Khan travel guide from WikivoyagePrachuap Khiri Khan provincial map, coat of arms and postal stamp Provincial website Kui Buri National Park, Khiri Khan Province
Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand and known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country; the capital and largest city is a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar, its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship. Tai peoples migrated from southwestern China to mainland Southeast Asia from the 11th century. Various Indianised kingdoms such as the Mon, the Khmer Empire and Malay states ruled the region, competing with Thai states such as Ngoenyang, the Sukhothai Kingdom, Lan Na and the Ayutthaya Kingdom, which rivaled each other.
European contact began in 1511 with a Portuguese diplomatic mission to Ayutthaya, one of the great powers in the region. Ayutthaya reached its peak during cosmopolitan Narai's reign declining thereafter until being destroyed in 1767 in a war with Burma. Taksin reunified the fragmented territory and established the short-lived Thonburi Kingdom, he was succeeded in 1782 by Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke, the first monarch of the Chakri dynasty and founder of the Rattanakosin Kingdom, which lasted into the early 20th century. Through the 18th and 19th centuries, Siam faced pressure from France and the United Kingdom, including forced concessions of territory, but it remained the only Southeast Asian country to avoid direct Western rule. Following a bloodless revolution in 1932, Siam became a constitutional monarchy and changed its official name to "Thailand". While it joined the Allies in World War I, Thailand was an Axis satellite in World War II. In the late 1950s, a military coup revived the monarchy's influential role in politics.
Thailand became a major ally of the United States and played a key anti-communist role in the region. Apart from a brief period of parliamentary democracy in the mid-1970s, Thailand has periodically alternated between democracy and military rule. In the 21st century, Thailand endured a political crisis that culminated in two coups and the establishment of its current and 20th constitution by the military junta. Thailand is a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy under a military junta. Thailand is a founding member of Association of Southeast Asian Nations and remains a major ally of the US. Despite its comparatively sporadic changes in leadership, it is considered a regional power in Southeast Asia and a middle power in global affairs. With a high level of human development, the second largest economy in Southeast Asia, the 20th largest by PPP, Thailand is classified as a newly industrialized economy. Thailand the Kingdom of Thailand known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The country has always been called Mueang Thai by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was known by the exonym Siam; the word Siam may have originated from Pali or Sanskrit श्याम or Mon ရာမည. The names Shan and A-hom seem to be variants of the same word; the word Śyâma is not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century; the Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." A further possibility is that Mon-speaking peoples migrating south called themselves'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula. The signature of King Mongkut reads SPPM Mongkut Rex Siamensium, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed to Siam from 1946 to 1948. According to George Cœdès, the word Thai means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs".
A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" for people. According to Michel Ferlus, the ethnonyms Thai/Tai would have evolved from the etymon *kri:'human being' through the following chain: *kəri: > *kəli: > *kədi:/*kədaj > *di:/*daj > *dajA > tʰajA2 or > tajA2. Michel Ferlus' work is based on some simple rules of phonetic change observable in the Sinosphere and studied for t
Nakhon Ratchasima Province
Nakhon Ratchasima called Khorat ) is one of the Isan provinces of Thailand's northeast corner. It is the country's largest province by area, with a population of about 2.7 million who produce about 250 billion baht in GDP, the highest in Isan. Neighbouring provinces are Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, Buriram, Sa Kaeo, Nakhon Nayok and Lopburi; the capital of the province is the city of Nakhon Ratchasima in Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District called Khorat. The province is at the west end of the Khorat Plateau, separated from the Chao Phraya river valley by the Phetchabun and Dong Phaya Yen mountain ranges. Two national parks are in Thap Lan in the south. Both parks are in the forested mountains of the Sankamphaeng Range, the southern prolongation of the Dong Phaya Yen mountains Nakhon Ratchasima is a large province on the northeastern plateau and acts as a gateway to other provinces in the northeast, it has an area of around 20,494 square kilometres. The province has a long history; the area around Khorat was an important centre in the times of the Khmer empire in the 11th century, as can be seen by the temple ruins in Phimai historical park.
Nakhon Ratchasima Province is one of the provinces where there is still a sizable northern Khmer population. A new walled-city with a surrounding moat, designated as Nakhon Ratchasima, was built in the 17th century by order of the King Narai, as the easternmost "command post", guarding the kingdom's border, it continued this duty during the Bangkok Period, although it was seized during Chao Anuwong of Vientiane's 1826 revolt against King Rama III of Siam. Nakhon Ratchasima has long been the most important political and economic centre in the northeastern region. In the late-19th century, the railroad reached Khorat and it became the junction of two main rail lines in the northeastern, region. In 1933 it was the stronghold of the royalist troops in the Boworadej Revolt, as they fought against the new ostensibly democratic government in Bangkok. In the 1950s, the Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base was built in Nakhon Ratchasima; the provincial seal depicts the revered heroine of Thao Suranari. A monument to Thao Suranari stands in front of the old Pratu Chumphon gate.
Called "The Great Heroine of Khorat", Kunying Mo was the wife of the Siamese-appointed deputy governor of Nakhon Ratchasima during the reign of King Rama III. In 1826, Khunying Mo managed to repel the Laotian army led by Prince Anouvong of Vientiane who tried to reinstate control over the Khorat plateau. King Rama III conferred the title of Thao Suranari on Khunying Mo, as well as additional ones honouring her bravery; the provincial tree is the sathon The provincial motto is "Land of brave women, fine silk material, Khorat rice noodles, Phimai Historical Park, Dan Kwian ceramics". The province is divided into 32 districts; the districts are further subdivided into 3,743 villages. On 15 May 2007, the government upgraded all 81 "king amphoes" to "amphoes" to streamline administration. Khorat's economy has traditionally been dependent on agriculture, it is known as a processing centre for Isan's production of rice and sugar. The Isan region accounts for half of Thailand's exports of those commodities.
Khorat is one of two sites in Thailand manufacturing disk drives by Seagate Technology, employing 12,100 workers in Khorat. Nakhon Ratchasima has Nakhon Ratchasima Airport; the nearest working airport has flights to and from Bangkok. The railway system in Nakhon Ratchasima is on both northeastern routes from Bangkok Railway Station. Nakhon Ratchasima Province has eight main railway stations. In 2017, a 60-kilometre dual-track line will connect Korat to Khon Kaen Province, it is the first segment of a dual track network that will connect Isan with the Laem Chabang seaport. Mueang District is served by two stations: Nakhon Ratchasima railway station and Thanon Chira Junction railway station. Highway 2 is the main route that connects nine districts in Nakhon Ratchasima including Muang district; this route connects Nakhon Ratchasima to Saraburi and Khon Kaen Provinces. Hwy 24 links Si Khio District from Hwy 2 to Pak Thongcha, Chok Chai, Nong Bunnak Districts and to Buriram Province. A new motorway connecting Khorat to Bangkok is under construction in 2016 and will reduce travel time on the 250 kilometre journey to just over two hours.
Nakhon Ratchasima has hospitals in the public sector, but some in the private sector. Its main hospital is Maharat Nakhon Ratchasima Hospital, one of the main hospitals for the Praboromarajchanok Medicine Program of Mahidol University; the province has a university hospital, Suranaree University of Technology Hospital of the Institute of Medicine, Suranaree University of Technology. There are four universities in the area. Nakhon Ratchasima Rajabhat University Rajamangala University of Technology Isan Suranaree University of Technology Vongchavalitkul University Ratchasima Wittayalai School Saint Mary's College Nakhon Ratchasima Suranaree Witthaya MBAC Boonwatthana Phimai Witthaya Assumption School Nakhon Ratchasima Fort Surathamphithak School Phoowittaya School Plookpanya School Koratpittayakom school Wangrongnoi school St Stephen's Inte
Phetchaburi or Phet Buri is one of the western or central provinces of Thailand. Neighboring provinces are Ratchaburi, Samut Songkhram, Prachuap Khiri Khan. In the west it borders the Tanintharyi Division of Myanmar. Phetchaburi has a national park called "Kaeng Krachan" which consists of a reservoir overlooking its islands. Phetchaburi is at the north end of the Malay Peninsula, with the Gulf of Thailand to the east and the Tanaosi mountain range forming the boundary to Myanmar. Except for these border mountains most of the province is a flat plain. With an area of about 3,000 km2 Kaeng Krachan National Park is Thailand's largest national park, covering nearly half of the province, it protects rain forests in the mountains along the boundary to Myanmar, but the Kaeng Krachan Reservoir is part of the park. The only significant river of the province is the Phetchaburi River. Phetchaburi is an old royal city, dating back to the Mon of the 8th century. Khmer settled in the city, as can be seen by the prangs of Wat Kamphaeng Laeng.
In 1860 King Rama IV built a palace near the city of Phetchaburi known as Khao Wang, but its official name is Phra Nakhon Khiri. Next to the palace the king built a tower for his astronomical observations. On the adjoining hill is the royal temple Wat Phra Kaeo; the provincial seal shows the Khao Wang palace in the background. In front are rice fields bordered by two coconut palm trees, symbolizing the major crops in the province. Provincial tree is Eugenia cumini. Phetchaburi Province is an important salt producer. In 2011, 9,880 rai worked by 137 families were devoted to salt production in Phetchaburi; the province is divided into eight districts, which are further subdivided into 93 communes and 681 villages. Phetchaburi's main station is Phetchaburi Railway Station. Hat Cha-am Appearing to have been frozen in time warp, midway between remaining a Thai-style resort, modernising to meet international tastes and requirements, this extensive pine-fringed beach is considered to be one of the most popular beaches of Thailand.
Maruekhathaiyawan Palace This beachside wooden palace was used as a royal summer residence by King Rama VI during the 1920s. Facing the open sea, the palace is referred to as the palace of hope. Phra Nakhon Khiri Historical Park This covers a hilly area with an old palace and historical temples in the vicinity of the town, it consists of royal halls and groups of buildings, constructed in harmonious Thai, Western neoclassic and Chinese architectural styles. Wat Kamphaeng Laeng This temple was a Khmer place of worship, it was turned into a Buddhist temple and a shrine hall was constructed. However, the outlook of the place has not much changed due to the existence of sandstone walls and four Khmer style pagodas. Hat Chao Samran Legend says that King Naresuan the Great and King Eka Thotsarot made several royal visits here and appreciated its beauty; the villagers thus rendered it a name "Hat Chao Samran", which means "beach of royal leisure". Phetchaburi travel guide from Wikivoyage Website of province
Chiang Rai Province
Jiang Hai or Chiang Rai is the northernmost province of Thailand. It is bordered by the Shan State of Myanmar to the north, Bokeo Province of Laos to the east, Phayao to the south, Lampang to the southwest, Chiang Mai to the west; the average elevation of the province is 580 metres. The north of the province is part of the so-called Golden Triangle, where the borders of Thailand and Burma converge, an area which prior to the rise of agricultural production of coffee, pineapple and banana plantations, was unsafe because of drug smuggling across the borders; the Mekong River forms the boundary with the Mae Sai and Ruak River with Burma. Through the town of Chiang Rai itself, flows the "Mae Kok" Kok River and south of it the Lao River, a tributary of the Kok. While the eastern part of the province is characterized by flat river plains, the northern and western part consist of the hilly terrain of the Thai highlands with the Khun Tan Range and the Phi Pan Nam Range in the west and the Daen Lao Range in the north.
While not the highest elevation of the province, the 1,389-metre high Doi Tung is the most important terrain feature. Wat Phra That Doi Chom Thong wat on top of the hill, according to the chronicles, dates back to the year 911. Nearby is Doi Tung Royal Villa, former residence of the late princess mother Somdej Phra Srinagarindra. Thanks to her activities the hills were reforested, the hill tribes diverted from growing opium poppies to other crops including coffee, bananas and pineapples. Populations have dwelled in Chiang Rai since the 7th century and it became the center of the Lanna Kingdom during the 13th century; the region, rich in natural resources, was occupied by the Burmese until 1786. Chiang Rai Province's golden triangle bordering Laos and Burma was once the hub of opium production. Chiang Rai became a province in 1910, after being part of the Lanna Kingdom for centuries. After Lanna was incorporated into Thailand, it remained an autonomous region and thus the Chiang Rai area was administered from Chiang Mai.
Chiang Rai Province is a transit point for Rohingya refugees from Myanmar who are transported there from Sangkhlaburi district in Kanchanaburi Province. The majority of the population are ethnic Thai who speak Kham Muang among themselves, but 12.5% are of hill tribes origin, a sizeable minority in the north provinces. A smaller number are of Chinese descent descendants of the Kuomintang soldiers who settled in the region, notably in Santikhiri; the seal of the province shows a white elephant, the royal symbol, recalling that Chiang Rai was founded by King Mengrai, according to legend because his elephant liked the place. The provincial tree is the tree jasmine, the provincial flower is the orange trumpet. Provincial Slogan The former provincial slogan: "เหนือสุดในสยาม อร่ามดอยตุง ผดุงวัฒนธรรม รสล้ำข้าวสาร หอมหวานลิ้นจี่ สตรีโสภา ชาเลิศรส สัปปะรดนางแล Translation: Northernmost of Siam, beautiful Doi Tung, repository of culture, most delicious rice and fragrant litchi, beautiful women, the finest flavoured tea, pineapple from Nang-Lae, source of the giant catfish).
Mentioned symbols: Geographically, the northernmost of Siam Doi Tung, the hill where the Doi Tung Royal Villa and Phra Thart Doi Tung Temple located Rice grown in the province Lychee. The districts are further subdivided into 124 sub-districts and 1,751 villages. Since 2003, United Nations Development Programme in Thailand has tracked progress on human development at sub national level using the Human achievement index, a composite index covering all the eight key areas of human development. Chiang Rai province, with a HAI value of 0.6130, takes 53rd place in the rankings. This is "low" between the values of 0.6070 and 0.6209. Chiang Rai International Airport has domestic flights to both Bangkok airports, which connect to regional and international flights. There is daily boat service between Tha Ton. There is no railway system in Chiang Rai; the nearest station is Chiang Mai Railway Station. Chiang Rai Province is intersected by Asian Highway 2, which runs for over 13,000 km from Denpasar in Indonesia to Kosravi in Iran, by Asian Highway 3, which runs for over 7,000 km from Kentung in Myanmar to Ulan-Ude in Russia.
Decent bus services are available in the province. In more remote areas, songthaews are the norm. Khon Muang are the city folk who came from Chiang Mai, Lamphun and Phrae. Culturally, they design their houses having only one floor with wooden gable decorations called "ka-lae", they are known for their craftsmanship in wood carving, lacquer ware, musical instruments. Tai Yai are a Tai ethnic group who live in what is now Shan State in Burma, in Mae Hong Son Province in Thailand, they grow rice, raise cattle, trade. Their
Phang Nga Province
Phang Nga is one of the southern provinces of Thailand, on the shore of the Andaman Sea to the west and Phang Nga Bay to the south. Neighboring provinces are Ranong, Surat Thani, Krabi. To the south is the Phuket Province, connected by the Sarasin Bridge; the province is on the west side of the Malay Peninsula, includes the many islands of the Phang Nga Bay. The most famous one is the so-called James Bond Island, a needle formed limestone rock in the sea, which featured in the 1974 movie The Man with the Golden Gun. Ao Phang Nga National Park was established in 1981 to protect the many islands; the Similan Islands and Surin Islands, two of Thailand's main diving destinations, are part of Phang Nga Province. Phang Nga is the modern Thai transliteration of the archaic Malay word pangan, literally'jungle'; the phrase orang pangan denotes'heathen, primitive people', in reference to a generalised tribe or people inhabiting jungle areas of the Malay Peninsula and its offshore islands. During the reign of King Rama II, nearby areas were occupied by the Burmese and so many people fled to Kraphu Nga.
In 1824 when Siamese troops defeated the Burmese and they were expelled, King Rama III renamed the area adjacent to the bay phang-nga. This bastardisation of Malay pangan offers indicates that the entire region may have been populated by Orang Asli or other aboriginal peoples. In 1933 the town was promoted to provincial status. On the morning of 26 December 2004 the Andaman Sea coastline of the province was devastated by a tsunami and thousands lost their lives; the Khura Buri District Ko Phra Thong, has been called a "smuggler's paradise" and thus a key entry point into Thailand for human trafficking, Rohingya and Syrian refugees particularly. The provincial seal shows the Phu Khao Chang mountains in the background, with city hall in front, it shows a dredge to represent the tin mining in the province. The provincial slogan is, "Massive mining industry, Ban Klang Nam'floating house', delightful caves, strangely shaped hills, Jampun flower, rich in resources"; the provincial tree is the Cinnamomum porrectum, the provincial flower is Anaxagorea javanica.
Phang Nga is divided into eight districts, which are further subdivided into 48 communes and 314 villages. Roads: Hwy 4 is the main route that connects all districts in Phang Nga. Hwy 401 connects Phang Nga to Surat Thani. Hwy 402 connects Phang Nga to Phuket Province. Hwy 4090 connects Muang to Kapong District. Railways: There is no rail system in Phang Nga Province; the nearest railway station is at Surat Thani Province. Bus: There are frequent buses to Bangkok and other provinces. There are non air conditioned intra-provincial buses. Public transit: songthaews are the most popular mode of public transportation in Phang Nga. Motorbike-taxi: These are found in Phang Nga town and are used for short distances. Charges correspond to distance traveled. Airport: There is no airport in Phang Nga Province; the nearest airport is Phuket International Airport. Ao Phang Nga National Park was declared a national park in 1981, it has scenic views and features mass limestone formations scattered around in the sea near the shore.
The same factors contribute to the density of caves in the area. The park is fertile with mangroves and there are a number of islands in the vicinity. Mu Ko Similan National Park was declared a national park in 1982. Similan is a group of nine islands. Off-season is 16 May–31 October. Mu Ko Surin National Park is an archipelago of five islands: Ko Surin Nuea, Ko Surin Tai, Ko Ri, Ko Khai, Ko Klang, it was declared a national park on 9 July 1981. The archipelago is near the Thai-Burmese oceanic border. Khao Lak–Lam Ru National Park was declared a national park in August 1991; the park occupies an area of 150 square kilometers and covers Thai Mueang District, Kapong District, Takua Pa District, Mueang District. The interesting attractions are: Khao Lak, which has the Chao Pho Khao Lak Shrine, Laem Pakarang which has groves of pine, making it good for camping and relaxation, Namtok Ton Chong Fa or Ton Chong Fa Waterfall. Khao Lampi–Hat Thai Mueang National Park The park occupies an area of 18,000 acres.
It was declared a national park on 14 April 1988. Interesting attractions in the park include: Namtok Lampi is a 6-tiered waterfall that runs all year round. Phang Nga travel guide from Wikivoyage Provincial website