A missal is a liturgical book containing all instructions and texts necessary for the celebration of Mass throughout the year. Before the compilation of such books, several books were used; these included the Gradual, the Evangelary or Gospel Book, the Epistolary with texts from other parts of the New Testament the Epistles of Saint Paul, the Sacramentary with the prayers that the priest himself said. In late mediaeval times, when it had become common in the West for priests to say Mass without the assistance of a choir and other ministers, these books began to be combined into a "Mass book", for the priest's use alone; this led to the appearance of the missale plenum, which contained all the texts of the Mass, but without the music of the choir parts. Indications of the rubrics to be followed were added; the Roman Missal published by Pope Pius V in 1570 replaced the widespread use of different missal traditions by different parts of the church, such as those of Troyes and others. Many episcopal sees had some local prayers and feast days in addition.

At the behest of the Second Vatican Council, Pope Paul VI increased the amount of Sacred Scripture read at Mass and, to a lesser extent, the prayer formulas. This necessitated a return to having the Scripture readings in a separate book, known as the Lectionary. A separate Book of the Gospels, with texts extracted from the Lectionary, is recommended, but is not obligatory; the Roman Missal continues to include elaborate rubrics, as well as antiphons etc. which were not in sacramentaries. The first complete official translation of the Roman Missal into English appeared in 1973, based on the text of 1970. On 28 March 2001, the Holy See issued the Instruction Liturgiam authenticam; this included the requirement that, in translations of the liturgical texts from the official Latin originals, "the original text, insofar as possible, must be translated integrally and in the most exact manner, without omissions or additions in terms of their content, without paraphrases or glosses. Any adaptation to the characteristics or the nature of the various vernacular languages is to be sober and discreet."

The following year, the third typical edition of the revised Roman Missal in Latin was released. These two texts made clear the need for a new official English translation of the Roman Missal because the previous one was at some points an adaptation rather than a translation. An example is the rendering of the response "Et cum spiritu tuo" as "And with you"; the fresh official English translation, prepared by the International Commission on English in the Liturgy, was adopted by English-speaking episcopal conferences and received confirmation from the Holy See. The text of this revised English translation of the Order of Mass is available at this website page, a comparison between it and that at present in use in the United States is given under the heading "Changes in the People's Parts". Within the Anglican tradition, in 1921, the Society of Saints Peter and Paul published the Anglican Missal in Great Britain; the Frank Gavin Liturgical Foundation of Mount Sinai published a revised edition in 1961 and the Anglican Parishes Association continues to print it.

In France, missals begin to be illuminated from the beginning of the 13th century. At this time, the missal was divided into several parts: calendar, temporal and canon of the mass, votive masses and various additions. Two principal parts of the missal are the sanctoral; the temporal contains texts for the mass, day by day for the whole liturgical year, organized around Christmas and Easter. The sanctoral presents a liturgical year through the commemoration of saints. Votive masses, different prayers, new feasts, commemoration of recent saints and canonizations were placed at the end of the missal. Iconographic analysis of the missals of the Diocese of Paris from the 13th-14th centuries shows the use of certain traditional images as well as some changing motifs. Among the former group, some types of initials, including the introit to the First Sunday of Advent; the second group with changing scenes include some images of the clergy that are not depicted in all missals, but can be a repeating motif pertaining to only one manuscript.

This can be the priest at the priest elevating the host, monks in song and so forth. Catholic missals after the Second Vatican Council are only little illustrated, at least before 2002 with black-and-white pictures. Since 2005, many editions of the Editio typica tertia of the Roman Missal have been illustrated in colour in the English-speaking world; the term "missal" is used for books intended for use not by the priest but by others assisting at Mass or the service of worship. These books are sometimes referred to as "hand missals" or "missalettes", while the term "altar missal" is sometimes used to distinguish the missal for the priest's use from them, they omit or abbreviate the rubrical portions and Mass texts for other than the regular yearly celebrations, but include the Scripture readings. One such missal has been used for the swearing in of a United States President. After the assassination of President John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as Presi

Tom Wright (rugby, born 1997)

Tom Wright is an Australian rugby union player signed to the Brumbies in Super Rugby. He played rugby league for the Manly Warringah Sea Eagles in the National Rugby League as a five-eighth. Wright was born in Australia. Tom played his junior rugby league for Clovelly Crocodiles and La Perouse Panthers and played rugby union while attending St Joseph's College, Hunters Hill, he made his NRL debut in Round 2018 for Manly Sea Eagles against the Brisbane Broncos. In September 2018 Wright joined the ACT Brumbies on a two year deal. Manly Sea Eagles profile Brumbies Profile


Involver is a mix album by Welsh DJ Sasha. It was released on 14 June 2004 through British record label Global Underground. Tracks by other artists which Sasha admired were chosen for the album and have each been remixed to give his own interpretation of them, it received favorable reviews for its track selection and creative mixing techniques. The compilation features additional co-production from British producers Charlie May and Simon Wright, it is Sasha's only mix album to chart on the UK and US Albums Chart, peaking at numbers 61 and 200 on release. In 2005, the Grammy committee debated whether Involver was eligible for nomination as Best Electronic/Dance Album; the Recording Academy decided that the album was eligible, but Involver did not receive a nomination. Sasha did receive a Grammy nomination for his remix of Felix da Housecat's "Watching Cars Go By", featured on Involver. On 11 September 2013 Sasha made the entire album available for streaming on his personal YouTube channel. Involver at Discogs