Kalkaska County, Michigan
Kalkaska County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 17,153; the county seat is Kalkaska. Kalkaska County is included in the Traverse City Micropolitan Statistical Area. Although it is located on Michigan's Lower Peninsula, Kalkaska County is considered part of Northern Michigan; the county's name is a pseudo-Native American word coined by Henry Schoolcraft, a Michigan geographer and ethnologist. The name is thought to be a Chippewa word meaning burned-over country. An alternative theory is that this is a neologism or neonym created by Henry Schoolcraft spelled Calcasca; some theorists suggest. Schoolcraft's family name had been Calcraft, the Ks may have been added to make the name appear more like a Native American word; the county was formed in 1840 and called Wabassee County until 1843. The first settler in Kalkaska County was William Copeland, from England, who purchased land in the northwest corner of the county in 1855. Logging was the first important industry.
The discovery of substantial deposits of oil and natural gas resulted in the construction of a processing plant by Shell Oil Company in 1973 and a major economic boom in the community. According to the US Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 571 square miles, of which 560 square miles is land and 11 square miles is water. Kalkaska Sand, the state soil of Michigan, was named after the county because of the large amounts deposited in the area from glaciers in the Ice Age. Kalkaska County has 275 miles of streams and rivers. Much of the county is marshland. County elevation ranges from 595 feet to about 1,246 feet; this makes it one of the more uneven counties in the Lower Peninsula. The Pere Marquette State Forest covers much of the county. Glaciers shaped the area. A large portion of the area is the Grayling outwash plain, a broad outwash plain including sandy ice-disintegration ridges. Large lakes were created by glacial action. US 131 – runs NE through the western part of the county. Enters at 4 miles north of SW corner.
M-66 – runs north-south through west-central part of county. Passes Kalkaska. M-72 -- runs ESE through middle portion of county. Passes Kalkaska; as of the 2010 United States Census there were 16,571 people, 6,428 households, 4,634 families residing in the county. The population density was 30 people per square mile. There were 10,822 housing units at an average density of 19 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 98.44% White, 0.21% Black or African American, 0.78% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 0.10% from other races, 0.86% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 24.6% were of German, 12.4% English, 10.4% Irish, 10.0% American, 6.3% Polish and 5.1% French ancestry according to Census 2000. 98.8% spoke English as their first language. There were 6,428 households out of which 31.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.60% were married couples living together, 9.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.90% were non-families.
22.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 2.95. The county population contained 25.60% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 28.60% from 25 to 44, 24.50% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,072, the median income for a family was $39,932. Males had a median income of $31,860 versus $20,455 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,309. About 8.20% of families and 10.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.20% of those under age 18 and 7.00% of those age 65 or over. Kalkaska County voters have been reliably Republican from the start, they have selected the Republican Party nominee in 85% of national elections.
The county government operates the jail, maintains rural roads, operates the major local courts, records deeds and vital records, administers public health regulations, participates with the state in the provision of social services. The county board of commissioners controls the budget and has limited authority to make laws or ordinances. In Michigan, most local government functions — police and fire and zoning, tax assessment, street maintenance, etc. — are the responsibility of individual cities and townships. The National Trout Festival is an annual festival since 1936, held in April, it notes the sportsmanship of Kalkaska. Kalkaska List of Michigan State Historic Sites in Kalkaska County, Michigan Westwood Cemetery Kalkaska Genealogical Society: Big Trout, Black Gold: History of Kalkaska County MI
Michigan is a state in the Great Lakes and Midwestern regions of the United States. The state's name, originates from the Ojibwe word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake". With a population of about 10 million, Michigan is the tenth most populous of the 50 United States, with the 11th most extensive total area, is the largest state by total area east of the Mississippi River, its capital is Lansing, its largest city is Detroit. Metro Detroit is among the nation's largest metropolitan economies. Michigan is the only state to consist of two peninsulas; the Lower Peninsula is noted as shaped like a mitten. The Upper Peninsula is separated from the Lower Peninsula by the Straits of Mackinac, a five-mile channel that joins Lake Huron to Lake Michigan; the Mackinac Bridge connects the peninsulas. The state has the longest freshwater coastline of any political subdivision in the world, being bounded by four of the five Great Lakes, plus Lake Saint Clair; as a result, it is one of the leading U.
S. states for recreational boating. Michigan has 64,980 inland lakes and ponds. A person in the state is never more than six miles from a natural water source or more than 85 miles from a Great Lakes shoreline; the area was first occupied by a succession of Native American tribes over thousands of years. Inhabited by Natives, Métis, French explorers in the 17th century, it was claimed as part of New France colony. After France's defeat in the French and Indian War in 1762, the region came under British rule. Britain ceded this territory to the newly independent United States after Britain's defeat in the American Revolutionary War; the area was part of the larger Northwest Territory until 1800, when western Michigan became part of the Indiana Territory. Michigan Territory was formed in 1805, but some of the northern border with Canada was not agreed upon until after the War of 1812. Michigan was admitted into the Union in 1837 as a free one, it soon became an important center of industry and trade in the Great Lakes region and a popular immigrant destination in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Although Michigan developed a diverse economy, it is known as the center of the U. S. automotive industry, which developed as a major economic force in the early 20th century. It is home to the country's three major automobile companies. While sparsely populated, the Upper Peninsula is important for tourism thanks to its abundance of natural resources, while the Lower Peninsula is a center of manufacturing, agriculture and high-tech industry; when the first European explorers arrived, the most populous tribes were Algonquian peoples, which include the Anishinaabe groups of Ojibwe, Odaawaa/Odawa, the Boodewaadamii/Bodéwadmi. The three nations co-existed peacefully as part of a loose confederation called the Council of Three Fires; the Ojibwe, whose numbers are estimated to have been between 25,000 and 35,000, were the largest. The Ojibwe were established in Michigan's Upper Peninsula and northern and central Michigan, inhabited Ontario and southern Manitoba, Canada; the Ottawa lived south of the Straits of Mackinac in northern and southern Michigan, but in southern Ontario, northern Ohio and eastern Wisconsin.
The Potawatomi were in southern and western Michigan, in addition to northern and central Indiana, northern Illinois, southern Wisconsin, southern Ontario. Other Algonquian tribes in Michigan, in the south and east, were the Mascouten, the Menominee, the Miami, the Sac, the Fox; the Wyandot were an Iroquoian-speaking people in this area. French voyageurs and coureurs des bois settled in Michigan in the 17th century; the first Europeans to reach what became Michigan were those of Étienne Brûlé's expedition in 1622. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1668 on the site where Père Jacques Marquette established Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan as a base for Catholic missions. Missionaries in 1671–75 founded outlying stations at Saint Ignace and Marquette. Jesuit missionaries were well received by the area's Indian populations, with few difficulties or hostilities. In 1679, Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle built Fort Miami at present-day St. Joseph. In 1691, the French established a trading post and Fort St. Joseph along the St. Joseph River at the present-day city of Niles.
In 1701, French explorer and army officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac founded Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or "Fort Pontchartrain on-the-Strait" on the strait, known as the Detroit River, between lakes Saint Clair and Erie. Cadillac had convinced King Louis XIV's chief minister, Louis Phélypeaux, Comte de Pontchartrain, that a permanent community there would strengthen French control over the upper Great Lakes and discourage British aspirations; the hundred soldiers and workers who accompanied Cadillac built a fort enclosing one arpent and named it Fort Pontchartrain. Cadillac's wife, Marie Thérèse Guyon, soon moved to Detroit, becoming one of the first European women to settle in what was considered the wilderness of Michigan; the town became a major fur-trading and shipping post. The Église de Saint-Anne was founded the same year. While the original building does not survive, the congregation remains active. Cadillac departed to serve as the French governor of Louisiana from 1710 to 1716.
French attempts to consol
Cadillac is a city in the U. S. state of Michigan, located in Haring Township. The city is the county seat of Wexford County; the population was 10,355 at the 2010 census. The city is situated at the junction of US 131, M-55 and M-115; the geographic center of Michigan is five miles north-northwest of Cadillac. Cadillac became the county seat after the so-called "Battle of Manton," in which a show of force was involved in enforcing a controversial decision to move the county seat from Manton. Although European explorers and traders visited the area since the 18th century, permanent white communities were not established until some time later. Initial settlements were connected with the logging industry. In 1871, Cadillac's first sawmill began operations. Called the Pioneer Mill, it was built by John R. Yale; that same year, George A. Mitchell, a prominent Cadillac banker and railroad entrepreneur, Adam Gallinger, a local carpenter, formed the Clam Lake Canal Improvement and Construction Company. Two years the Clam Lake Canal was constructed between Big and Little Clam lakes, present-day Lakes Mitchell and Cadillac.
Sawmill owners used the canal to transport timber from Big Clam Lake to the mills and railroad sites—the G. R. & I. Railroad had reached the area in 1872 -- in Cadillac. Cadillac was named Clam Lake and was incorporated as a village in 1874. George Mitchell was elected the first mayor; the village was incorporated as a city in 1877 and renamed Cadillac, after Antoine Laumet de La Mothe, sieur de Cadillac, a Frenchman who made the first permanent settlement at Detroit in 1701. The Wexford County seat of government located in Sherman, was moved to Manton in 1881, as the result of a compromise between the feuding residents of Cadillac and Sherman. Cadillac partisans, won the county seat by county-wide vote in April 1882; the day following the election a sheriff's posse left the city for Manton by special train to seize the county records. After arriving and collecting a portion of the materials, however, an angry crowd confronted the Cadillac men and drove them from the town; when the sheriff returned to Cadillac, a force consisting of several hundred armed men was assembled.
The Sheriff's force, some of whom may have been intoxicated, traveled back to Manton to seize the remaining records. Although Manton residents confronted the Cadillac men and barricaded the courthouse, the posse seized the documents and, in dubious glory, returned to Cadillac. In 1878, Ephraim Shay perfected his Shay locomotive, effective in its ability to climb steep grades, maneuver sharp turns and manage imperfections in railroad tracks. Cadillac was home to the Michigan Iron Works Company, which manufactured the Shay locomotive for a short time in the early 1880s, it was however the lumber industry that continued to dominate the city, drawing in a large immigrant labor force, most of whom were Swedish. In 1899, the Cadillac Club formed, the forerunner of the Cadillac Area Chamber of Commerce. Various manufacturing firms found success in Cadillac. By the early 20th century, with the lumber depleted, the timber industry was in decline. Industrial development soon dominated the local economy, it continues to do so today.
Cadillac's range of industries includes the manufacture of pleasure boats, automotive parts, water-well components, vacuum cleaners, rubber products. In 1936, the U. S. Forest Service and the Civilian Conservation Corps created the Caberfae Ski Area, which led to promotion of the area as a tourist center. Caberfae remains as the oldest ski resort in the midwest. Tourism has since become an important sector of Cadillac's economy. In the summer, tourists travel to the city for boating, hiking, mountain biking and camping. During the fall and color tours are popular; the winter is the busiest season. The North American Snowmobile Festival is held on frozen Lake Cadillac every winter. Thirsty's, a gas station on M-55 west of Cadillac, was the home of Samantha or "Sam The Bear" from the 1970s through the late 1990s, when Sam died of old age. Sam was the only brown bear in captivity in the US at the time to hibernate naturally. Sam lived in a large cage in front of the gas station and was fed ice cream cones by tourists every summer.
In October 1975 the rock group Kiss visited Cadillac and performed at the Cadillac High School gymnasium. They played the concert to honor the Cadillac High School football team. In previous years, the team had compiled a record of sixteen consecutive victories, but the 1974 squad opened the season with two losses; the assistant coach, Jim Neff, an English teacher and rock'n'roll fan, thought to inspire the team by playing Kiss music in the locker room. He connected the team's game plan, K-I-S-S or "Keep It Simple Stupid", with the band; the team went on to win their conference co-championship. After learning of their association with the team's success, the band decided to visit the school and play for the homecoming game. Cadillac maintains a number of state historic landmarks. Most are marked with a green "Michigan Historical Marker" sign that includes a description of the landmark. There are six markers within the city limits:'Cadillac Carnegie Library,"Charles T. Mitchell House,"Clam Lake Canal,"Cobbs & Mitchell Building,"Cobbs & Mitchell No. 1' and the'Shay Locomotive,', pictured at the right.
Two more are in the near Cadillac area ('Caberfae Ski Resort' and'Greenwood Disc
Grand Traverse County, Michigan
Grand Traverse County is a county located in the U. S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 86,986; the county seat is Traverse City. According to the United States Census Bureau, it is estimated that the population of Grand Traverse County in July 2017 was 91,807. Grand Traverse County is part of the Traverse City, MI Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Benzie and Leelanau counties. Interlochen, home of the Interlochen Center for the Arts is located in Green Lake Township. Grand Traverse County was known as Omeena County. In 1840, the county was separated from Mackinac County and named Omeena County to be renamed Grand Traverse County, after Grand Traverse. Grand Traverse County was organized by an act of the state legislature on April 7, 1851. Grand Traverse is derived from a French phrase meaning "long crossing" and the county is so named because it is situated at the Grand Traverse Bay; the first permanent settlement in the county was the mission now known as Old Mission.
The county was divided into two townships: Peninsula Township, coterminous with the Old Mission Peninsula, Traverse Township, which took up the rest of the county. Over time, Traverse Township was divided into Whitewater townships. On, Garfield Township was further divided into Silver Lake and Mayfield townships, Whitewater Township was divided into Acme, East Bay, Paradise townships. Over time, lines were redrawn, the townships evolved into today's configuration. There are 12 recognized Michigan historical markers in the county: They are: According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 601 square miles, of which 464 square miles is land and 137 square miles is water. Grand Traverse County is considered to be part of Northern Michigan; the highest point in Grand Traverse County is Exodus Hill in Long Lake Township, the lowest point is the Grand Traverse Bay. Power Island, the largest island in Grand Traverse Bay, is part of Peninsula Township. Antrim County Kalkaska County Wexford County Benzie County Leelanau County Manistee County Anderson River Betsie River Boardman River Joe Maddy River Little Betsie River Platte River South Skegemog River Grand Traverse County is served by Cherry Capital Airport, located near Traverse City.
It serves the 21-county Northern Michigan area, has destinations around the country. Below are the other airports in the county Acme Skyport Green Lake Airport Tramps Aerodrome Yuba AirportAll of these airports are unpaved, except for Cherry Capital. There was an airport on the south side of Traverse City called Ransom Field; this was located on Rennie Hill. This airport closed sometime in 1969; the county contains about.01 % of the Michigan State Trunkline Highway System. These highways include the ones listed below. US 31 runs through the county southwest to northeast, it provides access to cities to southwest. The highway runs all the way to Spanish Fort, Alabama, to the south and runs through major cities like Indianapolis, Louisville and Birmingham. US 131 runs through the far southeastern part of the county within Fife Lake Township; the highway provides access to Kalkaska and Petoskey to the north, cities like Grand Rapids and Kalamazoo to the south. The southern end is at the Indiana Toll Road just across the state line.
M-22 is the shortest highway segment within the county. It begins at an intersection in Traverse City, runs northwest along the Grand Traverse Bay towards the county line, it continues in Leelanau County up towards Northport and runs southwesterly towards Glen Arbor and Manistee. M-37 is the longest highway in the county, it runs from a cul-de-sac at Old Mission Point southerly through Buckley. The highway continues down through the state to Baldwin, Grand Rapids and Battle Creek. M-72 runs east-to-west in the county from northern Long Lake Township to near Williamsburg; the highway provides access to Empire and central Leelanau County to the west, Kalkaska and Harrisville to the east. M-113 runs through the southern portion of the county, connecting M-37 to US 131 while passing through Kingsley and Walton. M-137 is a short highway connecting US 31 to Interlochen, Interlochen Center for the Arts, Interlochen State Park. M-186 is a short highway providing a direct route from M-113 to Fife Lake; as of the census of 2000, there were 77,654 people, 30,396 households, 20,730 families residing in the county.
The population density was 167 inhabitants per square mile. There were 34,842 housing units at an average density of 75 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.51% White, 0.40% Black or African American, 0.93% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.54% from other races, 1.09% from two or more races. 1.49% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 25.1% were of German, 11.3% English, 10.7% Irish, 8.4% American and 7.4% Polish ancestry according to Census 2000. 96.4% spoke English and 1.6% Spanish as their first language. There were 30,396 households out of which 32.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.70% were married couples living together, 9.20% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.80% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.00% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The av
Dutch people or the Dutch are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands. They speak the Dutch language. Dutch people and their descendants are found in migrant communities worldwide, notably in Aruba, Guyana, Curaçao, Brazil, Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, the United States; the Low Countries were situated around the border of France and the Holy Roman Empire, forming a part of their respective peripheries, the various territories of which they consisted had become autonomous by the 13th century. Under the Habsburgs, the Netherlands were organised into a single administrative unit, in the 16th and 17th centuries the Northern Netherlands gained independence from Spain as the Dutch Republic; the high degree of urbanization characteristic of Dutch society was attained at a early date. During the Republic the first series of large-scale Dutch migrations outside of Europe took place; the Dutch have left behind a substantial legacy despite the limited size of their country. The Dutch people are seen as the pioneers of capitalism, their emphasis on a modern economy, a free market had a huge influence on the great powers of the West the British Empire, its Thirteen Colonies, the United States.
The traditional arts and culture of the Dutch encompasses various forms of traditional music, architectural styles and clothing, some of which are globally recognizable. Internationally, Dutch painters such as Rembrandt and Van Gogh are held in high regard; the dominant religion of the Dutch was Christianity, although in modern times the majority are no longer religious. Significant percentages of the Dutch are adherents of humanism, atheism or individual spirituality; as with all ethnic groups, the ethnogenesis of the Dutch has been a complex process. Though the majority of the defining characteristics of the Dutch ethnic group have accumulated over the ages, it is difficult to pinpoint the exact emergence of the Dutch people; the text below hence focuses on the history of the Dutch ethnic group. For Dutch colonial history, see the article on the Dutch Empire. In the first centuries CE, the Germanic tribes formed tribal societies with no apparent form of autocracy, beliefs based Germanic paganism and speaking a dialect still resembling Common Germanic.
Following the end of the migration period in the West around 500, with large federations settling the decaying Roman Empire, a series of monumental changes took place within these Germanic societies. Among the most important of these are their conversion from Germanic paganism to Christianity, the emergence of a new political system, centered on kings, a continuing process of emerging mutual unintelligibility of their various dialects; the general situation described above is applicable to most if not all modern European ethnic groups with origins among the Germanic tribes, such as the Frisians, Germans and the North-Germanic peoples. In the Low Countries, this phase began when the Franks, themselves a union of multiple smaller tribes, began to incur the northwestern provinces of the Roman Empire. In 358, the Salian Franks, one of the three main subdivisions among the Frankish alliance settled the area's Southern lands as foederati. Linguistically Old Frankish or Low Franconian evolved into Old Dutch, first attested in the 6th century, whereas religiously the Franks converted to Christianity from around 500 to 700.
On a political level, the Frankish warlords abandoned tribalism and founded a number of kingdoms culminating in the Frankish Empire of Charlemagne. However, the population make-up of the Frankish Empire, or early Frankish kingdoms such as Neustria and Austrasia, was not dominated by Franks. Though the Frankish leaders controlled most of Western Europe, the Franks themselves were confined to the Northwestern part of the Empire; the Franks in Northern France were assimilated by the general Gallo-Roman population, took over their dialects, whereas the Franks in the Low Countries retained their language, which would evolve into Dutch. The current Dutch-French language border has remained identical since, could be seen as marking the furthest pale of gallicization among the Franks; the medieval cities of the Low Countries, which experienced major growth during the 11th and 12th century, were instrumental in breaking down the relatively loose local form of feudalism. As they became powerful, they used their economical strength to influence the politics of their nobility.
During the early 14th century, beginning in and inspired by the County of Flanders, the cities in the Low Countries gained huge autonomy and dominated or influenced the various political affairs of the fief, including marriage succession. While the cities were of great political importance, they formed catalys
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government