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In military language, a missile known as a guided missile, is a guided airborne ranged weapon capable of self-propelled flight by a jet engine or rocket motor. Missiles have four system components: targeting/guidance system, flight system and warhead. Missiles come in types adapted for different purposes: surface-to-surface and air-to-surface missiles, surface-to-air missiles, air-to-air missiles, anti-satellite weapons. In ordinary language, the word missile means a projectile, thrown, shot or propelled toward a target. Non-self-propelled airborne explosive devices are referred to as shells and have a shorter range than missiles. Unguided jet-propelled missiles however are regarded as rocket artillery; the first missiles to be used operationally were a series of missiles developed by Nazi Germany in World War II. Most famous of these are the V-1 flying bomb and V-2 rocket, both of which used a mechanical autopilot to keep the missile flying along a pre-chosen route. Less well known were a series of Anti-Ship and Anti-aircraft missiles based on a simple radio control system directed by the operator.

However, these early systems in World War II were only built in small numbers. Guided missiles have a number of different system components: Guidance system Targeting system Flight system Engine Warhead The most common method of guidance is to use some form of radiation, such as infrared, lasers or radio waves, to guide the missile onto its target; this radiation may emanate from the target, it may be provided by the missile itself, or it may be provided by a friendly third party. The first two are known as fire-and-forget as they need no further support or control from the launch vehicle/platform in order to function. Another method is to use a TV guidance, with a visible light or infrared picture produced in order to see the target; the picture may be used either by a human operator who steering the missile onto its target or by a computer doing much the same job. One of the more bizarre guidance methods instead used a pigeon to steer a missile to its target; some missiles have a home-on-jam capability to guide itself to a radar-emitting source.

Many missiles use a combination of two or more of the methods to improve accuracy and the chances of a successful engagement. Another method is to target the missile by knowing the location of the target and using a guidance system such as INS, TERCOM or satellite guidance; this guidance system guides the missile by knowing the missile's current position and the position of the target, calculating a course between them. This job can be performed somewhat crudely by a human operator who can see the target and the missile and guide it using either cable- or radio-based remote control, or by an automatic system that can track the target and the missile. Furthermore, some missiles use initial targeting, sending them to a target area, where they will switch to primary targeting, using either radar or IR targeting to acquire the target. Whether a guided missile uses a targeting system, a guidance system or both, it needs a flight system; the flight system uses the data from the targeting or guidance system to maneuver the missile in flight, allowing it to counter inaccuracies in the missile or to follow a moving target.

There are two main systems: aerodynamic maneuvering. Missiles are powered by an engine either a type of rocket engine or jet engine. Rockets are of the solid propellant type for ease of maintenance and fast deployment, although some larger ballistic missiles use liquid-propellant rockets. Jet engines are used in cruise missiles, most of the turbojet type, due to its relative simplicity and low frontal area. Turbofans and ramjets are the only other common forms of jet engine propulsion, although any type of engine could theoretically be used. Long-range missiles may have multiple engine stages in those launched from the surface; these stages may all be of similar types or may include a mix of engine types − for example, surface-launched cruise missiles have a rocket booster for launching and a jet engine for sustained flight. Some missiles may have additional propulsion from another source at launch. Missiles have one or more explosive warheads, although other weapon types may be used; the warheads of a missile provide its primary destructive power.

Warheads are most of the high explosive type employing shaped charges to exploit the accuracy of a guided weapon to destroy hardened targets. Other warhead types include submunitions, nuclear weapons, biological or radiological weapons or kinetic energy penetrators. Warheadless missiles are used for testing and training purposes. Missiles are categorized by their launch platform and intended target. In broadest terms, these will either be surface or air, sub-categorized by range and the exact target type. Many weapons are designed to be launched fr

Tatakau Shisho

Tatakau Shisho is a Japanese light novel series written by Ishio Yamagata and illustrated by Shigeki Maeshima. The series started with the release of the first volume on September 22, 2005, by January 22, 2010, ten volumes had been published by Shueisha under its Super Dash Bunko label. A manga adaptation by Kokonotsu Shinohara was serialized in Shueisha's Internet-based manga magazine Ultra Jump Egg between March 2008 and October 2009. An anime adaptation, The Book of Bantorra began airing in Japan on October 2, 2009. In 2012, the anime series was licensed for distribution in North America by Sentai Filmworks. In a world where deceased people turn into stone-like books and are stored in the Bantorra Library, anyone who reads a book can learn its past. Bantorra Library is maintained by the Armed Librarians, who wield supernatural abilities, their enemy is a psychotic cult known as Shindeki Church; as the story progresses it presents a world of sorrow and pain, the unfairness and frugality of life, as well as personal desires.

However, in each arc there is a small underlying hope, more of the reasons and secrets are revealed behind everything. Hamyuts Meseta Voiced by: Romi Park, she wears a white button-down shirt with a small bunny patch sewn on the right breast. She has a lust for battle, she had a relationship with Mattalast in the past. Her main weapon is a sling, which she uses to snipe enemies from a far distance with great precision and force, she can throw large objects, but uses small rocks or pebbles. The speed of those projectiles can reach five times the speed of sound, her magic ability is "Sensory Fibres". Her fibres emitted, can reach 50 kilometers, while the number of fibres emitted reaches over billions. According to Minth's Sacred Eyes ability, her main trait is self-loathing, her thoughts are void, she wishes for love. Mattalast Ballory Voiced by: Toru Ohkawa, he wears a black tuxedo and bowler hat. He always known by people as a liar, he used to have a relationship with Hamyuts. His main weapons are guns.

He bears an anti-tank rifle. His magic ability is to see two seconds ahead in the future, which he can use to preemptively take action in the presence of the enemy, he is one of the few who knows the secret of Heaven and protects it. Mirepoc Finedel Voiced by: Miyuki Sawashiro, she was once a reserve officer of The Empire and was introduced by Hamyuts Meseta to join the Armed Librarians. She wears her uniform and is a strict person, her main weapons are a pistol. Due to her lack of combat proficiency she takes on a support role, her magic ability is Telepathy. She is in love with Volken. Volken Macmani Voiced by: Yuichi Nakamura, he always wears traditional Armed Librarian robes. He is proud of being an Armed Librarian, holds both himself and others to high standards, he is the adopted son of previous Acting Director Fhotona, who he respects. His magic right, which he was born with, is the creation of illusions. While using an illusion of himself as a distraction, he can attack with his personal weapons, iron rings with two blades built into them.

These are referred to as "Macmani's Dancing Blades" because of how they dance and spin through the air. He can walk or stand on them in mid-air, a tactic which requires great agility. Though he is only a third grade armed librarian, he is skilled and could make his way to the top. However, when he discovered Hamyuts was the one who sank the Silver Smoke in Aro bay, his strong sense of justice drove him to rebel against her. Volken believed; when he discovered that the Church of Drowning in God's Grace was a branch of the Armed Librarians, that Fhotona, who taught him the importance of justice knew about it, he was paralyzed by shock. In that moment, Hamyuts was able to kill him. During the final battle in Ruruta's non-entity entrails, Hamyuts uses her "Book Eating" power, summoning Volken to fight alongside the others. Noloty Malche Voiced by: Haruka Tomatsu, she is an expert in hand-to-hand combat. She is a outgoing person who doesn't like to kill people, she was born on an island near The Empire and raised by her father, the head of the village.

After her father died, she was thrown out of the village, became an Armed Librarian. Ruruta Coozancoona Voiced by: Takahiro Sakurai, his ability is "Tearless Ending", which causes snow to fall across the entire planet, putting humanity into an eternal slumber. Like Zatoh Rondohoon, he is a Book Eater, but his resolve allowed him to consume significantly

Australian Rowing Championships

The Australian Rowing Championships is an annual rowing event that determines Australia's national rowing champions and facilitates selection of Australian representative crews for World Championships and the Olympic Games. It is Australia's premier regatta, with states and schools sending their best crews; the Championships commence with the National Regatta - men's, women's and lightweight events in open, under 23, under 19, under 17 and school age categories. Rowers at the National Regatta race in their local club colours with composite crews permitted; the Championships conclude with the Interstate Regatta - eight events competed by state representative crews or scullers selected by the state rowing associations. The states compete for an overall points tally. Inter-colonial racing began in Australia in 1833. Schools and club events were the top-class races throughout the mid 19th century although New South Wales and Victoria raced in men's IVs from 1863. In 1878 Victoria and New South Wales commenced inter-colonial racing in eight-oared boats and the other colonies and joined them such that by 1906 all six Australian states were sending a men's VIII and a sculler, to the annual Interstate Regatta.

A national open rowing championship was discussed at Australian Rowing Council meetings from 1946 but it wasn't until the 1960s that support for the concept was unanimous outside of New South Wales and Victoria. The first National Open Championship Regatta was held in 1962 and was held every two years. Since 1969 the National Regatta has been annual and since 1976 has been held within the same single programme as the Interstate Regatta creating the combined Australian Rowing Championships; the Interstate Regatta is held at the conclusion of the National Regatta and includes the following races for state representative crews: Australia's blue-ribbon annual rowing race for men. Contested by state representative senior heavyweight men's coxed eights. An intercolonial sculling race between New South Wales and Victoria was first held in 1868 and annually from 1895 with Queensland racing. Tasmania has been represented since 1903. South Australia and West Australia have entered scullers with some regularity but not until the 1960s.

The first President of the Australian Amateur Rowing Council, Mr E. C. Watchorn, donated the President's Cup in 1925 as the perpetual trophy for the annual Australian Interstate Single Sculling Championship, it was first won by A A Baynes of Queensland. Mervyn Wood contested the event on nine occasions, won on a record eight occasions, seven of them consecutive 1946 to 1952. G Squires contested the event on eight occasions from 1956 to 1963 winning at his last attempt and finishing second six times. Ted Hale contested the event on a record twelve occasions and won on six occasions, all consecutive from 1976 to 1981, his NSW colleague Dr. Dick Redell finished 2nd to Hale in'76,'77 &'79 and was 3rd in'78. Duncan Free contested the event on eight occasions from 1996 to 2004 winning seven times. Bobby Pearce won on three occasions from 1927 to 1929 and by a 30 length margin in 1928, his cousin Cecil Pearce won from 1936 to 1939. Cecil's son Gary Pearce won in 1965; the premier interstate event for women was the ULVA trophy which from 1920 till 1998 was a fours event.

The trophy had first been presented by the United Licensed Victuallers Association of Queensland. In 1999 the women's interstate race was changed to an event for VIIIs with the Queen's Cup as the prize. Of the seventy-eight occasions between 1920 and 1999 that the race was held in IVs, New South Wales won thirty-one times with eleven of those victories consecutive between 1955 and 1965. Victoria managed twenty-four victories in that period with eleven of them consecutive and enjoying another eleven year consecutive run from 2005 to 2015. Of the twenty-five events up until 2015, Victoria were the victors on eighteen occasions. Kim Crow contested the event for Victoria on nine occasions in the ten years 2007 to 2016 and achieved nine victories. Pauline Frasca made eleven appearances for Victoria in the event between from 2003 and 2014 and saw nine victories. Robyn Selby Smith contested the event for Victoria on ten occasions between 2002 and 2012 achieving seven victories. Alexandra Hagan contested the event on nine consecutive occasions for West Australia between 2008 and 2016.

Lucy Stephan contested the event on seven consecutive occasions for Victoria for seven straight wins from 2012 to 2018. Kate Hornsey was seated in every Tasmanian VIII entered in the event between 2003 and 2014, she stroked six of those crews. The Penrith Cup for a lightweight men's IV was introduced in 1958. Simon Burgess contested the event on ten occasions for Tasmania between 1993 and 2005, eight as stroke, he was victorious on seven consecutive occasions from 1999 to 2005, five of those as stroke. Thomas Gibson contested the event on eight occasions for Tasmania between 2004 and 2012, he was victorious six times, four of those as stroke. Samuel Beltz contested the event on ten occasions for Tasmania between 2002 and 2014, he was victorious eight times. Vaughan Bollen contested the event on eleven occasions - nine times for South Australia, twice for Victoria, he won once for each of those states. Hd had coxed four South Australian King's Cup eights. Since 1963 the interstate women's scull competition has been for the Nell Slatter Cup.

From 1968 until 1998 the premier women's lightweight interstate event was the Victoria Cup competed for by coxless IVs. Sinc

Royal Navy ranks, rates, and uniforms of the 18th and 19th centuries

Royal Navy ranks and uniforms of the 18th and 19th centuries were the original effort of the Royal Navy to create standardized rank and insignia system for use both at shore and at sea. Prior to the 1740s, Royal Navy officers and sailors had no established uniforms, although many of the officer class wore upper-class clothing with wigs to denote their social status. Coats were dark blue to reduce fading caused by the rain and spray, with gold embroidery on the cuffs and standing collar to signify the officer's wealth and status; the early Royal Navy had only three established shipboard ranks: captain and master. This simplicity of rank had its origins in the Middle Ages, where a military company embarked on ship operated independently from the handling of the vessel, overseen by the ship's master. Over time, the nautical command structure merged these two separate command chains into a single entity with captain and lieutenant as commissioned officer ranks while sailing master was seen as a type of warrant officer specializing in navigation and ship handling.

In 1758, the rank of midshipman was introduced, a type of officer candidate position. The rank of "master and commander" first appeared in the 1760s and was temporarily issued to lieutenants in command of vessels, but without a captain's commission. By the 1790s, the rank of master and commander was shortened to "commander". Lord Anson first issued uniform regulations for naval officers in 1748. Officer uniforms were at first divided into a "best uniform", consisting of an embroidered blue coat with white facings worn unbuttoned with white breeches and stockings, as well as a "working rig", a simpler, less embroidered uniform for day-to-day use. In 1767, the terms "dress" and "undress" uniform had been adopted and, by 1795, epaulettes were introduced; the epaulette style uniforms and insignia endured slight modifications and expansions until a final version appeared in 1846. In 1856, Royal Navy officer insignia shifted to the use of rank sleeve stripes – a pattern which has endured to the present day.

Naval ranks and positions of the 18th and 19th-century Royal Navy were an intermixed assortment of formal rank titles, positional titles, as well as informal titles used onboard oceangoing ships. Uniforms played a major role in shipboard hierarchy since those positions allocated a formal uniform by navy regulations were considered of higher standing if not by rank. In the 18th century Royal Navy and position on board ship was defined by a mix of two hierarchies, an official hierarchy of ranks and a conventionally recognized social divide between gentlemen and non-gentlemen. Royal Navy ships were led by commissioned officers of the wardroom, which consisted of the captain, his lieutenants, as well as embarked Royal Marine officers, all of whom were officers and gentlemen; the higher ranked warrant officers on board, the Sailing Master, Purser and Chaplain held a warrant from the Navy Board but not an actual commission from the crown. Warrant officers had rights to mess and berth in the wardroom and were considered gentlemen.

All commissioned and warrant officers wore a type of uniform, although official Navy regulations clarified an officer uniform in 1787 while it was not until 1807 that masters, along with pursers, received their own regulated uniform. Next came the ship's three "standing officers", the Carpenter and Boatswain, who along with the master were permanently assigned to a vessel for maintenance and upkeep. Standing officers were considered the most skilled seaman on board, messed and berthed with the crew; as such, they held a status separate from the other officers and were not granted the privileges of a commissioned or warrant officer if they were captured."Cockpit mate" was a colloquial term for petty officers who were considered gentlemen and officers under instruction and messed and berthed apart from the ordinary sailors in the cockpit. This included both midshipmen, who were considered gentlemen and officers under instruction, master's mates, who derived their status from their role as apprentices to the sailing master.

A midshipman outranked most other petty officers and lesser warrant officers, such as the Master-at-arms. Boys aspiring for a commission were called young gentlemen instead of their substantive rating to distinguish their higher social standing from the ordinary sailors. A midshipman would be posted aboard a ship in a lower rating such as able seaman but would eat and sleep with his social equals in the cockpit; the remainder of the ship's company, who lived and berthed in the common crew quarters, were the petty officers and seamen. Petty officers were seamen, "rated" to fill a particular specialist trade on board ship; this rating set the petty officers apart from the common seaman by virtue of technical skill and higher education. No special uniform was allocated for petty officers, although some Royal Navy ships allowed such persons to don a simple blue frock coat to denote their status. Seamen were further divided into these being ordinary seaman and able seaman. Seamen were assigned t

Duke of Galliera

Duke of Galliera is an Italian noble title, created several times for members of different families. The name of the title refers to the comune of Galliera, located in the Province of Bologna in Emilia–Romagna; the title was first created in 1812 by Napoleon I for Josephine of Leuchtenberg, daughter of Eugène de Beauharnais. She kept the title after she married Oscar, Crown Prince of Sweden. Napoleon had given her the Palazzo Caprara in Bologna in 1807, renamed the Palazzo Galliera. In 1837, after a decade of negotiations, Crown Prince Oscar sold properties attached to the dukedom to Marquis Raffaele de Ferrari of Genoa; the following year, the marquis received the title of Duke of Galliera from Pope Gregory XVI. In 1839, King Charles Albert of Sardinia confirmed the grant to the marquis and added the title of Prince of Lucedio. With his wife, Maria Brignole-Sale, the new Duke of Galliera had three children, but two of them died young and childless; the third, the famous philatelist Philipp von Ferrary, renounced the title and the inheritance to which it was linked.

In 1877, after the death of her husband, Maria Brignole-Sale bequeathed his Italian properties to Prince Antoine, Duke of Montpensier, the youngest son of Louis-Philippe I, King of the French. After the death of Maria Brignole-Sale in 1888, Prince Antoine received the ducal title of Galliera from King Umberto I of Italy. Since the title of Duke of Galliera has belonged to the Orléans branch of the Spanish Royal Family, although the properties attached to the dukedom were sold by Infante Antonio in 1920. Duchess of Galliera Palais Galliera History of the Duchy of Galliera. Dominique Paoli and Misfortunes of the Princes of Orleans, 1848-1918, Artena, 2006, p. 248. 248. Duke of Galliera Escapes. Appears in Italy from Madrid, where King was his Guardian; the New York Times. September 12 1919. Franco Ardizzoni,'Il Ducato di Galliera, Dalle terre della "bassa" all'Europa'

Svetoslav Kovachev

Svetoslav Kovachev is a Bulgarian professional footballer who plays as a winger for Arda Kardzhali on loan from Ludogorets Razgrad. Kovachev's younger brother Lachezar is in Ludogorets playing for Ludogorets II. Born in Pleven, Kovachev started his career in Svoboda Milkovitsa, he joined Ludogorets in 2011 recruited by the Bulgarian legend Plamen Getov. In 2014, he played for Ludogorets U19 in the UEFA Youth League, being a starter in all of the 6 matches, he made his debut for Ludogorets Razgrad II on 6 December 2015 in a match against FC Pirin Razlog. On 22 May 2016 he made his complete debut in A Group for Ludogorets in a match against Beroe Stara Zagora. Kovachev started the 2017-18 season in Ludogorets II by scoring a goal in the first match of the season against Lokomotiv 1929 Sofia. On 29 July 2017 he played for the main team in the 0-0 draw against Lokomotiv Plovdiv coming as a substitute in the First League match. Kovachev was on the bench for the Europa League group stage match against İstanbul Başakşehir, but stayed as an unused substitute.

On 21 September 2017 he made his debut for the Bulgarian Cup in the first round against Oborishte. Kovachev was named captain for the Ludogorets U19 team in the UEFA Youth League in the first match from the Domestic Champions Path against Željezničar U19 on 27 September 2017. On 15 February 2018 Kovachev was named on bench for the Europa League Round of 32 match against Milan and made his debut as a substitute in the 81st minute. In June 2018, Kovachev was loaned to Dunav Ruse, although he spend the pre-season camp with Ludogorets first team, he made his debut for the team in the first league match of the season against Vitosha Bistritsa on 20 July 2018, assisting for the only goal for Dunav. On 4 November 2018 he scored his first goal for the team in First League scoring the second goal for the 3:0 win over Vitosha Bistritsa. Kovachev was called up for the Bulgaria U19 team for the 2017 European Under-19 Championship qualification from 22 to 27 March 2017. After a draw and 2 wins the team qualified for the knockout phase which will be held in July 2017.

Kovachev made his debut for Bulgaria U21 on 27 March 2018 in a European Undr-21 qualification match against Kazakhstan U21, keeping a clean sheet for the 3:0 win. Kovachev received his first call-up for senior Bulgarian squad on 29 August 2018 for the UEFA Nations League matches against Slovenia and Norway on 6 and 9 September, he earned his first cap on 26 February 2020, coming on as a substitute for Ismail Isa during the second half of the 0:1 home loss against Belarus in a friendly game. As of 19 January 2020 Svetoslav Kovachev at Soccerway