Evángelos Odysséas Papathanassíou, known professionally as Vangelis, is a Greek musician and composer of electronic, ambient and orchestral music. He is best known for his Academy Award-winning score to Chariots of Fire composing scores for the films Blade Runner, Antarctica, The Bounty, 1492: Conquest of Paradise, Alexander, the use of his music in the PBS documentary Cosmos: A Personal Voyage by Carl Sagan. Vangelis began his career working with several popular bands of the 1960s such as the Forminx and Aphrodite's Child, with the latter's album 666 going on to be recognized as a progressive-psychedelic rock classic. Throughout the 1970s, Vangelis composed music scores for several animal documentaries, including L'Apocalypse des Animaux, La Fête sauvage and Opéra sauvage. In the early 1980s, Vangelis formed a musical partnership with Jon Anderson, the lead singer of progressive rock band Yes, the duo went on to release several albums together as Jon & Vangelis. In 1981, he composed the score for the Oscar-winning film Chariots of Fire, for which he won an Academy Award for Best Original Score.
The soundtrack's single, the film's "Titles" theme reached the top of the American Billboard Hot 100 chart and was used as the background music at the London 2012 Olympics winners' medal presentation ceremonies. Vangelis received acclaim for his synthesizer-based soundtrack for the 1982 film Blade Runner. Having had a career in music spanning over 50 years and having composed and performed more than 50 albums, Vangelis is considered to be one of the most important figures in the history of electronic music. Evángelos Odysséas Papathanassíou was born on 29 March 1943 in Agria, a coastal town in Magnesia, Thessaly and raised in Athens, his father Ulysses was an amateur sprinter. He has Nico. Vangelis developed an interest in music at age four, composing on the family piano and experimenting with sounds by placing nails and kitchen pans inside it and with radio interference. At six his parents enrolled him for music tuition, but Vangelis said that his parents' attempts to study "failed" as he preferred to develop technique on his own.
He considers himself fortunate not to attend music school as it impedes creativity, learned to play from memory. "When the teachers asked me to play something, I would pretend that I was reading it and play from memory. I didn't fool them, but I didn't care". Vangelis studied painting at the Athens School of Fine Arts. Vangelis found traditional Greek music as important in his childhood, but at twelve developed an interest in jazz and rock. At fifteen, he started not to cover other musicians but to have fun. Vangelis acquired his first Hammond organ at eighteen. In 1963, Vangelis and three school friends started a five-piece rock band The Forminx, playing cover songs and original material written by Vangelis with English lyrics by radio DJ and record producer Nico Mastorakis. After nine singles and one Christmas EP, which found success across Europe, the group disbanded in 1966. Following the split of The Forminx, Vangelis spent the next two years studio-bound and producing for other Greek artists.
He scored music for three Greek films. During this time, Vangelis worked on the scores to Frenzy for director Jan Christian, Apollo Goes on Holiday for George Skalenakis, Antique Rally, 5,000 Lies for Giorgos Konstantinou. In 1968, the 25-year-old Vangelis wished to further his career and, amongst the political turmoil surrounding the 1967 coup, left Greece for London. However, he was settled in Paris for the next six years. In 1968 he formed the progressive rock band Aphrodite's Child with Demis Roussos, Loukas Sideras, Anargyros "Silver" Koulouris, their debut single, "Rain and Tears", was a commercial success in Europe, followed by the albums End of the World and It's Five O'Clock. Vangelis conceived the idea of their third, 666, a double concept album based on the Book of Revelation. After increasing tensions during the recording of 666, the group split in 1971. Vangelis would produce future singles by their singer Demis Roussos. Vangelis recalled after the split: "I couldn't follow the commercial way anymore, it was boring.
You have to do something like that in the beginning for showbiz, but after you start doing the same thing everyday you can't continue."From 1970 to 1974, Vangelis took part in various solo projects in film and theatre. He composed the score for Sex Power directed by Henry Chapier, followed by Salut, Jerusalem in 1972 and Amore in 1974. In 1971, he took part in a series of jam sessions with various musicians in London which resulted in two albums released without Vangelis' permission in 1978: Hypothesis and The Dragon. Vangelis succeeded in taking legal action to have them withdrawn. 1972 saw the release of his debut solo album Fais que ton rêve soit plus long que la nuit, French for Make Your Dream Last Longer Than the Night. It was inspired by the 1968 French student riots, after which Vangelis decided to write a "poemme symphonique" to express his solidarity with the students, comprising musical with news snippets and protest songs. A soundtrack album of music that Vangelis performed for a 1970 wildlife documentary serie
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is the lower chamber of the United States Congress, the Senate being the upper chamber. Together they compose the legislature of the United States; the composition of the House is established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The House is composed of Representatives who sit in congressional districts that are allocated to each of the 50 states on a basis of population as measured by the U. S. Census, with each district entitled to one representative. Since its inception in 1789, all Representatives have been directly elected; the total number of voting representatives is fixed by law at 435. As of the 2010 Census, the largest delegation is that of California, with fifty-three representatives. Seven states have only one representative: Alaska, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wyoming; the House is charged with the passage of federal legislation, known as bills, after concurrence by the Senate, are sent to the President for consideration.
In addition to this basic power, the House has certain exclusive powers, among them the power to initiate all bills related to revenue. The House meets in the south wing of the United States Capitol; the presiding officer is the Speaker of the House, elected by the members thereof. The Speaker and other floor leaders are chosen by the Democratic Caucus or the Republican Conference, depending on whichever party has more voting members. Under the Articles of Confederation, the Congress of the Confederation was a unicameral body in which each state was represented, in which each state had a veto over most action. After eight years of a more limited confederal government under the Articles, numerous political leaders such as James Madison and Alexander Hamilton initiated the Constitutional Convention in 1787, which received the Confederation Congress's sanction to "amend the Articles of Confederation". All states except Rhode Island agreed to send delegates; the issue of how to structure Congress was one of the most divisive among the founders during the Convention.
Edmund Randolph's Virginia Plan called for a bicameral Congress: the lower house would be "of the people", elected directly by the people of the United States and representing public opinion, a more deliberative upper house, elected by the lower house, that would represent the individual states, would be less susceptible to variations of mass sentiment. The House is referred to as the lower house, with the Senate being the upper house, although the United States Constitution does not use that terminology. Both houses' approval is necessary for the passage of legislation; the Virginia Plan drew the support of delegates from large states such as Virginia and Pennsylvania, as it called for representation based on population. The smaller states, favored the New Jersey Plan, which called for a unicameral Congress with equal representation for the states; the Convention reached the Connecticut Compromise or Great Compromise, under which one house of Congress would provide representation proportional to each state's population, whereas the other would provide equal representation amongst the states.
The Constitution was ratified by the requisite number of states in 1788, but its implementation was set for March 4, 1789. The House began work on April 1789, when it achieved a quorum for the first time. During the first half of the 19th century, the House was in conflict with the Senate over regionally divisive issues, including slavery; the North was much more populous than the South, therefore dominated the House of Representatives. However, the North held no such advantage in the Senate, where the equal representation of states prevailed. Regional conflict was most pronounced over the issue of slavery. One example of a provision supported by the House but blocked by the Senate was the Wilmot Proviso, which sought to ban slavery in the land gained during the Mexican–American War. Conflict over slavery and other issues persisted until the Civil War, which began soon after several southern states attempted to secede from the Union; the war culminated in the abolition of slavery. All southern senators except Andrew Johnson resigned their seats at the beginning of the war, therefore the Senate did not hold the balance of power between North and South during the war.
The years of Reconstruction that followed witnessed large majorities for the Republican Party, which many Americans associated with the Union's victory in the Civil War and the ending of slavery. The Reconstruction period ended in about 1877; the Democratic Party and Republican Party each held majorities in the House at various times. The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw a dramatic increase in the power of the Speaker of the House; the rise of the Speaker's influence began in the 1890s, during the tenure of Republican Thomas Brackett Reed. "Czar Reed", as he was nicknamed, attempted to put into effect his view that "The best system is to have one party govern and the other party watch." The leadership structure of the House developed during the same period, with the positions of Majority Leader and Minority Leader being created in 1899. While the Minority Leader
Colonel (United States)
In the United States Army, Marine Corps, Air Force, colonel is the most senior field grade military officer rank above the rank of lieutenant colonel and below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services; the pay grade for colonel is O-6. The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side. By law, a colonel must have 22 years of service and a minimum of three years of service as a lieutenant colonel before being promoted; the insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle, a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States. As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U. S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons. However, in simplification of the Great Seal image, the insignia lacks the scroll in the eagle's mouth and the rosette above its head. On the Great Seal, the olive branch is always clutched in the eagle's right-side talons, while the bundle of arrows is always clutched in the left-side talons.
The head of the eagle faces towards the olive branch, rather than the arrows, advocating peace rather than war. As a result, the head of the eagle always faces towards the viewer's left. However, when worn as a single insignia with no matching pair, such as on the patrol cap, garrison cap/flight cap, or the front of the Army ACU, there is a split between the services on which mirror image of the eagle should be worn. In the United States Army and United States Air Force, the eagle is always worn with "the head of the eagle to the wearer's right," with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's right hand talons. In the United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and NOAA, the eagle is worn with "the head facing forward" on the wearer's right side of the garrison cover. Since respective service's officer insignia is worn on the left side and the rank insignia is worn on the right hand side of the Marine, Coast Guard and NOAA garrison caps, the eagle is facing to the eagle's left with the olive branch clutched in the eagle's left hand talons, a mirror opposite to the wear of the single eagle for Army and Air Force officers.
The United States rank of colonel is a direct successor to the same rank in the British Army. The first colonels in the U. S. were appointed from Colonial militias maintained as reserves to the British Army in the North American colonies. Upon the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, colonial legislatures would grant commissions to men to raise a regiment and serve as its colonel. Thus, the first U. S. colonels were respected men with ties in local communities and active in politics. With the post-war reduction of the U. S. Army, the rank of colonel disappeared, was not re-introduced until 1802; the first insignia for the rank of colonel consisted of gold epaulettes worn on the blue uniform of the Continental Army. The first recorded use of the eagle insignia was in 1805 as this insignia was made official in uniform regulations by 1810; the rank of colonel was rare in the early 19th century because the U. S. Army was small, the rank was obtained only after long years of service. During the War of 1812 the Army grew and many colonels were appointed, but most of these colonels were discharged when their regiments were disbanded at the war's conclusion.
A number of other colonels were appointed by brevet - an honorary promotion for distinguished service in combat. The American Civil War saw a large influx of colonels as the rank was held in both the Confederate army and Union Army by those who commanded a regiment. Since most regiments were state formations and were raised, the colonels in command of the regiments were known by the title "Colonel of Volunteers," in contrast to Regular Army colonels who held permanent commissions. During the Civil War, the Confederate Army maintained a unique insignia for colonel, three stars worn on the collar of a uniform. Robert E. Lee wore this insignia due to his former rank in the United States Army and refused to wear the insignia of a Confederate general, stating that he would only accept permanent promotion when the South had achieved independence. After the Civil War, the rank of colonel again became rare as the forces of the United States Army became small. However, many colonels were appointed in the volunteers during the Spanish–American War, prominent among them Theodore Roosevelt and David Grant Colson.
World War I and World War II saw the largest numbers of colonels appointed in the U. S. military. This was due to the temporary ranks of the National Army and the Army of the United States, where those who would hold the rank of Captain in the peacetime Regular Army were thrust into the rank of colonel during these two wars; the Military Promotion System was revised and standardized for all the services in 1980 as a result of passage of the Defense Officer Personnel Management Act. Modern U. S. colonels command Army infantry, armor, aviation or other types of brigades, USMC regiments, Marine Expeditionary Units or Marine Aircraft Groups, USAF groups or wings. An Army colonel commands brigade-sized units, with another colonel or a lieutenant colonel as deputy commander, a major
Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
The Palme d'Or is the highest prize awarded at the Cannes Film Festival. It was introduced in 1955 by the festival's organizing committee. From 1939 to 1954, the highest prize at the festival was the Grand Prix du Festival International du Film. In 1964, The Palme d'Or was replaced again by the Grand Prix, before being reintroduced in 1975; the Palme d'Or is considered to be one of the most prestigious awards in the film industry. In 1954, the festival decided to present an award annually, titled the Grand Prix of the International Film Festival, with a new design each year from a contemporary artist; the festival's board of directors invited several jewellers to submit designs for a palm, in tribute to the coat of arms of the city of Cannes. The original design by the jeweller Lucienne Lazon had the bevelled lower extremity of the stalk forming a heart, the pedestal a sculpture in terracotta by the artist Sébastien. In 1955, the first Palme d'Or was awarded to Delbert Mann for Marty. From 1964 to 1974, the Festival temporarily resumed a Grand Prix.
In 1975, the Palme d'Or was reintroduced and has since remained the symbol of the Cannes Film Festival, awarded every year to the director of the winning film, presented in a case of pure red Morocco leather lined with white suede. As of 2018, Jane Campion is the only female director to have won the Palme d'Or, for her work on The Piano. However, in 2013, when Blue Is the Warmest Color won the Palme d'Or, the Steven Spielberg-headed jury awarded it to the film's director Abdellatif Kechiche, as well as the film's actresses Adèle Exarchopoulos and Léa Seydoux; this marks the first time. The jury decided to award the actresses alongside the director due to a Cannes policy that forbids the Palme d'Or-winning film from receiving any additional awards, thereby preventing the jury from rewarding both the film and the film's actresses separately. Of the unorthodox decision, Spielberg said that "had the casting been 3% wrong, it wouldn't have worked like it did for us". Kechiche auctioned off his Palme d'Or trophy to fund his new feature film, expressed mixed feelings about the festival having given out multiple trophies in an interview with The Hollywood Reporter.
Since its reintroduction, the prize has been redesigned several times. At the beginning of the 1980s, the rounded shape of the pedestal, bearing the palm transformed to become pyramidal in 1984. In 1992, Thierry de Bourqueney redesigned its pedestal in hand-cut crystal. In 1997, a new design, created by Caroline Scheufele from Chopard, was created; the winner of the 2014 Palme d'Or, Winter Sleep—a Turkish film by Nuri Bilge Ceylan—occurred during the same year as the 100th anniversary of Turkish cinema. Upon receiving the award, Ceylan dedicated the prize to both the "young people" involved in the ongoing political unrest in Turkey and the workers who were killed in the Soma mine disaster, which occurred on the day prior to the commencement of the awards event. In 2017, the award was re-designed to celebrate the festival's 70th anniversary; the diamonds were provided by an ethical supplier certified by the Responsible Jewellery Council. * Director's nationality given at time of film's release.
§ Denotes unanimous win ‡ The Palme d'Or for Union Pacific was awarded in retrospect at the 2002 festival. The festival's debut was to take place in 1939, but it was cancelled due to World War II; the organisers of the 2002 festival presented part of the original 1939 selection to a professional jury of six members. The films were: Goodbye Mr. Chips, La Piste du Nord, Lenin in 1918, The Four Feathers, The Wizard of Oz, Union Pacific, Boefje. Eight directors or co-directors have won the award twice: 1946 & 1951 Alf Sjöberg 1974 & 1979 Francis Ford Coppola 1988 & 1992 Bille August 1985 & 1995 Emir Kusturica 1983 & 1997 Shohei Imamura 1999 & 2005 Luc and Jean-Pierre Dardenne 2009 & 2012 Michael Haneke 2006 & 2016 Ken Loach In 2002 the festival began to sporadically award a non-competitive Honorary Palme d'Or to directors who had achieved a notable body of work but who had never won a competitive Palme d'Or. In 2011 the festival announced that the award would be given out annually, however plans for this fell through and it was not awarded again until four years in 2015.
American director Woody Allen was the inaugural recipient while pioneering French filmmaker Agnès Varda was the first woman to receive the award in 2015. In 2016, Jean-Pierre Léaud became the first person to be awarded for acting. In 2018, the Cannes jury awarded a "Special Palme d'Or" for the first time. Golden Bear, the highest prize awarded at the Berlin Film Festival Golden Lion, the highest prize awarded at the Venice Film Festival Palme d'Or Winners, 1976 to present, by gross box-office Festival-cannes.com Cannes Film Festival IMDB
Yol is a 1982 Turkish film directed by Şerif Gören. The screenplay was written by Yılmaz Güney, it was directed by his assistant Şerif Gören, as Güney was in prison at the time; when Güney escaped from prison, he took the negatives of the film to Switzerland and edited it in Paris. The film is a portrait of Turkey in the aftermath of the 1980 Turkish coup d'état: its people and its authorities are shown via the stories of five prisoners given a week's home leave; the film has caused much controversy in Turkey, was banned until 1999. However, it won numerous honours, including the Palme d'Or at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival. In Turkey, several prisoners are granted furlough. One, Seyit Ali, travels to his house and finds that his wife has betrayed him and turned to prostitution, she was caught by her family and held captive for eight months in order for Seyit Ali to end her life in an honour killing. Though determined at first, he changes his mind when his wife starts to freeze while travelling in the snow.
Despite his efforts to keep her alive, he fails. His wife's death relieves Seyit Ali from family pressure. Another prisoner, Mehmet Salih has been arrested for his role in a heist with his brother-in-law, whom he abandoned as he was being shot by police, his in-laws have disowned him, he is forced to tell his wife Emine the truth. Emine and Mehmet Salih decide to run away on a train. On the train, they are caught in the washroom about to have sex, they are held in a cabin. A young boy from Emine's family who has boarded the train shoots both Emine. Ömer returns to his village sitting near the border between Turkey and Syria, arranges to cross the border to escape prison. Ömer finds his village in a battle between Turkish soldiers. Though Ömer is determined, he gives up after his brother, who took part in the battle, is shot dead. Through his brother's death, Ömer has inherited the responsibilities of his brother's wife and children as dictated by tradition. Güney wrote the screenplay, which contained elaborate detail, but could not direct as he was in prison.
Güney recruited Erden Kiral as his surrogate director but, displeased with Kiral's work, had it destroyed and fired him. This became the basis of Kiral's film, Yolda. Güney subsequently hired Serif Gören. There were rumours that several prisoners, including Güney, watched much of Gören's footage on a wall at the prison. Güney broke out of prison to edit Yol in Switzerland. Zulfu Livaneli made the musics of the movie, but due to political atmosphere in Turkey, he used a nickname Sebastian Argol in order to avoid from possible sanctions from Turkish courts which were operating under 1980 Turkish coup d'état; the film was banned in Turkey because of its negative portrayal of Turkey at the time, under the control of a military dictatorship. More controversial was the limited use of the Kurdish language and culture, forbidden at the time, as well as the portrayal of the hardships Kurds live through in Turkey. One scene in the movie calls the location of Ömer's village "Kürdistan". A new version of Yol was released in 2017, called Yol: The Full Version in which many of these controversial parts and scenes have been taken out, to make the film suitable for release in Turkey.
In order to be shown at the Turkish stand at Cannes 2017 the Kürdistan insert was removed. In what critics say goes against the director Yılmaz Güney's wishes and call "censorship", the frame showing "Kürdistan" as well as a political scene where Ömer speaks about difficulties of being Kurdish were removed. Another new version exists for the international market with all the politically controversial scenes included; the rights to Yol were disputed for a long time. During Yilmaz Güney's lifetime, there were major conflicts about the ownership of the film between Güney and Donat Keusch, the head of a Swiss-based service company called Cactus Film AG, who claimed to own the entire rights of the film. After Güney's death, the dispute escalated between Güney's widow; when Keusch filed for bankruptcy with his Cactus Film AG in 1999, the situation became more complicated and resulted in numerous lawsuits in both Switzerland and France. There still are numerous sellers in the market claiming to be the sole owner of the world rights to Yol, the film is offered in different versions through different distribution channels.
According to the bankruptcy office Zurich Aussersihl Keusch received the rights which still remained in Cactus Film on March 4, 2010. This happened without a cash reward so to speak for free. Keusch sent this contract to the RCA-directory of the French CNC trying to use it as a proof that he has rights; however it is questionable if and what rights Cactus Films still had at this point. In any case Keusch could only get from the bankruptcy office rights that cactus film had since no bankruptcy office can create non existing rights. Vincent Canby, writing for The New York Times, wrote that while the film addressed significant issues, this did not make it great art. Canby described it as "a large, ponderous panorama". Time critic Richard Corliss declared Güney "a world-class moviemaker". In his 2015 Movie Guide, Leonard Maltin gave it three stars, describing it as "Incisive". In 2016, The Hollywood Reporter ranked it the 65th best film to win the Palme d'Or, saying the production was a better story than that on screen.
The film won three honours at the 1982 Cannes Film Festival, tying for the top prize, the Palme d'Or, with Miss
Mary Janice Rule was an American actress "at her most convincing playing embittered, neurotic socialites". Janice Rule was born in Ohio, to parents of Irish origin, her father was a dealer in industrial diamonds. She began dancing at the Chez Paree nightclub at age 15, which paid for ballet lessons, was a dancer in the 1949 Broadway production of Miss Liberty. Rule studied acting at the Chicago Professional School, she was pictured on the cover of Life magazine on January 8, 1951 as being someone to watch in the entertainment industry. Given a contract by Warner Bros. her first credited screen role was as Virginia in Goodbye, My Fancy, which featured Joan Crawford in the lead. The established star belittled the younger woman, making her work on the film difficult, although Crawford years wrote a letter of apology to Rule for treating her badly on this film. Rule's Warner contract was allowed to lapse after only two films, she was troubled by the attitude toward women's beauty at the studios in the early 1950s: "Because I was afraid of being robbed of my individuality, I fought with the makeup people, the hairdressers, I didn't understand problems of the publicity department," she was reported as saying in 1957.
Rule was in the original 1953 Broadway cast of William Inge's Picnic, whose company included Paul Newman in his Broadway debut. This commitment led her to turn down the role played by Eva Marie Saint in On the Waterfront. "I knew I couldn't shoot in a movie all day and work on a stage at night and do my best in both," she was quoted as saying by Hedda Hopper of the Los Angeles Times in 1966. Among her other Broadway shows were The Flowering Peach, The Happiest Girl in the World and Michael V. Gazzo's Night Circus, a 1958 production which lasted for only a week, but introduced Rule to Ben Gazzara, who became her third husband, her other films in the 1950s included A Woman's Devotion, the Western Gun for a Coward and Bell and Candle, in which she played the fiancée who loses publisher'Shep' Henderson to the spell-casting witch Gillian Holroyd. On television, she appeared in the Checkmate episode "The Mask of Vengeance", where she played Elena Nardos, the roommate of Cloris Leachman's character, Marilyn Parker.
She was in The Twilight Zone episode "Nightmare as a Child." She appeared as different characters in three episodes of Route 66. She acted as both Barbara Webb and Barbara Wells with David Janssen in two episodes of The Fugitive entitled "Wife Killer" and "The Walls of Night", she had a major role as Nancy Reade in "Three Bells to Perdido", the debut episode of the Richard Boone western Have Gun – Will Travel. Rule starred, second billing to Yul Brynner, in the 1964 film western tale Invitation to a Gunfighter. Among her film roles were Emily Stewart in The Chase, Sheila Sommers in The Ambushers, Burt Lancaster's bitter ex-lover in The Swimmer, Willie in Robert Altman's 3 Women, journalist Kate Newman in Costa Gavras' political thriller Missing, Kevin Costner's mother in American Flyers. Rule had a brief engagement to Farley Granger in 1956, they had appeared in the Broadway play The Carefree Tree in 1955. Next followed a relationship with Ralph Meeker. Rule was married, during 1955, to television and film writer N. Richard Nash.
Her second marriage was to television and film writer Robert Thom in 1956. Her last marriage was to actor Ben Gazzara in 1961, having one daughter together before their divorce in 1982. During the 1960s she became interested in psychoanalysis, she began her formal studies in 1973, specializing in treating her fellow actors, received her PhD 10 years from the Southern California Psychoanalytic Institute in Los Angeles. She practiced in New York and Los Angeles, continued to act until her death from a cerebral hemorrhage in 2003, she was cremated after her death. She was survived by her daughters, Kate Fitzgerald and film editor Elizabeth Gazzara, both of Brooklyn. By an odd coincidence, Rule appeared in the first or second episode of four long-running television series: Have Gun – Will Travel episode 1. Janice Rule on IMDb Janice Rule at the Internet Broadway Database Janice Rule at the Internet Off-Broadway Database Janice Rule at Find a Grave