A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs. Lagoons are divided into coastal lagoons and atoll lagoons, they have been identified as occurring on mixed-sand and gravel coastlines. There is an overlap between bodies of water classified as coastal lagoons and bodies of water classified as estuaries. Lagoons are common coastal features around many parts of the world. Lagoons are shallow elongated bodies of water separated from a larger body of water by a shallow or exposed shoal, coral reef, or similar feature; some authorities include fresh water bodies in the definition of "lagoon", while others explicitly restrict "lagoon" to bodies of water with some degree of salinity. The distinction between "lagoon" and "estuary" varies between authorities. Richard A. Davis Jr. restricts "lagoon" to bodies of water with little or no fresh water inflow, little or no tidal flow, calls any bay that receives a regular flow of fresh water an "estuary". Davis does state that the terms "lagoon" and "estuary" are "often loosely applied in scientific literature."
Timothy M. Kusky characterizes lagoons as being elongated parallel to the coast, while estuaries are drowned river valleys, elongated perpendicular to the coast; when used within the context of a distinctive portion of coral reef ecosystems, the term "lagoon" is synonymous with the term "back reef" or "backreef", more used by coral reef scientists to refer to the same area. Coastal lagoons are classified as inland bodies of water. Many lagoons do not include "lagoon" in their common names. Albemarle and Pamlico sounds in North Carolina, Great South Bay between Long Island and the barrier beaches of Fire Island in New York, Isle of Wight Bay, which separates Ocean City, Maryland from the rest of Worcester County, Banana River in Florida, Lake Illawarra in New South Wales, Montrose Basin in Scotland, Broad Water in Wales have all been classified as lagoons, despite their names. In England, The Fleet at Chesil Beach has been described as a lagoon. In Latin America, the term laguna in Spanish, which lagoon translates to, may be used for a small fresh water lake in a similar way a creek is considered a small river.
However, sometimes it is popularly used to describe a full-sized lake, such as Laguna Catemaco in Mexico, the third largest lake by area in the country. The brackish water lagoon may be thus explicitly identified as a "coastal lagoon". In Portuguese the same usage is found: lagoa may be a body of shallow sea water, or a small freshwater lake not linked to the sea. Lagoon is derived from the Italian laguna, which refers to the waters around Venice, the Lagoon of Venice. Laguna is attested in English by at least 1612, had been Anglicized to "lagune" by 1673. In 1697 William Dampier referred to a "Lake of Salt water" on the coast of Mexico. Captain James Cook described an island "of Oval form with a Lagoon in the middle" in 1769. Atoll lagoons form as coral reefs grow upwards while the islands that the reefs surround subside, until only the reefs remain above sea level. Unlike the lagoons that form shoreward of fringing reefs, atoll lagoons contain some deep portions. Coastal lagoons form along sloping coasts where barrier islands or reefs can develop off-shore, the sea-level is rising relative to the land along the shore.
Coastal lagoons do not form along steep or rocky coasts, or if the range of tides is more than 4 metres. Due to the gentle slope of the coast, coastal lagoons are shallow, they are sensitive to changes in sea level due to global warming. A relative drop in sea level may leave a lagoon dry, while a rise in sea level may let the sea breach or destroy barrier islands, leave reefs too deep under water to protect the lagoon. Coastal lagoons are young and dynamic, may be short-lived in geological terms. Coastal lagoons are common. In the United States, lagoons are found along more than 75 percent of the Gulf coasts. Coastal lagoons are connected to the open ocean by inlets between barrier islands; the number and size of the inlets, precipitation and inflow of fresh water all affect the nature of the lagoon. Lagoons with little or no interchange with the open ocean, little or no inflow of fresh water, high evaporation rates, such as Lake St. Lucia, in South Africa, may become saline. Lagoons with no connection to the open ocean and significant inflow of fresh water, such as the Lake Worth Lagoon in Florida in the middle of the 19th century, may be fresh.
On the other hand, lagoons with many wide inlets, such as the Wadden Sea, have strong tidal currents and mixing. Coastal lagoons tend to accumulate sediments from inflowing rivers, from runoff from the shores of the lagoon, from sediment carried into the lagoon through inlets by the tide. Large quantities of sediment may be be deposited in a lagoon when storm waves overwash barrier islands. Mangroves and marsh plants can facilitate the accumulation of sediment in a lagoon. Benthic organisms may destabilize sediments. River-mouth lagoons on mixed sand and gravel beaches form at the river-coast interface where a braided, although sometimes meandering, river interacts with a coastal environment, affected by longshore drift; the lagoons which form on the MSG coastlines are common on the east coast of the South Island of New Zealand and have long been referred to as hapua by the Māori. This classification differentiates hapua from similar lagoons located on the N
Santa Fe–Southern Pacific merger
In the 1980s, the Atchison and Santa Fe Railway and Southern Pacific Transportation Company attempted a merger. It began with the merger of holding companies Santa Fe Industries and the second incarnation of the Southern Pacific Company on December 23, 1983 to form the Santa Fe Southern Pacific Corporation, which held the SP shares in a voting trust. After the Interstate Commerce Commission denied the merger, SFSP sold the SP to Rio Grande Industries on October 13, 1988, was renamed Santa Fe Pacific Corporation on April 25, 1989; the merger was opposed by the Justice Department in 1985 and denied in a 4–1 vote by the Interstate Commerce Commission on July 24, 1986, who ruled that such a merger included too many duplicate routes and was therefore monopolistic. The Commission denied SFSP's appeal on June 30, 1987; the holding company, ordered to operate the Southern Pacific at arm's length until it sold it, disposed of it on October 13, 1988 to Rio Grande Industries for $1.02 billion and the assumption of SP's debt, which consolidated the SP with its Denver and Rio Grande Western railroad under the Southern Pacific name.
The holding company retained all the non-rail interests of both predecessors and shortened its name to Santa Fe Pacific Corporation. All of the California real estate holdings were consolidated in a new company, Catellus Development Corporation, becoming the State's largest private land owner. Catellus subsequently purchased the Union Pacific Railroad's interest in the Los Angeles Union Passenger Terminal. In 1995, the Santa Fe railroad merged with the Burlington Northern Railroad to form the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway, the SP was bought out by the Union Pacific Corporation the following year; the holding company controlled all the rail and non-rail assets of the former Santa Fe Industries and Southern Pacific Company, it was intended that the two railroads would be merged. They were confident enough that this would be approved that they began repainting locomotives into a new unified paint scheme, including the letters SP or SF and an adjacent empty space for the other two; the locomotive livery featured the Santa Fe's Yellowbonnet with a red stripe on the locomotive's nose.
The numberboards were red with white numbers. In large block letters within the red portion of the sides was either "SP" or "SF"; the lettering was positioned on the locomotive sides so that the other half of the lettering could be added after the merger became official. Two ATSF EMD SD45-2s were painted with the full SPSF lettering to show what the unified paint scheme would look like after the merger was complete. One Santa Fe caboose was painted with "SPSF" in a similar situation; this paint scheme, combining yellow and black, has come to be called the Kodachrome paint scheme due to the colors' resemblance to those on the boxes that Kodak used to package its Kodachrome slide film. After the ICC's denial, railroad industry writers, employees of both railroads and railfans alike joked that SPSF stood for "Shouldn't Paint So Fast". At the time of merger denial 306 ATSF locomotives, 4 ATSF cabooses, 10 ATSF slugs, 96 SP locomotives, 1 SP caboose had been painted in this fashion; the two railroads made an effort to repaint locomotives in their standard paint schemes after the merger was denied.
Santa Fe repainted all Kodachromes still on roster by 1990, though some engines were sold in this scheme. Southern Pacific's less numerous Kodachromes were repainted much more slowly. One GP9 locomotive is operated by the Western Pacific Railroad Museum in Portola, CA. Another Kodachrome that exists is an SD40R still in service with the Trona Railway as TRC 2003. Werkema, Evan. "Santa Fe Kodachromes". ATSF Railfan. Retrieved 6 July 2016. Percy, Richard A.. " Kodachrome Locomotive Index". Espee Railfan. Retrieved 6 July 2016. Duke, Donald. Santa Fe: The Railroad Gateway to the American West, Volume Two. San Marino, CA: Golden West Books. ISBN 978-0-87095-110-7. Glischinski, Steve. Santa Fe Railway. Osceola, WI: Motorbooks International. ISBN 978-0-7603-0380-1
California's 12th congressional district
California's 12th congressional district is a congressional district in California. Speaker of the United States House of Representatives Nancy Pelosi, a Democrat, has represented the district since January 2013; the 12th district is within the city of San Francisco. Prior to redistricting by the California Citizens Redistricting Commission of 2011, the 12th district consisted of portions of both San Mateo County and San Francisco, it is the smallest district by area outside of New York City. When the 12th Congressional District was created after the 1930 Census, it was located in Los Angeles County; as California's population grew, the district was moved northward to the San Francisco peninsula.) Richard Nixon, who would subsequently serve as the 37th President of the United States, represented this district from 1947-1951. Nancy Pelosi, the former 52nd Speaker of the House and current Speaker of the House, is the current representative of this district, after serving California's 8th Congressional district from 1993-2013.
As of April 2015, there were five living former members of the House of Representatives from this district. The most recent death was that of Tom Lantos, who died in office on February 11, 2008. List of United States congressional districts GovTrack.us: California's 12th congressional district RAND California Election Returns: District Definitions California Voter Foundation map - CD12
Jane Jungyon Kim is an American civil rights attorney and politician, the first Korean American elected official in San Francisco. She represented San Francisco's District 6 on the Board of Supervisors between 2011 and 2019, she is a member of the San Francisco's Democratic County Central Committee. Prior to her election to the Board of Supervisors, Kim served as member and president of the San Francisco Board of Education. In 2016 she ran for the 11th California State Senate District, but lost to Scott Wiener in a run-off election, she was a candidate for mayor in the 2018 San Francisco mayoral election, finishing third with 24.03% of the first-round vote. Jane Jungyon Kim was born on the island of Manhattan in New York City on July 9, 1977, to South Korean parents who immigrated to the U. S. from Seoul in 1971. Her grandfather was a prominent prosecutor in Seoul, her father served the District Attorney's office in New York as a prosecutor. Kim grew up learning both Korean languages, her father was an executive at Kiss Products, a global cosmetics company, she attended an elite New York prep school.
Her mother owned a boutique selling women's clothing. At age 14, Kim began studying taekwondo earning a black belt, she was involved with community activism the issue of homelessness. While attending Spence School, a Manhattan all-girls K-12 academy, she stopped reciting the Pledge of Allegiance in her teens—she rejected the Pledge words "with liberty and justice for all". Kim graduated from Stanford University with a bachelor's degree in Political Science and Asian American Studies, she settled in San Francisco in the late 1990s and in 2005 enrolled in the UC Berkeley School of Law. Kim earned a law degree, was admitted to the State Bar of California in December 2009. After finishing her Stanford studies, Kim worked as a Fellow at Greenlining Institute in Berkeley, she interviewed with Reverend Norman Fong, the leader of the Chinatown Community Development Center in 2000. Fong was doubtful she would fit the position of youth organizer. However, Kim led an all-volunteer effort of San Francisco Chinatown youth cleaning up alleyways.
Through her community organization efforts, she met power broker Rose Pak. In 2005 Kim was elected president of the San Francisco People's Organization, made up of many notable San Francisco activists and organizers. SFPO worked against several California ballot propositions in November 2005, assisted with health care and affordable housing measures for San Franciscans through 2006. In 2003 while campaigning for Green Party mayoral candidate Matt Gonzalez, Kim felt too few female Asian Americans were engaged in San Francisco politics. In 2004, she decided to run for the San Francisco Board of Education. In a field of 12 candidates seeking four seats, Kim came in seventh place. In 2006, Kim mounted a stronger campaign, she was endorsed by various politicians, community groups and media, she won, gathering the most votes of 15 candidates seeking three seats. In 2007 when she was sworn in she became the first Korean American elected official in San Francisco. Kim's election was part of a more liberal shift in the school board.
Fellow Green Mark Sanchez served as board president and progressive Kim-Shree Maufas was elected. In 2006, the school board took up the issue of whether to continue the 90-year-old Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps program in San Francisco high schools; the board voted to phase out the JROTC program over two years. In December 2006, previous to taking office, Kim learned about a death threat against her, sent from a JROTC cadet to his friend on Facebook; the cadet had used MySpace to threaten a high school girl who argued prominently against JROTC. Kim reported that he sincerely regretted his actions. Kim took the position that the JROTC program should not be hosted by San Francisco as long as the U. S. military continued, don't tell" policy. In June 2008 Kim and Norman Yee submitted a proposal to accept JROTC programs as optional after-school activities, without giving students physical education credit toward graduation. In October, Kim proposed an alternative program called Student Emergency Response Volunteers that would train students in emergency preparedness and disaster relief.
The bid to remove or replace JROTC failed in a 3–4 vote held in May 2009. In March 2008, Kim and Sanchez traveled to Israel as members of the U. S. Green Party to investigate whether the party should continue to support the Boycott and Sanctions program targeting Israel for its occupation of Palestine. Kim complimented a youth village program near Haifa, recommending its director be brought to San Francisco to help train educators. Kim joined the Democratic Party in late 2008. In 2010, she was elected president of the Board of Education; as board president, Kim had to negotiate statewide budget cuts that resulted in a two-year shortfall of $113 million for San Francisco schools. She pushed for an ethnic studies program, under development for three years. Kim said that with a budget of around $400 million, there should be some "flexibility to find funding" for the program. Kim had lived in various neighborhoods including Polk Gulch and the Sunset, she moved to District 6 in 2009 and subsequently ran in the San Francisco Board of Supervisors election to fill the seat being vacated by Supervisor Chris Daly.
District 6 includes Union Square, Civic Center, Mid-Market, Cathedral Hill, South of Market, South
Chase Center is a multi-purpose arena under construction in the Mission Bay neighborhood of San Francisco. The building is planned to be the new home venue for the Golden State Warriors of the National Basketball Association; the Warriors, who have been located in the San Francisco Bay Area since 1962, have played their home games at Oracle Arena in Oakland since 1971. Chase Center is scheduled to open to the public before the start of the 2019–20 NBA season, with groundbreaking having occurred during the 2016–17 NBA season; the location for the arena, which will house the Golden State Warriors, is in San Francisco at Third St. and 16th St. The arena will have a seating capacity of 18,063 people, it will include a multi-purpose area that includes a theater configuration with an entrance overlooking a newly built park. It will contain 580,000 square feet of office and lab space and have 100,000 square feet of retail space. There will be a public plaza/recreation area designed by landscape architecture firm SWA Group, 35,000 square feet.
The construction will include a parking facility of about 950 spaces and will be accessible to the public transportation around the area. A new light rail line is under construction that will link the arena and the University of California, San Francisco to downtown hotels, convention centers and subway and commuter rail lines that serve the entire Bay Area. With a $1 billion investment, Chase Center will anchor a district of 11 acres of restaurants, cafés, public plazas and a new five-and-a-half-acre public waterfront park; the plan for building a new arena was announced on May 22, 2012, at a Golden State Warriors press conference at the proposed site, attended by then-San Francisco Mayor Ed Lee, then-NBA Commissioner David Stern, California Lt. Governor Gavin Newsom, owners Joe Lacob and Peter Guber, Warriors staff and city officials. A new financed, $500 million 17,000 to 19,000-seat arena was planned to be located on Pier 30-32 along the San Francisco Bay waterfront, situated between the San Francisco Ferry Building and Oracle Park.
A month after the proposal, the South Beach-Rincon-Mission Bay Neighborhood Association criticized the site and said that a second major league sport venue in the area would make it no longer "family friendly". Former San Francisco mayor Art Agnos began speaking to dozens of community gatherings in opposition to the proposed arena, stating that the project was pushed by two out-of-town billionaires and would impact traffic and city views. On December 30, 2013, a ballot proposition was submitted to the city titled the "Waterfront Height Limit Right to Vote Act"; the initiative made it onto the June 2014 ballot as Proposition B, its passage would affect three major waterfront developments, including the proposed Warriors arena. On April 19, 2014, the Warriors abandoned plans for the pier site and purchased a 12-acre site owned by Salesforce.com at the Mission Bay neighborhood for an undisclosed amount. The arena is being financed privately; the architect for the project is MANICA Architecture and the current plan for Chase Center is to have it built by 2019 before the NBA season starts.
The plan for Chase Center to open earlier was pushed back multiple times due to many complaints about the location. Construction on the arena began in January 2017. In April 2015, the Mission Bay site was opposed by the Mission Bay Alliance, which cited traffic, lack of parking, use of space that could go to UCSF expansion among other things as their reasons for opposition, their complaint was that the arena would be located near UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital and would create more traffic. To avoid the plan to build Chase Center being voided, representatives of the project worked to address these issues such as traffic and parking; the name of Chase Center was announced on January 28, 2016, as part of an agreement with JPMorgan Chase. The Golden State Warriors had the official groundbreaking ceremony for Chase Center on January 17, 2017; the arena will have its grand opening on September 6, 2019. The Warriors will play their first preseason game at the Chase Center against the Los Angeles Lakers on October 5, 2019.
Some residents felt that constructing a new arena for the Warriors is a manifestation of the phenomenon of gentrification. Additionally, many who supported the Warriors throughout their years at Oracle Arena feel betrayed by the team's decision to relocate to San Francisco. There is the issue of public costs associated with the new arena, both in San Francisco and Oakland. In the 2018 San Francisco elections, Proposition I was placed on the ballot as "an initiative to discourage the relocation of established sports teams" in direct response to the proposed move of the Warriors from Oakland to San Francisco. Though meant to block the move, the terms of this proposed law were non-binding. Proposition I was defeated on June 5, 2018 after receiving over 59,000 votes compared with nearly 131,000 votes against the measure. Sports in the San Francisco Bay Area Official website San Francisco Venue Development Project
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari. They are most related to the terns and only distantly related to auks and more distantly to the waders; until the 21st century, most gulls were placed in the genus Larus, but this arrangement is now considered polyphyletic, leading to the resurrection of several genera. An older name for gulls is mews, cognate with German Möwe, Danish måge, Dutch meeuw, French mouette. Gulls are medium to large birds grey or white with black markings on the head or wings, they have harsh wailing or squawking calls. Most gulls are ground-nesting carnivores which take live food or scavenge opportunistically the Larus species. Live food includes crabs and small fish. Gulls have unhinging jaws. Gulls are coastal or inland species venturing far out to sea, except for the kittiwakes; the large species take up to four years to attain full adult plumage, but two years is typical for small gulls. Large white-headed gulls are long-lived birds, with a maximum age of 49 years recorded for the herring gull.
Gulls nest in large, densely packed, noisy colonies. They lay three speckled eggs in nests composed of vegetation; the young are precocial, mobile upon hatching. Gulls are resourceful and intelligent, the larger species in particular, demonstrating complex methods of communication and a developed social structure. For example, many gull colonies display mobbing behavior and harassing predators and other intruders. Certain species have exhibited tool-use behavior, such as the herring gull, using pieces of bread as bait with which to catch goldfish, for example. Many species of gulls have learned to coexist with humans and have thrived in human habitats. Others rely on kleptoparasitism to get their food. Gulls have been observed preying on live whales, landing on the whale as it surfaces to peck out pieces of flesh. Gulls range in size from the little gull, at 120 g and 29 cm, to the great black-backed gull, at 1.75 kg and 76 cm. They are uniform in shape, with heavy bodies, long wings, moderately long necks.
The tails of all but three species are rounded. Gulls have moderately long legs when compared to the similar terns, with webbed feet; the bill is heavy and hooked, with the larger species having stouter bills than the smaller species. The bill colour is yellow with a red spot for the larger white-headed species and red, dark red or black in the smaller species; the gulls are generalist feeders. Indeed, they are the least specialised of all the seabirds, their morphology allows for equal adeptness in swimming and walking, they are more adept walking on land than most other seabirds, the smaller gulls tend to be more manoeuvrable while walking. The walking gait of gulls includes a slight side to side motion, something that can be exaggerated in breeding displays. In the air, they are able to hover and they are able to take off with little space; the general pattern of plumage in adult gulls is a white body with a darker mantle. A few species vary in this, the ivory gull is white, some like the lava gull and Heermann's gull have or grey bodies.
The wingtips of most species are black, which improves their resistance to wear and tear with a diagnostic pattern of white markings. The head of a gull may be covered by a dark hood or be white; the plumage of the head varies by breeding season. The gulls have a worldwide cosmopolitan distribution, they breed on every continent, including the margins of Antarctica, are found in the high Arctic, as well. They are less common on tropical islands, although a few species do live on islands such as the Galapagos and New Caledonia. Many species breed in coastal colonies, with a preference for islands, one species, the grey gull, breeds in the interior of dry deserts far from water. Considerable variety exists in the family and species may breed and feed in marine, freshwater, or terrestrial habitats. Most gull species are migratory, with birds moving to warmer habitats during the winter, but the extent to which they migrate varies by species; some migrate long distances, like Franklin's gull, which migrates from Canada to wintering grounds in the south of South America.
Other species move much shorter distances and may disperse along the coasts near their breeding sites. Charadriiform birds drink salt water, as well as fresh water, as they possess exocrine glands located in supraorbital grooves of the skull by which salt can be excreted through the nostrils to assist the kidneys in maintaining electrolyte balance. Gulls are adaptable feeders that opportunistically take a wide range of prey; the food taken by gulls includes fish and marine and freshwater invertebrates, both alive and dead, terrestrial arthropods and invertebrates such as insects and earthworms, eggs, offal, amphibians, plant items such as seeds and fruit, human refuse and other birds. No gull species is a single-prey specialist, no gull species forages using only a single method; the type of food depe