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Mission San Diego de Alcalá

Mission Basilica San Diego de Alcalá was the first Franciscan mission in The Californias, a province of New Spain. Located in present-day San Diego, California, it was founded on July 16, 1769, by Spanish friar Junípero Serra in an area long inhabited by the Kumeyaay people; the mission and the surrounding area were named for the Catholic Didacus of Alcalá, a Spaniard more known as San Diego. The mission was the site of the first Christian burial in Alta California. San Diego is generally regarded as the site of the region's first public execution, in 1778. Father Luis Jayme, California's first Christian martyr, lies entombed beneath the chancel floor; the current church, built in the early 19th century, is the fifth to stand on this location. The mission site is a National Historic Landmark; the former Spanish settlement at the Kumeyaay Nipawai lies within that area occupied during the late Paleoindian period and continuing on into the present day by the Native society known as the Diegueño. Much is known about the native inhabitants in recent centuries, thanks in part to the efforts of Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, who explored the coast in the service of Spain.

He documented his observations of life in the coastal villages he encountered along the Southern California coast in October 1542. Cabrillo was the first European to set foot in what is now the state of California and the first to encounter San Diego Bay. On the evening of September 28, 1542, the ships San Salvador and Victoria sailed into the harbor, whereupon Cabrillo christened it "San Miguel." During that expedition a landing party went ashore and interacted with a small group of natives. Some sixty years another Spanish explorer, Sebastián Vizcaíno, made landfall some ten miles from the present Mission site. Under Vizcaíno's command the San Diego, Santo Tomás, frigate Tres Reyes dropped anchor on November 10, 1602, the port was renamed "San Diego de Alcalá." It would be another 167 years. Since the voyages of Christopher Columbus, the Kingdom of Spain sought to establish missions to convert the pagans in Nueva España to Roman Catholicism to save souls and to facilitate colonization of these lands.

However, it was not until 1741—the time of the Vitus Bering expedition, when the territorial ambitions of Tsarist Russia towards North America became known—that King Philip V felt such installations were necessary in Upper California. In 1769, Visitador General José de Gálvez sent the expedition of Junípero Serra and Gaspar de Portolà to found missions and presidios at San Diego and Monterey, thereby securing Spain's claim to the Pacific Coast harbors recommended by Cabrillo and Vizcaino. Two groups traveled from Lower California on foot, while a pair of packet ships traveled up the coast from the Baja California Peninsula. On August 9, 1834, Governor Figueroa issued his "Decree of Confiscation." The missions were offered for sale to citizens, who were unable to come up with the price, so all mission property was broken up into ranchos and given to ex-military officers who had fought in the War of Independence against Spain. On June 8, 1846, Mission San Diego de Alcalá was given to Santiago Argüello by Governor Pío Pico "...for services rendered to the government."

After the United States annexed California, the Mission was used by the military from 1846 to 1862. President Abraham Lincoln signed a proclamation on May 23, 1862, that restored ownership of the Mission proper to the Roman Catholic Church; when Mission San Diego de Alcalá was granted back to the Church, it was in ruins. In the 1880s Father Anthony Ubach began to restore the old Mission buildings. Father Ubach died in 1907 and restoration work ceased until 1931. In 1941, the Mission once again became a parish church, in what is still an active parish serving the Diocese of San Diego. In 1976, Pope Paul VI designated the Mission church as a minor basilica. Mission San Diego de Alcalá is located within San Diego city limits, near the intersection of Interstate 8 and Interstate 15, one mile east of SDCCU Stadium; the parish is funded by a gift shop, self-guided tours of the grounds and buildings are available to the public for a small donation. California Historical Landmark #242 California Historical Landmark #784 – El Camino Real City of San Diego Historic Designation #113 The goal of the missions was, above all, to become self-sufficient in short order.

Farming, was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the establishment of the missions, the native peoples knew how to utilize bone, seashells and wood for building, tool making and much more; the missionaries discovered that the Indians, who regarded labor as degrading to men, had to be taught industry in order to learn how to be self-supportive. The result was the establishment of a manual training school that comprised agriculture, the mechanical arts, the raising and care of livestock. Everything consumed and otherwise utilized by the natives was produced at the missions under the supervision of the padres. Wheat, wine grapes, beans, cattle and sheep were the major crops at San Diego. In 1795, construction on a system of aqueducts was begun to bring water to the fields and the Mission; the building manager was Fray Pedro Panto, poisoned by his Indian cook Nazario before the project was completed. In his testimony, in t

Louis Alexander Fagan

Louis Alexander Fagan was an Anglo-Italian writer. He worked in the Department of Prints and Drawings for the British Museum from 1869 to 1894. Louis Alexander Fagan was born in 1845 in Italy, his grandfather was Robert FaganHe was the Keeper of Engravings at the British Museum from 1869 to 1894. In 1876 he wrote The Handbook to the DepartmentOn 5 January 1903, he died in Florence. On 8 November 1887, he married Caroline Frances Purves. British Museum. Dept. of Prints and Drawings, Handbook to the Department of prints and drawings in the British museum The life and correspondence of Sir Anthony Panizzi, K. C. B. late principal librarian of the British museum, senator of Italy, etc. in 2 vols. v.1 v.2 The Masters of Raffaello Collector's marks The Art of Michel'Angelo Buonarroti … in the British Museum Raffaello Sanzio, his sonnet in the British museum: studied A catalogue raisonné of the engraved works of William Woollett 1836-1886. The Reform club: its founders and architect The Engraved Works of William Faithorne Mezzotint Engravings Relating to Ireland or to Irish Artists An easy walk through the British museum, or, How to see it in a few hours History of engraving in England, illustr. by 100 typical examples reprod.

From rare prints in the British museum Parker, Daniel. "Fagan, Louis Alexander". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/33066. Works by Louis Fagan at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Louis Alexander Fagan at Internet Archive

Bilkha

Bilkha is a village in Junagadh Taluka of Junagadh district in Gujarat, India. Bilkha lies at the foot of the Girnar clump in the south-east corner. According to a legend, Bilkha was the ancient residence of the legendary king Bali, it is situated about eighteen miles east of Vamansthali, the abode of Vamana. During British period, it is owned by Kathis of a branch of the Jetpur house. In 1880s, Vala Kala Devdan was a its talukdar who had fourth class jurisdiction in his sole villages, Valas Ala and Desa both sons of Bhima Sata, they each exercised sixth class jurisdiction in their sole villages. Bilkha itself was joint between the above-mentioned shareholders so it was managed by a thanadar subordinate to the Jetpur taluka court. A spot called. LegendHe was Vania of great purity of life. Shiva one day visited him in the garb of an ascetic, aghori to test his virtue and asked him to cut off the head of his only son Chelaiyo and together with his wife pound it in a mortar and give it to him to eat.

Sagalsha did not refuse to perform this terrible sacrifice, his son willingly gave up his life. Shiva, seeing their sincerity, restored Chelaiyo to life, granted them whatever they asked. Many persons say that he was the Raja of that place. There is an ashram established by a saint; the population according to the census of 1872 was 3327 and according to that of 1881-82, 3791 souls. The population according to the census of 2011 was 11,134. Bilkha is known for medium variety traditional wood work; the population according to the census of 2011 was 11,134. The legend of Sagalsha produced several folk-songs, it was a subject of 1978 Gujarati film Sheth Sagalsha. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Kathiawar. VIII. Printed at the Government Central Press, Bombay. 1884. Pp. 401–402