Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toulouse is an archdiocese of the Roman Catholic Church in France. The diocese comprises the Department of Haute-Garonne, its see is Toulouse Cathedral, in the city of Toulouse, the current archbishop is Robert Jean Louis Le Gall, appointed in 2006 and translated from the Diocese of Mende. The Archdiocese has 7 suffragan dioceses and archdioceses: Archdiocese of Albi, Archdiocese of Auch, Diocese of Cahors, Diocese of Montauban, Diocese of Pamiers, Diocese of Rodez, Diocese of Tarbes-et-Lourdes; as re-established by the Concordat of 1802, it included the departments of Haute-Garonne and Ariège, at which time, the archbishop joined to his own the title of Auch, jurisdiction over Auch being given to the Diocese of Agen the title of Narbonne, an archdiocese over which jurisdiction went by the Concordat to the Diocese of Carcassonne, the title of Albi, over which, though an archdiocese, jurisdiction went by the Concordat to the See of Montpellier. In consequence of the creation of the Archdiocese of Auch and Archdiocese of Albi under the Restoration, the Archbishop of Toulouse only styled himself Archbishop of Toulouse and Narbonne, when the Diocese of Pamiers was created the limits of the Archdiocese were restricted to the Department of Haute-Garonne.
As thus marked off by the Bull Paternae Caritatis, July, 1822, the Archdiocese of Toulouse includes the whole of the ancient Diocese of Toulouse, Diocese of Rieux, Diocese of Comminges, a few small portions of the ancient Diocese of Montauban, Diocese of Lavaur, Diocese of St-Papoul, Diocese of Mirepoix, Diocese of Lombez. Toulouse, chief town of the Tectosagi, at the end of the second century B. C. tried to shake off the yoke of Rome during the invasion of the Cimbri, but at the beginning of the empire it was a prosperous Roman civitas with famous schools in which the three brothers of the Emperor Constantine were pupils. In the fourth century it was reckoned the fifteenth town in importance in the empire. In 413 it was taken by Astulph, the Goth, in 419 under Wallia it became the capital of the Visigothic Kingdom. In 508 after conquest by Clovis it became Frankish. Legends of more or less recent date claim that it was evangelized by St. Martial, but as far as historical evidence goes the see seems to have been founded by St. Saturninus in the middle of the third century.
The Passio Sancti Saturnini corroborates this date as that of his martyrdom. Subsequent tradition claims. St. Papoul like him a martyr. St. Honoratus, given in some lists as St. Saturninus's successor, is recognised as a pre-Schism Western saint by the Orthodox Church and it is therefore wrong to suggest that he seems just to have crept in through error from the fabulous legend of St. Firminus of Amiens. Among the bishops of Toulouse may be mentioned: Rhodanius, exiled by Constantius to Phrygia because of his efforts against Arianism at the Council of Béziers in 356. From being the capital of the Duchy of Aquitaine, from 631, Toulouse became in 778 the capital of the County of Toulouse created by Charlemagne, which in the tenth century was one of the main fiefs of the crown. Raymond IV, Count of Toulouse, known as Raymond de Saint Gilles, was one of the leaders of the First Crusade. Raymond VI and Raymond VII, Counts of Toulouse, had leanings towards the Cathars. Simon of Montfort in 1218 died under the walls of Toulouse, At this time Toulouse had as bishop Fulk of Marseilles, who fought against Raymond VI and protected the Friars-Preachers in their early days.
The marriage of Jeanne, daughter of Raymond VII, with Alphonse de Poitiers, brother of Louis IX of France, led to the uniting in 1271 of the County of Toulouse to the Crown of France, Toulouse became the capital of the Province of Languedoc. The See of Toulouse was for a time made famous by St. Louis, son of Charles II, King of Naples and the Two Sicilies, of Mary, daughter of the King of Hungary: he was nephew of St. Elizabeth of Hungary and grand-nephew of St. Louis, King of France. Louis had resigned to his brother Robert all rights over the Kingdom of Naples, had accepted from Pope Boniface VIII the See of Toulouse after becoming a Franciscan friar, his successor was Peter de la Chapelle Taillefer, created cardinal in 1305. To this epoch belongs a change that took place in the history of the Diocese of Toulouse, it increased in dignity. Before 1295 the Diocese of Toulouse was extensive. At the beginning of the thirteenth century Bishop Fulk had wished to divide it into several dioceses. In 1295 a portion of territory was cut off by Boniface VIII to form the Diocese of Pamiers.
In 1319 John XXII cut off the Diocese of Toulouse from the metropolitan church of Narbonne and made it a metropolitan with the Sees of Montauban, Saint-Papoul and Lombez as suffragans. The majority of these sees were composed of territory cut off from the ancient See of Toulous
The California Republic was an unrecognized breakaway state that for 25 days in 1846 militarily controlled an area north of San Francisco, in and around what is now Sonoma County in California. In June 1846, thirty-three American immigrants in Alta California who had entered without official permission rebelled against the Mexican department's government. Among their grievances were that they had not been allowed to buy or rent land and had been threatened with expulsion. Mexican officials had been concerned about a coming war with the United States, coupled with the growing influx of Americans into California; the rebellion was covertly encouraged by U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C. Frémont, added to the troubles of the recent outbreak of the Mexican–American War; the name "California Republic" appeared only on the flag. It indicated their aspiration of forming a republican government under their control; the rebels elected military officers but no civil structure was established. The flag became known as the Bear Flag.
Three weeks on July 5, 1846, the Republic's military of 100 to 200 men was subsumed into the California Battalion commanded by Brevet Captain John C. Frémont; the Bear Flag Revolt and whatever remained of the "California Republic" ceased to exist on July 9 when U. S. Navy Lieutenant Joseph Revere raised the United States flag in front of the Sonoma Barracks and sent a second flag to be raised at Sutter's Fort. By 1845–46, Alta California had been neglected by Mexico for the twenty-five years since Mexican independence, it had evolved into a semi-autonomous region with open discussions among Californios about whether California should remain with Mexico. The 1845 removal of Manuel Micheltorena, the latest governor to be sent by Mexico and forcefully ejected by the Californians, resulted in a divided government; the region south of San Luis Obispo was ruled by Governor Pio Pico with his capital in The Town of Our Lady the Queen of Angels of the Porciúncula River, now known as Los Angeles. The area to the north of the pueblo of San Luis Obispo was under the control of Alta California's Commandante José Castro with headquarters near Monterey, the traditional capital and the location of the Customhouse.
Pico and Castro disliked each other and soon began escalating disputes over control of the Customhouse income. Decrees issued by the central government in Mexico City were acknowledged and supported with proclamations but ignored in practice. By the end of 1845, when rumors of a military force being sent from Mexico proved to be false, rulings by the other district government were ignored; the relationship between the United States and Mexico had been deteriorating for some time. Texas, which Mexico still considered to be its territory, had been admitted to statehood in 1845. Mexico had earlier threatened war. James K. Polk was elected President of the United States in 1844, considered his election a mandate for his expansionist policies. Mexican law had long allowed grants of land to naturalized Mexican citizens. Obtaining Mexican citizenship was not difficult and many earlier American immigrants had gone through the process and obtained free grants of land; that same year anticipation of war with the United States and the increasing number of immigrants coming from the United States resulted in orders from Mexico City denying immigrants from the United States entry into California.
The orders required California's officials not to allow land grants, sales or rental of land to non-citizen emigrants in California. All non-citizen immigrants, who had arrived without permission, were threatened with being forced out of California. Alta California's Sub-Prefect Francisco Guerrero had written to U. S. Consul Thomas O. Larkin that: a multitude of foreigners come into California and bought fixed property, a right of naturalized foreigners only, he was under the necessity of notifying the authorities in each town to inform such purchasers that the transactions were invalid and they themselves subject to be expelled whenever the government might find it convenient. During November 1845, California's Commandante General José Castro met with representatives of the 1845 American immigrants at Sonoma and Sutter’s Fort. In his decree dated November 6 he wrote: "Therefore conciliating my duty with of the sentiment of hospitality which distinguishes the Mexicans, considering that most of said expedition is composed of families and industrious people, I have deemed it best to permit them, provisionally, to remain in the department" with the conditions that they obey all laws, apply within three months for a license to settle, promise to depart if that license was not granted.
A 62-man exploring and mapping expedition entered California in late 1845 under the command of U. S. Army Brevet Captain John C. Frémont. Frémont was well known in the United States as an explorer, he was the son-in-law of expansionist U. S. Senator Thomas Hart Benton. Early in 1846 Frémont acted provocatively with California's Commandante General José Castro near the pueblo of Monterey and moved his group out of California into Oregon Country, he was followed into Oregon by U. S. Marine Lt Archibald H. Gillespie, sent from Washington with a secret message to U. S. Consul Thomas O. Larkin and instructions to share the message with Frémont. Gillespie brought a packet of letters from Frémont's wife and father-in-law. Frémont's thoughts after readin
A bell tower is a tower that contains one or more bells, or, designed to hold bells if it has none. Such a tower serves as part of a church, will contain church bells, but there are many secular bell towers part of a municipal building, an educational establishment, or a tower built to house a carillon. Church bell towers incorporate clocks, secular towers do, as a public service; the Italian term campanile, deriving from the word campana meaning "bell", is synonymous with bell tower. A bell tower may in some traditions be called a belfry, though this term may refer to the substructure that houses the bells and the ringers rather than the complete tower; the tallest free-standing bell tower in the world, 113.2 metres high, is the Mortegliano Bell Tower, in the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy. Bells are rung from a tower to enable them to be heard at a distance. Church bells can signify the time for worshippers to go to church for a communal service, can be an indication of a time to pray, without worshippers coming to the church.
They are rung on special occasions such as a wedding, or a funeral service. In some religious traditions they are used within the liturgy of the church service to signify to people that a particular part of the service has been reached. A bell tower may have a collection of bells which are tuned to a common scale, they may be stationary and chimed, rung randomly by swinging through a small arc, or swung through a full circle to enable the high degree of control of English change ringing. They may house a carillon or chimes, in which the bells are sounded by hammers connected via cables to a keyboard; these can be found in many churches and secular buildings in Europe and America including college and university campuses. A variety of electronic devices exist to simulate the sound of bells, but any substantial tower in which a considerable sum of money has been invested will have a real set of bells; some churches have an exconjuratory in the bell tower, a space where ceremonies were conducted to ward off weather-related calamities, like storms and excessive rain.
The main bell tower of the Cathedral of Murcia has four. In Christianity, many Anglican and Lutheran churches ring their bells from belltowers three times a day, at 6 a.m. noon, 6 p.m. summoning the Christian faithful to recite the Lord’s Prayer, or the Angelus, a prayer recited in honour of the Incarnation of God. In addition, most Christian denominations ring church bells to call the faithful to worship, signalling the start of a mass or service of worship. In many historic Christian churches, church bells are rung during the processions of Candlemas and Palm Sunday; the Christian tradition of the ringing of church bells from a belltower is analogous to Islamic tradition of the adhan from a minaret. Old bell towers which are no longer used for their original purpose may be kept for their historic or architectural value, though in countries with a strong campanological tradition they continue to have the bells rung. In AD 400, Paulinus of Nola introduced church bells into the Christian Church.
By the 11th century, bells housed in belltowers became commonplace. Historic bell towers exist throughout Europe; the Irish round towers are thought to have functioned in part as bell towers. Famous medieval European examples include Bruges, Ghent; the most famous European free-standing bell tower, however, is the so-called "Leaning Tower of Pisa", the campanile of the Duomo di Pisa in Pisa, Italy. In 1999 thirty-two Belgian belfries were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites. In 2005 this list was extended with one Belgian and twenty-three Northern French belfries and is since known as Belfries of Belgium and France. Most of these were attached to civil buildings city halls, as symbols of the greater power the cities in the region got in the Middle Ages. In the Middle Ages, cities sometimes kept their important documents in belfries. Not all are on a large scale. Archaic wooden bell towers survive adjoining churches in Lithuania and as well as in some parts of Poland. In Orthodox Eastern Europe bell ringing have a strong cultural significance, churches were constructed with bell towers.
Bell towers are common in the countries of related cultures. They may appear both as part of a temple complex and as an independent civic building paired with a drum tower, as well as in local church buildings. Among the best known examples are the Bell Tower of Beijing and the Bell Tower of Xi'an. Bell towers and campaniles by date Bell-gable Clock tower Conjuratory Octagon on cube Zvonnitsa Belfries of Belgium and France, UNESCO World Heritage Centre entry Les Beffrois - France, Pays-Bas, blog describing several bell towers All Saints Bell Tower
Saint Junípero Serra y Ferrer, O. F. M. was a Roman Catholic Spanish priest and friar of the Franciscan Order who founded a mission in Baja California and the first nine of 21 Spanish missions in California from San Diego to San Francisco, in what was Alta California in the Province of Las Californias, New Spain. Serra was beatified by Pope John Paul II on September 1988, in the Vatican City. Pope Francis canonised him on September 23, 2015, at the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception in Washington, D. C. during his first visit to the United States. His missionary efforts earned him the title of Apostle of California. Serra was born in the village of Petra on the island of Majorca off the Mediterranean coast of Spain. A few hours after birth, he was baptized in the village church, his baptismal name was Miquel Josep Serra. His father Antonio Nadal Serra and mother Margarita Rosa Ferrer were married in 1707. By age seven, Miquel was working the fields with his parents, helping cultivate wheat and beans, tending the cattle.
But he showed a special interest in visiting the local Franciscan friary at the church of San Bernardino within a block of the Serra family house. Attending the friars' primary school at the church, Miquel learned reading, mathematics, Latin and liturgical song Gregorian chant. Gifted with a good voice, he eagerly took to vocal music; the friars sometimes let him sing at special church feasts. Miquel and his father Antonio visited the friary for friendly chats with the Franciscans. At age 16, Miquel's parents enrolled him in a Franciscan school in the capital city, Palma de Majorca, where he studied philosophy. A year he became a novice in the Franciscan order. On September 14, 1730, some two months before his 17th birthday, Serra entered the Franciscan Order at Palma the Alcantarine branch of the Friars Minor, a reform movement in the Order; the slight and frail Serra now embarked on his novitiate period, a rigorous year of preparation to become a full member of the Franciscan Order. He was given the religious name of Junípero in honor of Brother Juniper, among the first Franciscans and a companion of Saint Francis.
The young Junípero, along with his fellow novices, vowed to scorn property and comfort, to remain celibate. He still had seven years to go to become an ordained Catholic priest, he immersed himself in rigorous studies of logic, metaphysics and theology. The daily routine at the friary followed a rigid schedule: prayers, choir singing, physical chores, spiritual readings, instruction; the friars would wake up every midnight for another round of chants. Serra's superiors discouraged visitors. In his free time, he avidly read stories about Franciscan friars roaming the provinces of Spain and around the world to win new souls for the church suffering martyrdom in the process, he followed the news of famous missionaries winning sainthood. In 1737, Serra became a priest, three years earned an ecclesiastical license to teach philosophy at the Convento de San Francisco, his philosophy course, including over 60 students, lasted three years. Among his students were fellow future missionaries Francisco Palóu and Juan Crespí.
When the course ended in 1743, Serra told his students: "I desire nothing more from you than this, that when the news of my death shall have reached your ears, I ask you to say for the benefit of my soul:'May he rest in peace.' Nor shall I omit to do the same for you so that all of us will attain the goal for which we have been created."Serra was considered intellectually brilliant by his peers. He received a doctorate in theology from the Lullian College in Palma de Majorca, where he occupied the Duns Scotus chair of philosophy until he joined the missionary College of San Fernando de Mexico in 1749. During Serra's last five years on the island of Majorca and plague afflicted his home village of Petra. Serra sometimes went home from Palma for brief visits to his parents—now separated—and gave them some financial support. On one occasion he was called home to anoint his ill father with the last rites. In one of his final visits to Petra, Serra found his younger sister Juana María near death.
In 1748, Serra and Palóu confided to each other their desire to become missionaries. Serra, now 35, was assured a prestigious career as scholar if he stayed in Majorca. Applying to the colonial bureaucracy in Madrid, Serra requested that both he and Palóu embark on a foreign mission. After weathering some administrative obstacles, they received permission and set sail for Cádiz, the port of departure for Spain's colonies in the Americas. While waiting to set sail, Serra wrote a long letter to a colleague back in Majorca, urging him to console Serra's parents—now in their 70's—over their only son's pending departure. "They will learn to see how sweet is His yoke," Serra wrote, "and that He will change for them the sorrow they may now experience into great happiness. Now is not the time to muse or fret over the happenings of life but rather to be conformed to the will of God, striving to prepare themselves for that happy death which of all the things of life is our principal concern." Serra asked his colleague to read this letter to his parents.
In 1749, Serra and the Franciscan missionary team landed in Veracruz, on the Gulf coast of New Spain
In architecture, a quadrangle is a space or a courtyard rectangular in plan, the sides of which are or occupied by parts of a large building. The word is most associated with college or university campus architecture, but quadrangles are found in other buildings such as palaces. Most quadrangles are open-air, though a few have been roofed over, to provide additional space for social meeting areas or coffee shops for students; the word quadrangle was synonymous with quadrilateral, but this usage is now uncommon. Some modern quadrangles resemble cloister gardens of medieval monasteries, called garths, which were square or rectangular, enclosed by covered arcades or cloisters. However, it is clear from the oldest examples which are plain and unadorned with arcades, that the medieval colleges at Oxford and Cambridge were creating practical accommodation for college members. Grander quadrangles that look like cloisters came once the idea of a college was well established and benefactors or founders wished to create more monumental buildings.
Although architectonically analogous, for historical reasons quads in the colleges of the University of Cambridge are always referred to as courts. In North America, Thomas Jefferson's design for the University of Virginia centered the housing and academic buildings in a Palladian form around three sides of the Lawn, a huge grassy expanse; some American college and university planners imitated the Jeffersonian plan, the Oxbridge idea, Beaux-Arts forms, other models. The University of Chicago's Gothic campus is notable for its innovative use of quadrangles. All five barracks at The Citadel feature quadrangles with red-and-white squares, which are used for formations by the Corps of Cadets. Quadrangles are found in traditional Kerala houses and is known as the Nadumittam. William J. Stratton, Southern Illinois University Edwardsville Main Quad, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Woodburn Circle, West Virginia University Blue Boar Quadrangle Francis Quadrangle, University of Missouri Memorial Quadrangle The Aula Maxima at NUI Galway is informally known by this title Mob Quad in Merton College, Oxford is one of the oldest quads in existence.
Peckwater Quadrangle The Quad, Harvard University Harvard Yard, Harvard University The Dartmouth Green Main Quadrangles, University of Chicago The Quadrangle, Massachusetts Radcliffe Quadrangle, University College, Oxford Schenley Quadrangle, University of Pittsburgh Bascom Hill, University of Wisconsin–Madison Tom Quad, Christ Church, Oxford University Padmanabhapuram Palace University of Alabama Quad The Quad, University College London Founder's Building, Royal Holloway College, London The Diag, University of Michigan Buckingham Palace, England St. Thomas Residential School, Thiruvananthapuram, India Sunken Garden, College of William & Mary The Lawn, University of Virginia McKeldin Mall, University of Maryland Old College, University of Edinburgh Dahlgren Quadrangle, Georgetown University Academic Quadrangle, Simon Fraser University Old Campus, Yale University Branford College Courtyard, Yale University Main Quad, Stanford University Liberal Arts Quadrangle, University of Washington Siheyuan Nalukettu Haveli, a form of classical architecture from South Asia & Persia, which incorporates a quad for cooling ventilation in the hot climate, the private enjoyment of the open sky by residents, in a modest culture
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea
San Luis Obispo, California
San Luis Obispo, or SLO for short, is a city in the U. S. state of California, located midway between Los Angeles and San Francisco on the Central Coast of Southern California. The population was 45,119 at the 2010 census; the population of San Luis Obispo County was 269,637 in 2010. Founded in 1772 by Spanish Franciscan Junípero Serra, San Luis Obispo is one of California's oldest communities. Serra's original mission was named after bishop Louis of Toulouse; the city, locally referred to as San Luis, SLO, or SLO Town is the county seat of San Luis Obispo County and is adjacent to California Polytechnic State University. The earliest human inhabitants of the local area were the Chumash people. One of the earliest villages lies south of San Luis Obispo and reflects the landscape of the early Holocene when estuaries came farther inland; the Chumash people used marine resources of the inlets and bays along the Central Coast and inhabited a network of villages, including sites at Los Osos and Morro Creek.
During the Spanish Empire expansion throughout the world in 1769, Franciscan Junípero Serra received orders from Spain to bring the Catholic faith to the natives of. Mission San Diego was the first Spanish mission founded in Alta California that same year. On September 7, 1769, an expedition led by Gaspar de Portolá entered the San Luis Obispo area from coastal areas around today's Pismo Beach. One of the expedition's three diarists, padre Juan Crespí, recorded the name given to this area by the soldiers as Cañada de Los Osos; the party traveled north along San Luis Obispo Creek, turned west through Los Osos Valley, reached Morro Bay on September 9. In 1770, Portola established the Presidio of Monterey and Junípero Serra founded the second mission, San Carlos Borromeo, in Monterey; the mission was moved to Carmel the following year. As supplies dwindled in 1772 at the mission and Presidio, the people faced starvation. Remembering the Valley of the Bears, Presidio of Monterey commander Pedro Fages led a hunting expedition to bring back food.
Over twenty-five mule loads of dried bear meat and seed were sent north to relieve the missionaries and neophytes. The natives were impressed at the ease by which the Spaniards could take down the huge grizzlies with their weapons; some of the bear meat was traded with the local people in exchange for edible seed. It was after this that Junípero Serra decided that La Cañada de Los Osos would be an ideal place for the fifth mission; the area had abundant supplies of food and water, the climate was very mild, the local Chumash were friendly. With soldiers and pack animals carrying mission supplies, Junípero Serra set out from Carmel to reach the Valley of the Bears. On September 1, 1772, Junípero Serra celebrated the first Mass with a cross erected near San Luis Creek; the next day, he departed for San Diego leaving Fr. José Cavaller, with the difficult task of building the mission. Fr. José Cavaller, five soldiers and two neophytes began building Mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, which would become the town of San Luis Obispo.
The first mission structures were built with. More permanent buildings were constructed with adobe walls, wood timber roof beams and tile roofs; the completed mission compound included: the church, the priests' residence, the convento, storerooms and visitor residences, soldiers' barracks and other structures. The mission had a grist mill, water supply system, land for farming and pastures for livestock; the whole community of priests and soldiers needed to produce goods for their own livelihood. When the Mexican War of Independence from Spain broke out in 1810, all California missions had to become self-sufficient, receiving few funds or supplies from Spanish sources. Beginning soon after Mexico won her independence from Spain in 1821, anti-Spanish feelings led to calls for expulsion of the Spanish Franciscans and secularization of the missions; because the fledgling Mexican government had many more important problems to deal with than far-off California, actual secularization didn't happen until the mid-1830s.
After 1834, the mission became an ordinary parish, most of its huge land holdings were broken up into land grants called ranchos. The ranchos were given by Mexican land grant from 1837–1846, with the mission itself being granted in the final year; the central community, remained in the same location and formed the nucleus of today's city of San Luis Obispo. After the Mexican–American War annexed California to the United States, San Luis Obispo was the first town incorporated in the newly formed San Luis Obispo County, it remained the center of the county to the present. Early in the American period, the region was well known for lawlessness, it gained a reputation as "Barrio del Tigre" because of the endemic problem. Robberies and murders that left no witnesses were carried out on along the El Camino Real and elsewhere around San Luis Obispo for several years. A gang of eight men committed a robbery with three murders and a kidnapping at the Rancho San Juan Capistrano del Camote in May 1858, that uncharacteristically left two witnesses alive.
This brought about the formation of a vigilance committee in the County that killed one, the suspected leader of the gang Pio Linares, lynched six others, a total of seven men suspected of such