Mexican secularization act of 1833
The Mexican secularization act of 1833 was passed twelve years after Mexico won independence from Spain in 1821. Mexico feared Spain would continue to have influence and power in California because most of the Spanish missions in California remained loyal to the Roman Catholic Church in Spain; as the new Mexican republic matured, calls for the secularization of the missions increased. Once implemented, the secularization act, called An Act for the Secularization of the Missions of California, took away much of the California Mission land and sold or gave it away in large grants called ranchos; the Spanish missions in Alta California are a series of military outposts. The missions were part of the first major effort by Europeans to colonize the Pacific Coast region, the most northern and western of Spain's North American land claims; the settlers introduced European fruits, cattle, horses and technology into the Alta California region and to the Mission Indians. The El Camino Real road connected the missions from San Diego to Mission San Francisco Solano, in Sonoma, a length of 529 miles.
Between 1683 and 1834, Jesuit and Franciscan missionaries established a series of religious outposts from today's Baja California and Baja California Sur into present-day California. José María de Echeandía, the first Mexican-born elected Governor of Alta California issued a "Proclamation of Emancipation" on July 25, 1826. All Indians within the military districts of San Diego, Santa Barbara, Monterey who were found qualified were freed from missionary rule and made eligible to become Mexican citizens; those who wished to remain under mission tutelage were exempted from most forms of corporal punishment. By 1830 those new to California appeared confident in their own abilities to operate the mission ranches and farms independently. In 1831, the number of Indians under missionary control in all of Upper-Alta California was about 18,683 and about 4,342 of garrison soldiers, free settlers, "other classes" totaled 4,342. New immigration of both Mexican and foreigners, increased pressure on the Alta California government to seize the Church-controlled mission properties and dispossess the natives in accordance with Echeandía's directive.
Despite the fact that Echeandía's emancipation plan was met with little encouragement from the newcomers who populated the southern missions, he was nonetheless determined to test the scheme on a large scale at Mission San Juan Capistrano. To that end, he appointed a number of comisionados to oversee the emancipation of the Indians; the Mexican government passed legislation on December 20, 1827 that mandated the expulsion of all Spaniards younger than sixty years of age from Mexican territories. Spaniards could pose a threat to Mexico because Spain did not recognize Mexican independence and attempted to regain control over its former colony. Governor Echeandía intervened on behalf of some Franciscans in order to prevent their deportation once the law took effect in California. Governor José Figueroa, who took office in 1833 attempted to keep the mission system intact, but after the Mexican Congress passed An Act for the Secularization of the Missions of California on August 17, 1833, he took action to start secularization enactment.
In 1833, Figueroa replaced the Spanish-born Franciscan padres at all of the settlements north of Mission San Antonio de Padua with Mexican-born Franciscan priests from the College of Guadalupe de Zacatecas. In response, Father-Presidente Narciso Durán transferred the headquarters of the Alta California Mission System to Mission Santa Bárbara, where it remained until 1846. Governor Figueroa issued a regulation on August 9, 1834 outlining the requirements for the distribution of property to each mission’s neophytes. Among the provisions were that "5. To each head of a family and to all over 20 years old, will be given from the Mission lands a lot not over 400 nor less than 100 varas square". Plus "6....pro rata...one-half of the livestock" and "7.... Half or less of the existing chattels and seed...". The Act provided for the colonization of both Alta California and Baja California, the expenses of this latter move to be borne by the proceeds gained from the sale of the mission land and some building to private parties many started ranchos.
The ranchos made of former mission pasture lands were divided into large land grants, this increasing the number of private land holdings in Alta California. This meant that the missions would hold title only to the worship chapel, the residences of the priests and a small amount of land surrounding the church for use as gardens. In some missions all of the other buildings were lost and some mission buildings were divided, with a physical wall added into the mission buildings. With the loss of all support from the surrounding land and support buildings; the Franciscans soon thereafter abandoned most of the missions, taking with them everything of value, after which the locals plundered the mission buildings for construction materials. As the four to six soldiers assigned to guard each Mission were dism
Zephyrin Engelhardt, O. F. M. was a German-born Roman Catholic clerical historian of the Franciscan Order. Engelhardt, known as the "Father of Mission History," compiled extensive histories of the twenty-one Spanish missions in Alta California as well as other Franciscan settlements in Baja California and Arizona during the first decades of the 20th century. Engelhardt's work is today considered to be the standard authority regarding California mission history, his many works include: The Franciscans in California The Franciscans in Arizona The Missions and Missionaries of California Engelhardt worked with the Pomo Native Americans of Northern California and compiled the vocabulary of their language
San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, California
San Miguel is a census-designated place in San Luis Obispo County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,336, up from 1,427 at the 2000 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 1.7 square miles, all of it land. The 2010 United States Census reported that San Miguel had a population of 2,336; the population density was 1,369.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Miguel was 1,638 White, 65 African American, 58 Native American, 19 Asian, 1 Pacific Islander, 474 from other races, 81 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,196 persons; the Census reported that 2,324 people lived in households, 12 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 0 were institutionalized. There were 698 households, out of which 358 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 379 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 93 had a female householder with no husband present, 57 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 73 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 8 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 115 households were made up of individuals and 25 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.33. There were 529 families; the population was spread out with 774 people under the age of 18, 262 people aged 18 to 24, 711 people aged 25 to 44, 481 people aged 45 to 64, 108 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28.3 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.3 males. There were 791 housing units at an average density of 463.9 per square mile, of which 435 were owner-occupied, 263 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.7%. 1,399 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 925 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,427 people, 468 households, 335 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 852.3 people per square mile.
There were 503 housing units at an average density of 300.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 63.28% White, 1.47% African American, 2.73% Native American, 0.42% Asian, 23.83% from other races, 8.27% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32.66% of the population. There were 468 households out of which 46.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.4% were married couples living together, 12.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families. 20.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.03 and the average family size was 3.53. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 33.0% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 17.6% from 45 to 64, 6.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females, there were 104.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 108.3 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $33,264, the median income for a family was $32,847. Males had a median income of $26,216 versus $20,134 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $15,444. About 6.1% of families and 10.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.5% of those under age 18 and 14.0% of those age 65 or over. San Miguel is home to the Mission San Miguel Arcángel, founded on 25 July 1797. Mission San Miguel Arcángel was founded on July 25, 1797 by the Franciscan order, on a site chosen due to the large number of Salinan Indians that inhabited the area, whom the Spanish priests wanted to evangelize, it is located at San Miguel, California, in San Luis Obispo County. The mission remains in use as a parish church to this day. After being closed to the public for six years due to the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, the church re-opened on December 22, 2009. Inside the church are murals by Esteban Munras. Father Presidente Fermin Francisco de Lasuen founded the mission on July 25, 1797, making it the sixteenth California mission.
Its location between Mission San Luis Obispo and Mission San Antonio de Padua provided a stop on the trip that had taken two days. In 1803, the mission reported an Indian population of 908, while its lands grazed 809 cattle, 3,223 sheep, 342 horses and 29 mules; that year's harvest included about 2,186 fanegas of corn. Most of the mission burned, while still being developed, in 1806, it was rebuilt within a year. On July 15, 1836, the Mexican government secularized mission lands, including Mission San Miguel, Ygnacio Coronel took charge. In 1846, Governor Pío Pico sold the Mission for $600 to William Reed. Reed used the Mission as a store. In 1848, Reed and his family were murdered; the Mission was a stopping place for miners coming from Los Angeles to San Francisco, was was used as a saloon, dance hall and living quarters. In 1859, President James Buchanan returned the Mission to the Church. In 1878, after 38 years without a resident padre, Father Philip Farrelly became the "First Pastor" of Mission San Miguel Arcángel.
Through all the years the priests kept the church in condition and it is called the best-preserved church in
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Mission San Antonio de Padua
Mission San Antonio de Padua is a Spanish mission established by the Franciscan order in present-day Monterey County, near the present-day town of Jolon. It was founded on July 14, 1771, was the third mission founded in Alta California by Father Presidente Junípero Serra; the mission was the first use fired.tile roofing in Upper California. Today the mission is a parish church of the Diocese of Monterey. Mission San Antonio de Padua was the third Mission to be founded. Father Junipero Serra claimed the site on July 14, 1771, dedicated the Mission to Saint Anthony of Padua. Saint Anthony is the patron saint of the poor. Father Serra left Fathers Miguel Pieras and Buenaventura Sitjar behind to continue the building efforts, though the construction of the church proper did not begin until 1810. By that time, there were 178 Native Americans living at the Mission. By 1805, the number had increased to 1,300, but in 1834, after the secularization laws went into effect, the total number of Mission Indians at the Mission San Antonio was only 150.
No town grew up around the Mission. In 1845, Mexican Governor Pío Pico declared all mission buildings in Alta California for sale, but no one bid for Mission San Antonio. After nearly 30 years, the Mission was returned to the Catholic Church. In 1894, roof tiles were salvaged from the property and installed on the Southern Pacific Railroad depot located in Burlingame, one of the first permanent structures constructed in the Mission Revival Style; the first attempt at rebuilding the Mission came in 1903 when the California Historical Landmarks League began holding outings at San Antonio. "Preservation and restoration of Mission San Antonio began. The Native Sons of the Golden West supplied $1,400. Tons of debris were removed from the interior of the chapel. Breaches in the side wall were filled in." The earthquake of 1906 damaged the building. In 1928, Franciscan Friars held services at San Antonio de Padua, it took nearly 50 years to restore the Mission. The State of California is requiring a $12–15 million earthquake retrofit that must be completed by 2015, or the mission will be closed.
There are 35 private families keeping the mission open, as of 2011. There is an active campaign to raise funds for the retrofit. Today, the nearest city is King City, nearly 29 miles away. Historians consider the Mission's pastoral location in the valley of the San Antonio River along the Santa Lucia Mountains as an outstanding example of early mission life; the mission is surrounded by the Fort Hunter Liggett Military Reservation, acquired by the U. S. Army from the Hearst family during World War II to train troops. Additional land was acquired from the Army in 1950 to increase the mission area to over 85 acres; this fort is still training troops today. Mission San Antonio de Padua is one of the designated tour sights of the Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail; as of 2013, Franciscan Friar Jeff Burns OFM, is in charge of the Mission. The 1965 horror film Incubus was filmed at the Mission; the writer and director, Leslie Stevens, concerned that the Mission authorities would not allow the film to be shot there because of the subject matter, concocted a cover story that the film was called Religious Leaders of Old Monterey, presented a script, about monks and farmers.
He was helped in this deception by the fact that the film was shot in Esperanto. Spanish missions in California USNS Mission San Antonio, a Buenaventura-Class fleet oiler built in 1944 The Hacienda – the nearby Mission Revival Style guest-ranch house built in 1930 by W. R. Hearst. Mission San Miguel Arcángel – next south Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad – next north Sitjar, Bonaventura. Vocabulary of the language of San Antonio mission, California. Trübner. Retrieved 25 August 2012. Forbes, Alexander. California: A History of Upper and Lower California. Smith, Elder and Co. Cornhill, London. Krell, Dorothy; the California Missions: A Pictorial History. Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-376-05172-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Jones, Terry L. and Kathryn A. Klar. California Prehistory: Colonization and Complexity. Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-7591-0872-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Leffingwell, Randy. California Missions and Presidios: The History & Beauty of the Spanish Missions.
Voyageur Press, Inc. Stillwater, MN. ISBN 0-89658-492-5. Paddison, Joshua. A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 1-890771-13-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Ruscin, Terry. Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8. Yenne, Bill; the Missions of California. Advantage Publishers Group, San Diego, CA. ISBN 1-59223-319-8. Mission San Antonio de Padua official website Fort Hunter Liggett official website Monterey County Historical Society Early photographs, sketches of Mission San Antonio de Padua, via Calisphere, California Digital Library Early History of the California Coast, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Official U. S. National Park Service Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail website Howser, Huell. "California Missions". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive
The Salinan Native Americans are a Native American tribe whose ancestral territory is in the southern Salinas Valley and the Santa Lucia range in the Central Coast of California, in the Salinas Valley. At least two Salinan tribal governments are now working toward federal tribal recognition from the Bureau of Indian Affairs. There were two major divisions, the Miguelino in the south, on the upper course of the Salinas River, the Antoniano in the north, in the lower part of the Salinas Basin, corresponding to the two missions in the Salinas Valley. There were a Playano group on the Pacific Coast in the vicinity of what is now San Simeon and Lucia. Before European contact, Salinans lived by hunting and gathering and, like most other California tribes, were organized in small groups with little centralized political structure; the Salinan people were named after the Salinas River by John Powell. The people's own name for themselves is the "Te'po'ta'ahl" or "People of the Oaks," according to current tribal leadership.
C. Hart Merriam called these people the En-'ne-sen on advice from one informant; the Salinan language, spoken until the 1950s is a language isolate. It may be a part of the Hokan language family. Sapir included it in a subfamily of Hokan, along with Seri. Estimates for the pre-contact populations of most native groups in California have varied substantially. Alfred L. Kroeber put the 1770 population of the Salinan as 3,000. Sherburne F. Cook estimated that there were at least 700 Salinans. Salinan traditional narratives Kuksu Painted Rock Chalon USS Salinan Campbell, Lyle. American Indian languages: the historical linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cook, Sherburne F. 1976. The Conflict between the California Indian and White Civilization. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. Kroeber, Alfred L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin No. 78. Washington, D. C. Hester, Thomas R. 1978. Salinan, in Handbook of North American Indians, vol.
8. William C. Sturtevant, Robert F. Heizer, eds. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1978. ISBN 0-16-004578-9 / 0160045754, pages 500-504. Marlett, Stephen A. 2008. The Seri-Salinan connection revisited. International Journal of American Linguistics 74.3:393-399. Sapir, Edward. 1925. The Hokan affinity of Subtiaba in Nicaragua. American Anthropologist 27:.402-34.491-527
The Franciscans are a group of related mendicant religious orders within the Catholic Church, founded in 1209 by Saint Francis of Assisi. These orders include the Order of Friars Minor, the Order of Saint Clare, the Third Order of Saint Francis, they adhere to the teachings and spiritual disciplines of the founder and of his main associates and followers, such as Clare of Assisi, Anthony of Padua, Elizabeth of Hungary, among many others. Francis began preaching around 1207 and traveled to Rome to seek approval from Pope Innocent III in 1209 to form a new religious order; the original Rule of Saint Francis approved by the Pope disallowed ownership of property, requiring members of the order to beg for food while preaching. The austerity was meant to emulate the ministry of Jesus Christ. Franciscans preached in the streets, while boarding in church properties. Saint Clare, under Francis's guidance, founded the Poor Clares in 1212, which remains a Second Order of the Franciscans; the extreme poverty required of members was relaxed in the final revision of the Rule in 1223.
The degree of observance required of members remained a major source of conflict within the order, resulting in numerous secessions. The Order of Friars Minor known as the "Observant" branch, is one of the three Franciscan First Orders within the Catholic Church, the others being the "Conventuals" and "Capuchins"; the Order of Friars Minor, in its current form, is the result of an amalgamation of several smaller orders completed in 1897 by Pope Leo XIII. The latter two, the Capuchin and Conventual, remain distinct religious institutes within the Catholic Church, observing the Rule of Saint Francis with different emphases. Conventual Franciscans are sometimes referred to as greyfriars because of their habit. In Poland and Lithuania they are known as Bernardines, after Bernardino of Siena, although the term elsewhere refers to Cistercians instead; the name of the original order, Ordo Fratrum Minorum stems from Francis of Assisi's rejection of extravagance. Francis was the son of a wealthy cloth merchant, but gave up his wealth to pursue his faith more fully.
He had cut all ties that remained with his family, pursued a life living in solidarity with his fellow brothers in Christ. Francis adopted the simple tunic worn by peasants as the religious habit for his order, had others who wished to join him do the same; those who joined him became the original Order of Friars Minor. The modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance, they all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. First OrderThe First Order or the Order of Friars Minor are called the Franciscans; this order is a mendicant religious order of men, some of whom trace their origin to Francis of Assisi. Their official Latin name is the Ordo Fratrum Minorum. St. Francis thus referred to his followers as "Fraticelli", meaning "Little Brothers". Franciscan brothers are informally called the Minorites; the modern organization of the Friars Minor comprises three separate families or groups, each considered a religious order in its own right under its own minister General and particular type of governance.
They all live according to a body of regulations known as the Rule of St Francis. These are The Order of Friars Minor known as the Observants, are most simply called Franciscan friars, official name: Friars Minor; the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin or Capuchins, official name: Friars Minor Capuchin. The Conventual Franciscans or Minorites, official name: Friars Minor Conventual". Second OrderThe Second Order, most called Poor Clares in English-speaking countries, consists of religious sisters; the order is called the Order of St. Clare, but in the thirteenth century, prior to 1263, this order was referred to as "The Poor Ladies", "The Poor Enclosed Nuns", "The Order of San Damiano". Third OrderThe Franciscan third order, known as the Third Order of Saint Francis, has many men and women members, separated into two main branches: The Secular Franciscan Order, OFS known as the Brothers and Sisters of Penance or Third Order of Penance, try to live the ideals of the movement in their daily lives outside of religious institutes.
The members of the Third Order Regular live in religious communities under the traditional religious vows. They grew out of the Secular Franciscan Order; the 2013 Annuario Pontificio gave the following figures for the membership of the principal male Franciscan orders:. Order of Friars Minor: 2,212 communities. A sermon Francis heard in 1209 on Mt 10:9 made such an impression on him that he decided to devote himself wholly to a life of apostolic poverty. Clad in a rough garment, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance, he was soon joined by a prominent fellow townsman, Bernard of Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work, by other companions, who are said to have reached the number of eleven within a yea