Mission Santa Clara de Asís
Mission Santa Clara de Asís is a Spanish mission founded by the Franciscan order in the present-day city of Santa Clara, California. The mission, the eighth in California, was founded on January 12, 1777 and named for Saint Clare of Assisi, the foundress of the order of the Poor Clares, it is the namesake of both the city and county of Santa Clara, as well as Santa Clara University, built around the mission. This was the first California mission to be named in honor of a woman and the only mission to now be on the grounds of a university campus. Although ruined and rebuilt six times, the settlement was never abandoned, today it functions as the university chapel for Santa Clara University; the outpost was established as La Misión Santa Clara de Thamien at the Indian village of So-co-is-u-ka January 12, 1777. There the Franciscan brothers erected a cross and shelter for worship to bring Christianity to the Ohlone and Costanoan peoples. Floods and earthquakes damaged many of the early structures and forced relocation to higher ground.
The second site is known as Mission Santa Clara de Asís. A subsequent site of the mission dating from 1784 to 1819 is located several hundred yards west of the De La Cruz overpass of the Caltrain track; the current site, home to the first college in Alta California, dates back to 1828. There was tension between the people of the mission and those in the nearby Pueblo de San Jose over disputed ownership rights of land and water; the tension was relieved when a road, the Alameda, was built by two hundred Indians to link the communities together. On Sundays, people from San Jose would come to the mission for services, until the building of St. Joseph's Church in 1803. In that year, the mission of Santa Clara reported an Indian population of 1,271. In the same tabular report, its resident priest estimated that 10,000 cattle, 9,500 sheep, 730 horses, 35 mules, 55 swine were on mission lands, while about 3,000 fanegas of grain had been harvested. After the Mexican secularization act of 1833 most of the mission's land and livestock was sold off by Mexico.
Most of the buildings continued to be used as a parish church, unlike the other missions in California. In 1850, California became a state, with that change priests of the Jesuit Order took over the Mission Santa Clara de Asís in 1851 from the Franciscans. Father John Nobili, S. J. was put in charge of the mission. He began a college on the mission site in 1851. Throughout the history of the mission, the bells have rung faithfully every evening, a promise made to King Charles III of Spain when he sent the original bells to the mission in 1777, he asked that the bells be rung each evening at 8:30 in memory of those who had died, although the actual bells have since been replaced by a recording. In 1861, a new wooden façade with two bell towers was attached over the old adobe front of the building; the interior was widened in 1885 to increase the seating capacity by removing the original adobe nave walls. A fire in 1925 destroyed the structure, including the surrounding wall; the church's parochial functions were transferred to the Saint Clare Parish west of the campus.
A rebuilt and restored Mission Santa Clara was consecrated in 1929, when it assumed its primary modern function as chapel and centerpiece of the university campus. It is open to visitors every day; the original mission cemetery, still used, is located on nearby Lincoln Street. Spanish missions in California USNS Mission Santa Clara – a Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II. Forbes, Alexander. California: A History of Upper and Lower California. Smith, Elder and Co. Cornhill, London. Giglio, Gary, C. et al. Environmental Impact Report for the General Plan Amendment and Development of a Portion of FMC Corporation's Coleman Avenue Facility, Earth Metrics Inc. September 1988, published by the City of Santa Clara, California. Jones, Terry L. and Kathryn A. Klar. California Prehistory: Colonization and Complexity. Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-7591-0872-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Leffingwell, Randy. California Missions and Presidios: The History & Beauty of the Spanish Missions.
Voyageur Press, Inc. Stillwater, MN. ISBN 0-89658-492-5. Levy, Richard.. William C. sturrent, Robert F. Heizer, ed. Handbook of North American Indians. 8. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. p. 486. ISBN 0-87474-188-2. Milliken, Randall. A Time of Little Choice: The Disintegration of Tribal Culture in the San Francisco Bay Area 1769–1910. Ballena Press Publication, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-87919-132-5. Paddison, Joshua. A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 1-890771-13-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Ruscin, Terry. Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8. Yenne, Bill; the Missions of California. Advantage Publishers Group, San Diego, CA. ISBN 1-59223-319-8. Early photographs, sketches of Mission Santa Clara de Asís, via Calisphere, California Digital Library Howser, Huell. "California Missions". California Missions. Chapman University Huell Howser Archive
An archangel is an angel of high rank. The word "archangel" itself is associated with the Abrahamic religions, but beings that are similar to archangels are found in a number of religious traditions; the English word archangel is derived from the Greek ἀρχάγγελος. It appears only twice in the New Testament in the phrase "with the voice of the archangel, with the trump of God" and in relation to'the archangel Michael'; the corresponding but different Hebrew word in the Hebrew Scripture is found in two places as in "Michael, one of the chief princes" and in "Michael, the great prince". Michael and Gabriel are recognized as archangels in Judaism, the Baha'i Faith, by most Christians; some Protestants consider Michael to be the only archangel. Raphael—mentioned in the deuterocanonical Book of Tobit—is recognized as an archangel in the Catholic and Orthodox churches. Gabriel and Raphael are venerated in the Roman Catholic Church with a feast on September 29, in the Eastern Orthodox Church on November 8.
The named archangels in Islam are Jibrael, Mikael and Azrael. Jewish literature, such as the Book of Enoch mentions Metatron as an archangel, called the "highest of the angels", though the acceptance of this angel is not canonical in all branches of the faith; some branches of the faiths mentioned have identified a group of seven Archangels, but the named angels vary, depending on the source. Gabriel and Raphael are always mentioned. In Zoroastrianism, sacred texts allude to the six great Amesha Spenta of Ahura Mazda. An increasing number of experts in anthropology and philosophy, believe that Zoroastrianism contains the earliest distillation of prehistoric belief in angels; the Amesha Spentas of Zoroastrianism are likened to archangels. They individually inhabit immortal bodies that operate in the physical world to protect and inspire humanity and the spirit world; the Avesta explains the nature of archangels or Amesha Spentas. To maintain equilibrium, Ahura Mazda engaged in the first act of creation, distinguishing his Holy Spirit Spenta Mainyu, the Archangel of righteousness.
Ahura Mazda distinguished from himself six more Amesha Spentas, along with Spenta Mainyu, aided in the creation of the physical universe. He oversaw the development of sixteen lands, each imbued with a unique cultural catalyst calculated to encourage the formation of distinct human populations; the Amesha Spentas were charged with protecting these holy lands and through their emanation believed to align each respective population in service to God. The Amesha Spentas as attributes of God are: Spenta Mainyu: lit.'Bountiful Spirit' Asha Vahishta: lit.'Highest Truth' Vohu Mano: lit.'Righteous Mind' Khshathra Vairya: lit.'Desirable Dominion' Spenta Armaiti: lit.'Holy Devotion' Haurvatat: lit.'Perfection or Health' Ameretat: lit.'Immortality' The Hebrew Bible uses the term מלאכי אלוהים, The Hebrew word for angel is "malach," which means messenger, for the angels מלאכי יי are God's messengers to perform various missions - e.g.'angel of death'. Other terms are used in texts, such as העליונים. References to angels are uncommon in Jewish literature except in works such as the Book of Daniel, though they are mentioned in the stories of Jacob and Lot.
Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name. It is therefore speculated that Jewish interest in angels developed during the Babylonian captivity. According to Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish of Tiberias, specific names for the angels were brought back by the Jews from Babylon. There are no explicit references to archangels in the canonical texts of the Hebrew Bible. In post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels came to take on a particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles. Though these archangels were believed to have ranked amongst the heavenly host, no systematic hierarchy developed. Metatron is considered one of the highest of the angels in Merkavah and Kabbalist mysticism and serves as a scribe, he is mentioned in the Talmud, figures prominently in Merkavah mystical texts. Michael, who serves as a warrior and advocate for Israel, is looked upon fondly. Gabriel is mentioned in the Book of Daniel and in the Talmud, as well as many Merkavah mystical texts.
The earliest references to archangels are in the literature of the intertestamental periods. In the Kabbalah there are ten archangels, each assigned to one sephira: Metatron, Tzaphkiel, Khamael, Haniel, Michael and Sandalphon. Chapter 20 of the Book of Enoch mentions seven holy angels who watch, that are considered the seven archangels: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Sa
Huell Burnley Howser was an American television personality, producer, writer and voice artist, best known for hosting and writing California's Gold, his human interest show produced by KCET in Los Angeles for California PBS stations. The archive of his video chronicles offers an enhanced understanding of the history and people of California, he voiced the Backson in Winnie the Pooh. Howser was born in Gallatin, Tennessee, on October 18, 1945, to Harold Chamberlain and Jewell Havens Howser. Howser's first name is a portmanteau of his parents' given names and Jewell, as Howser explained in the California's Gold episode "Smartsville." He received a B. A. in history from the University of Tennessee, where he served as student body president. After serving in the U. S. Marine Corps and on the staff of U. S. Senator Howard Baker, Howser began his television career at WSMV-TV in Nashville, where he produced shows focused on human interest stories, such as Happy Features and The Happy World of Huell Howser.
Howser was a television personality working for the University of Tennessee. After working in New York City as the host of WCBS-TV's "Real Life" show, Howser moved to Los Angeles, California in 1981 to work as a reporter for KCBS-TV. During 1982 and 1983, he served as weekend correspondent for Entertainment Tonight. In 1983, he joined KCET as host and producer of Videolog, a series of brief human-interest segments running less than 10 minutes each, that aired in between the station's shorter programs to fill up air time. "Videolog" became one of the more popular programs on KCET, in 1990, the show was expanded to half hour-long episodes. Included in Videolog was lint artist Slater Barron among other topics relevant to Los Angeles and adjacent communities. In 1991, after spending his vacation driving across the Golden State and visiting with all 13 PBS stations in California, California's Gold premiered in April of that year. California's Gold highlights small towns, events, or places of interest throughout California that are not well known to the general public.
Howser conducted informal impromptu, interviews with locals involved with the sites he visited. He produced California's Communities, California's Golden Fairs, California's Water, California's Green, California's Golden Coast, California's Golden Parks, Road Trip, Visiting... with Huell Howser, California Missions, Palm Springs, Our Neighborhoods, The Bench, various specials. Articles written by Howser have appeared in Westways, the magazine of the Automobile Club of Southern California. In 1997, Howser featured prominently as himself alongside Tracey Ullman in character as Ruby Romaine in the Tracey Takes On... episode "Hollywood."Howser spearheaded an unsuccessful effort to stop the demolition of buildings designed by Paul Williams at the Long Beach Naval Shipyard. He appeared in Who Killed the Electric Car? in his capacity as a reporter, witnessing the demolition and shredding of a Honda EV Plus. In 2011, Howser voiced the Backson in the post-credits scene of Walt Disney Animation Studios's feature film Winnie the Pooh.
Howser lived in the historic El Royale apartments in Los Angeles and had homes in Palm Springs and Twentynine Palms. On June 29, 2015, Howser's Twentynine Palms home became available for weddings. Howser mentioned that he was a Methodist during his episode covering the Nevada County Fair on California's Golden Fairs. In 2003, Howser purchased the 1,800-square-foot Volcano House, situated on a volcanic cinder cone just outside Barstow in Newberry Springs, along with 60 acres of desert and a man-made lake. In 2010, Howser put his unusual Newberry Springs, residence on the market for $650,000. In June 2012, The Panther, a student-run newspaper for Chapman University announced that Howser had donated the Volcano House to the school. On September 3, 2015, Chapman University sold the Volcano House for $750,000. On November 27, 2012, The Sacramento Bee reported that Howser was retiring from making new shows, amid speculation in the television community that he was ill. On January 7, 2013, Howser died at his Palm Springs home, at the age of 67.
He had been battling cancer for several years and his death certificate listed metastatic prostate cancer as the cause. Howser's body was cremated and his ashes were scattered at sea off the coast of Los Angeles County. On January 15, 2013, a memorial was held for Howser, who said before his death that he did not want a funeral as he did not want attention. Howser donated his videotaped collection of California's Gold episodes, as well as those of his other series, to Chapman University in 2011, he donated his personal papers, a large collection of books on California history to the university. The school established the Huell Howser Archives, when completed, will offer the public free access to the entire digitized collection of his life's work; the archives can be accessed at Chapman University as well as on the internet. He gave his extensive art collection, which consists of "found-object" art collected during his travels, to the university, endowed the California's Gold Scholarship Fund.
Upon his death he bequeathed his remaining two homes to the university, the proceeds from the sale of which will be added to the scholarship fund. Testimonials to Howser's unique contribution to the celebration of California history and culture were acknowledged in numerous media sources upon word of his death. Gustavo Arellano, OC Weekly editor, called Howser "the greatest Californian since Hiram Johnson," noting that for Hows
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel
Mission San Gabriel Arcángel is a functioning Roman Catholic mission and a historic landmark in San Gabriel, California. The settlement was founded by Spaniards of the Franciscan order on "The Feast of the Birth of Mary," September 8, 1771, as the fourth of what would become 21 Spanish missions in California. San Gabriel Arcángel, named after the Archangel Gabriel and referred to as the "Godmother of the Pueblo of Los Angeles", was designed by Antonio Cruzado, who hailed from Córdoba, Spain. Cruzado gave the building its strong Moorish architectural influence; the capped buttresses and the tall, narrow windows are unique among the missions of the California chain. Mission San Gabriel was founded on September 8, 1771, by Fray Angel Francisco de Sonera and Fray Pedro Benito Cambon; the planned site for the Mission was along the banks of the Río de Los Temblores. The priests chose an alternate site on a fertile plain located directly alongside the Rio Hondo in the Whittier Narrows; the site of the Misión Vieja is located near the intersection of San Gabriel Boulevard and Lincoln Avenue.
In 1776, a flash flood destroyed much of the crops and ruined the Mission complex, subsequently relocated five miles closer to the mountains in present-day San Gabriel. The Mission is the base. On December 9, 1812, a series of massive earthquakes shook Southern California; the 1812 Wrightwood earthquake caused the three-bell campanario, located adjacent to the chapel's east façade, to collapse. A larger, six-bell structure was subsequently constructed at the far end of the Capilla. While no pictorial record exists to document what the original structure looked like, architectural historian Rexford Newcomb deduced the design and published a depiction in his 1916 work The Franciscan Mission Architecture of Alta California. Legend has it that the founding expedition was confronted by a large group of native Tongva peoples whose intention was to drive the strangers away. One of the priests laid a painting of "Our Lady of Sorrows" on the ground for all to see, whereupon the natives, designated by the settlers as the Gabrieliños made peace with the missionaries, because they were so moved by the painting's beauty.
Today the 300-year-old work hangs in front of and to the left of the old high altar and reredos in the Mission's sanctuary. A large stone cross stands in the center of the Campo Santo, first consecrated in 1778 and again on January 29, 1939, by the Los Angeles Archbishop John Cantwell, it serves as the final resting place for some 6,000 "neophytes. Interred at the Mission are the bodies of numerous Franciscan priests who died during their time of service, as well as the remains of Reverend Raymond Catalan, C. M. F. who undertook the restoration of the Mission's gardens. Entombed at the foot of the altar are the remains of eight Franciscan priests: Miguel Sánchez, Antonio Cruzado, Francisco Dumetz, Roman Ulibarri, Joaquin P. Nunez, Gerónimo Boscana, José Bernardo Sánchez, Blas Ordaz. Buried among the priests is centenarian Eulalia Perez de Guillén Mariné, the "keeper of the keys" under Spanish rule. Well over 25,000 baptisms were conducted at San Gabriel between 1771 and 1834, making it the most prolific in the mission chain.
In its heyday, it furnished food and supplies to settlements and other missions throughout California. A majority of the Mission structures fell into ruins after it was secularized in November 1834; the once-extensive vineyards were falling to decay, with fences broken down and animals roaming through it. The Mission's chapel functioned as a parish church for the City of San Gabriel from 1862 until 1908, when the Claretian Missionaries came to San Gabriel and began the job of rebuilding and restoring the Mission. In 1874, tracks were laid for Southern Pacific Railroad near the mission. In 2012, artifacts from the mission era were found when the tracks were lowered into a trench known as the Alameda Corridor-East. On October 1, 1987 the Whittier Narrows earthquake damaged the property. A significant portion of the original complex has since been restored; the goal of the missions was to become self-sufficient in short order. Farming was the most important industry of any mission. Prior to the missions, the native-Americans had developed a self-sufficient culture.
The missionaries believed the native Tongva people were inferior and in need of conversion to Christianity. The mission priests established what they thought of as a manual training school: to teach the Indians their style of agriculture, the mechanical arts, the raising and care of livestock; the missions, utilizing the labor of the neophytes, produced everything they consumed. After 1811, the mission Indians could be said to sustain the entire military and civil government of California."The names of the rancherias associated with San Gabriel Mission were: Acuragna, Awigna, Cahuenga, Chowigna, Hahaulogna, Houtgna, Isanthcogna, Nacaugna, Pasinogna, Pubugna, Sisitcanogna, Suangna, Toviscanga, Yangna."To efficiently manage its extensive lands, Mission San Gabriel established several outlying sub-missions, known as asistencias. Several of these became or were
San Rafael, California
San Rafael is an affluent city and the county seat of Marin County, United States. The city is located in the North Bay region of the San Francisco Bay Area; as of the 2010 census the city's population is 57,713. What is now San Rafael was once the site of several Coast Miwok villages: Awani-wi, near downtown San Rafael, near Terra Linda and Shotomko-cha, in Marinwood. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was founded in what is now downtown San Rafael as the 20th Spanish mission in the colonial Mexican province of Alta California by three priests—Father Narciso Durán from Mission San José, Father Abella from Mission San Francisco de Asís, Father Luis Gíl y Taboada from La Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Reina de los Angeles—on Dec. 14, 1817, four years before Mexico gained independence from Spain. Mission San Rafael Arcángel was located a donkey's day walk to the mission below it; the mission and the city are named after the Angel of Healing. The mission was planned as a hospital site for Central Valley American Indians who had become ill at the cold San Francisco Mission Dolores.
Father Luis Gil, who spoke several Native American languages, was put in charge of the facility. In part because of its ideal weather, San Rafael was upgraded to full mission status in 1822; the mission had 300 converts within its first year, 1,140 converts by 1828. The Mexican government took over the California missions in 1834, Mission San Rafael was abandoned in 1844 falling into ruin; the current mission was built in 1949 in the style of the original, but faces at right angles to the alignment of the original. The San Francisco and North Pacific Railroad reached San Rafael in 1879 and was linked to the national rail network in 1888; the United States Navy operated a San Pablo Bay degaussing range from San Rafael through World War II. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.4 square miles. 16.5 square miles of it is land and 6.0 square miles of it is water. South of the county is San Francisco. Notable landmarks include: Mission San Rafael Arcángel, around which the city developed the Marin County Civic Center building, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright the Rafael Film Center China Camp State Park, Kerner Studios.
Peacock Gap Golf Course, open to the public. There are several public parks in the city; the San Rafael shoreline has been filled to a considerable extent to accommodate land development, with underlying bay mud of up to 90 feet in thickness. At certain locations such as Murphys Point, the sandstone or shale rock outcrops through the mud. San Rafael has a wide diversity of natural habitats from forests at the higher elevations to marshland and estuarine settings, its marshes are home to the endangered species Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse. There are riparian areas including the San Rafael Creek and Miller Creek corridors. San Rafael has a Mediterranean climate, with mild winter lows reaching the freezing mark; the National Weather Service reports that August is the warmest month with a high of 80.1 °F or 26.7 °C and a low of 55.0 °F or 12.8 °C. December, the coldest month, has an average high of 55.1 °F or 12.8 °C and an average low of 41.0 °F or 5.0 °C. The highest temperature on record is 110 °F, recorded in June 1961.
The highest temperature in recent years, 108 °F, occurred on July 23, 2006. The record lowest temperature was 20 °F on December 22, 1990. There are an average of 17.9 afternoons annually with a high of 90 °F or 32.2 °C or more and 1.2 afternoons with a high of 100 °F or 37.8 °C or more. Freezing temperatures occur on an average of 3.6 mornings. Total annual precipitation averages 32.16 inches or 816.9 millimetres, with an average of 64.3 days with measurable rain. The rainy season is from November to early April: rain is rare outside of this period and it is normal to receive no rain in June, July and September; the wettest “rain year” was from July 1994 to June 1995 with 61.45 inches and the driest from July 1975 to June 1976 with 13.62 inches. The most rain in one month was 24.11 inches in January 1995, the heaviest 24-hour rainfall was 8.74 inches on December 11, 1995. A trace of snow was recorded on January 30, 1976; the 2010 United States Census reported that the city of San Rafael had a population of 57,713.
This figure does not, include portions of the Santa Venetia and Lucas Valley-Marinwood CDPs, nor various other unincorporated areas, all of which have San Rafael postal addresses. The following statistics refer to the incorporated limits of San Rafael only; the population density was 2,573.9 people per square mile. The racial makeup of San Rafael was 40,734 White, 1,154 African American, 709 Native American, 3,513 Asian, 126 Pacific Islander, 8,513 from other races, 2,964 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17,302 persons; the Census reported that 55,594 people lived in households, 1,314 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 805 were institutionalized. There were 22,764 households, out of which 6,358 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 9,845 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 2,004 had a female householder with no husband present, 1,133 had a male householder with no wife present. There were 1,450 unmarried opp
Spanish missions in California
The Spanish missions in California comprise a series of 21 religious outposts or missions established between 1769 and 1833 in today's U. S. State of California. Founded by Catholic priests of the Franciscan order to evangelize the Native Americans, the missions led to the creation of the New Spain province of Alta California and were part of the expansion of the Spanish Empire into the most northern and western parts of Spanish North America. Following long-term secular and religious policy of Spain in Spanish America, the missionaries forced the native Californians to live in settlements called reductions, disrupting their traditional way of life; the missionaries introduced European fruits, cattle, horses and technology. The missions have been accused by critics and now, of various abuses and oppression. In the end, the missions had mixed results in their objectives: to convert and transform the natives into Spanish colonial citizens. By 1810, Spain's king had been imprisoned by the French, financing for military payroll and missions in California ceased.
In 1821, Mexico achieved independence from Spain, although Mexico did not send a governor to California until 1824, only a portion of payroll was reinstated. The 21,000 Mission Indians produced hide and tallow and wool and textiles at this time, the leather products were exported to Boston, South America, Asia which sustained the colonial economy from 1810 until 1830, but tended to give British or New England merchant captains importance; the missions began to lose control over land in the 1820s, as unpaid military men unofficially encroached, but missions maintained authority over native neophytes and control of land holdings until the 1830s. At the peak of its development in 1832, the coastal mission system controlled an area equal to one-sixth of Alta California; the Alta California government secularized the missions after the passage of the Mexican secularization act of 1833. This divided the mission lands into land grants, in effect legitimizing and completing the transfer of Indian congregation lands to military commanders and their most loyal men.
The surviving mission buildings are the state's oldest structures and its most-visited historic monuments. They have become a symbol of California, appearing in many movies and television shows, are an inspiration for Mission Revival architecture; the oldest cities of California formed around or near Spanish missions, including the four largest: Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose, San Francisco. Prior to 1754, grants of mission lands were made directly by the Spanish Crown. But, given the remote locations and the inherent difficulties in communicating with the territorial governments, power was transferred to the viceroys of New Spain to grant lands and establish missions in North America. Plans for the Alta California missions were laid out under the reign of King Charles III, came at least in part as a response to recent sightings of Russian fur traders along the California coast in the mid 1700s; the missions were to be interconnected by an overland route which became known as the Camino Real.
The detailed planning and direction of the missions was to be carried out by Friar Junípero Serra, O. F. M.. The Rev. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén took up Serra's work and established nine more mission sites, from 1786 through 1798. Work on the coastal mission chain was concluded in 1823, completed after Serra's death in 1784. Plans to build a twenty-second mission in Santa Rosa in 1827 were canceled; the Rev. Pedro Estévan Tápis proposed establishing a mission on one of the Channel Islands in the Pacific Ocean off San Pedro Harbor in 1784, with either Santa Catalina or Santa Cruz being the most locations, the reasoning being that an offshore mission might have attracted potential people to convert who were not living on the mainland, could have been an effective measure to restrict smuggling operations. Governor José Joaquín de Arrillaga approved the plan the following year, however an outbreak of sarampion killing some 200 Tongva people coupled with a scarcity of land for agriculture and potable water left the success of such a venture in doubt, so no effort to found an island mission was made.
In September 1821,the Rev. Mariano Payeras, "Comisario Prefecto" of the California missions, visited Cañada de Santa Ysabel east of Mission San Diego de Alcalá as part of a plan to establish an entire chain of inland missions; the Santa Ysabel Asistencia had been founded in 1818 as a "mother" mission, the plan's expanding beyond never came to fruition. In addition to the presidio and pueblo, the misión was one of the three major agencies employed by the Spanish sovereign to extend its borders and consolidate its colonial territories. Asistencias were small-scale missions that conducted Mass on days of obligation but lacked a resident priest; the Spanish Californians had never strayed from the coast. Each frontier station was forced to be self-supporting, as existing means of supply were inadequate to maintain a
Chapman University is a private university in Orange, California. Chapman University offers 110 areas of study, encompasses ten schools and colleges: Dodge College of Film and Media Arts, Wilkinson College of Humanities and Social Sciences, Argyros School of Business and Economics, the School of Communication, Schmid College of Science and Technology, College of Performing Arts, Dale E. Fowler School of Law, College of Educational Studies, the School of Pharmacy and the Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences. Founded as Hesperian College, in Woodland, the school began classes on March 4, 1861, its opening was timed to coincide with the hour of Abraham Lincoln's first inauguration. Hesperian admitted students of all races. In 1920, the assets of Hesperian College were absorbed by California Christian College, which held classes in downtown Los Angeles. In 1934, the school was renamed Chapman College, after the chairman of its board of trustees, C. C. Chapman. In 1954, Chapman College moved to its present campus in the city of Orange on the site occupied by Orange High School, which relocated to a nearby campus.
Chapman established a Residence Education Center Program to serve military personnel in 1958. This evolved into Brandman University. Chapman College became Chapman University in 1991. In that year, Dr. James L. Doti became president of Chapman University. In 1959 Chapman University broke ground for a men's dormitory on campus, it became a co-ed dorm and was best known for its basketball court. It was torn down in 2007 and replaced in 2009 by the Sandhu Residence Center, which includes a cafeteria and rock climbing wall for students. Chapman co-produces the OC Channel in a partnership with KOCE; the Argyros School of Business and Economics is a private research and academic institution at Chapman University located in the Arnold and Mable Beckman Business and Technology Hall. Founded in 1977, the school is named after George L. Argyros, a Chapman alum and former U. S. Ambassador to Spain. Argyros has chaired the board of trustees of Chapman University since 1976, has donated significant resources towards establishing Chapman as a leading national business school.
The business school was renamed in Argyros' honor in 1999. The Argyros School offers graduate degrees in business; the MBA program has three lines, Executive and Full Time. Chapman's Professional MBA Program is ranked #48 by Bloomberg/Businessweek and the Full Time program is ranked #83. Building on its strength in undergraduate accounting, the school launched a one-year Master of Science in Accounting degree. In 2008, The Princeton Review ranked Chapman Business School's undergraduate and graduate programs among its Top 25 programs in the country; the Argyros School of Business and Economics was nationally ranked as the 60th Best Undergraduate Bloomberg BusinessWeek Business School in 2014. In 2016, the Argyros School of Business and Economics rose to 34th in the same Bloomberg rankings; the Argyros School is home to a number of leading research centers and independent research institutes, including the A. Gary Anderson Center for Economic Research, the C. Larry Hoag Center for Real Estate and Finance, the Ralph W. Leatherby Center for Entrepreneurship and Ethics, the Walter Schmid Center for International Business, the Economic Science Institute, the Institute for the Study of Religion and Society.
The Leatherby Center for Entrepreneurship and Business Ethics is a program whose scope includes original research and the publication of several scholarly journals. Chapman University's Donna Ford Attallah College of Educational Studies offers an undergraduate Integrated Educational Studies degree. D. in Education. The college is home to various centers and programs for community engagement and research, including the Centro Comunitario de Educación, Paulo Freire Democratic Project, Thompson Policy Institute on Disability and Autism; the School of Education at Chapman University became the College of Educational Studies in August 2008. In 2017, the college was named in honor of Donna Ford Attallah; the current home of the Attallah College is Chapman's Reeves Hall, one the first buildings constructed for Orange Union High School on the site in 1913, added to the National Register for Historic Places in 1975, renovated and reopened to the public in February 2018. The Attallah College has full accreditation from the following agencies: Council Accreditation of Educator Preparation, Commission on Teacher Credentialing, National Association of School Psychologists, International School Psychology Association.
The college has been recognized as one of the top ten film schools in the world and ranked #6 by The Hollywood Reporter among American film schools. Part of Chapman University's Schmid College of Science and Technology, the Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences became its own independent college at Chapman University on June 1, 2014; the Crean College of Health and Behavioral Sciences describes its mission as engaging faculty and students in learning and evidence-based practice that emphasizes a biopsychosocial perspective to understanding health and disease.