La Purisima Mission
Mission La Purisima Concepción, or La Purisima Mission is a Spanish mission in Lompoc, California. It was established on December 1787 by the Franciscan order; the original mission complex south of Lompoc was destroyed by an earthquake in 1812, the mission was rebuilt at its present site several miles to the northwest. The mission is part of the larger La Purísima Mission State Historic Park, part of the California State Parks system, along with Mission San Francisco de Solano is one of only two of the Spanish missions in California, no longer under the control of the Catholic Church, it is the only example in California of a complete Spanish Catholic mission complex, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1970. Mission La Purisima was established at a site known to the Chumash people as Algsacpi and to the Spanish as the plain of Rio Santa Rosa, one mile south of Lompoc; the Viceroyalty of New Spain made an exception to the rule that no California mission was to be established within seven miles of any pueblo in Las Californias, as Lompoc was so small.
By 1803, the Mission Indians population had increased, by Indian Reductions, to 1,436 Chumash people. At the mission there were 3,230 cattle, 5,400 sheep, 306 horses, 39 mules. In the same year, there was a harvest of 690 fanegas of wheat and beans. An earthquake on December 21, 1812 damaged the mission buildings. New buildings were constructed four miles east of the pueblo at their present location, known to the Chumash as Amúu, to the Spanish as La Cañada de los Berros, now part of the reconstructed La Purísima Mission State Historic Park. Ruins of the original mission are at 508 South F Street, near East Locust Avenue in Lompoc, California. After Mexico won the Mexican War of Independence in 1823, Spanish funding ceased to the Santa Barbara Presidio. Many soldiers at the mission who were no longer being paid by the new Mexican government took out their frustrations on the local Chumash Indians. After a soldier beat an Indian at nearby Mission Santa Inés, the Chumash Revolt of 1824 occurred at that mission.
It spread to La Purisima Mission, where the Chumash people took over the mission for one month until more soldiers arrived from Monterey Presidio. The Chumash lost their hold on the mission with many leaving the mission soon there after. However, many of the Indians who had sought refuge in the neighboring mountains during the revolt returned to the mission. Following independent Mexico's secularization of the Alta California missions from 1834 to 1843, the buildings of La Purisima Mission were abandoned, the lands were granted Rancho Ex-Mission la Purisima. By 1934, only nine of the buildings remained intact. In the 20th century, the Civilian Conservation Corps pledged to restore the mission if enough land could be provided to convert it into a historic landmark; the Catholic Church and the Union Oil Company donated sufficient land for the CCC to proceed with the restoration. The nine buildings as well as many small structures and the original water system were restored with the mission's dedication occurring on December 7, 1941, the same day the United States entered World War II.
Today, La Purisima Mission is the only example in California of a complete mission complex. La Purisima Mission is now part of the La Purísima Mission State Historic Park within the California State Parks System. With a visitor center and guided tours, the historic park is maintained by the California Department of Parks and Recreation. La Purisima is located in Lompoc, in the county of Santa Barbara, California. National Register of Historic Places #NPS-78000775 – original La Purisima Mission site. National Register of Historic Places #NPS-70000147 – La Purisima Mission State Historic Park. California Historical Landmark #928 – original La Purisima Mission site. Juan Bautista de Anza National Historic Trail – a designated Historic Site on the route of this National Park Service United States National Historic Trail Spanish missions in California USNS Mission Purisima – a Buenaventura Class fleet oiler built during World War II. List of National Historic Landmarks in California Anderson, Zachary.
Discovering Mission La Purísima Concepción. ISBN 9781627130943. Forbes, Alexander. California: A History of Upper and Lower California. Smith, Elder and Co. Cornhill, London. Jones, Terry L. and Kathryn A. Klar. California Prehistory: Colonization and Complexity. Altimira Press, Landham, MD. ISBN 0-7591-0872-2. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Krell, Dorothy; the California Missions: A Pictorial History. Sunset Publishing Corporation, Menlo Park, CA. ISBN 0-376-05172-8. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Leffingwell, Randy. California Missions and Presidios: The History & Beauty of the Spanish Missions. Voyageur Press, Inc. Stillwater, MN. ISBN 0-89658-492-5. Paddison, Joshua. A World Transformed: Firsthand Accounts of California Before the Gold Rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA. ISBN 1-890771-13-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Ruscin, Terry. Mission Memoirs. Sunbelt Publications, San Diego, CA. ISBN 0-932653-30-8. Yenne, Bill; the Missions of California. Thunder Bay Press, San Diego, CA. ISBN 1-59223-319-8.
California State Parks: Official La Purísima Mission State Historic Park website La Purisima Mission.org website La Purisima Mission tour and event venue info
The Chumash are a Native American people who inhabited the central and southern coastal regions of California, in portions of what is now San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara and Los Angeles counties, extending from Morro Bay in the north to Malibu in the south. They occupied three of the Channel Islands: Santa Cruz, Santa Rosa, San Miguel. Modern place names with Chumash origins include Cayucos, Nipomo, Ojai, Pismo Beach, Point Mugu, Port Hueneme, Lake Castaic, Simi Valley and Somis. Archaeological research demonstrates that the Chumash have deep roots in the Santa Barbara Channel area and lived along the southern California coast for millennia, they inhabited the Antelope Valley in Palmdale and traded with the Kitanemuk tribe in the Mojave desert. The Chumash resided between the Santa Ynez Mountains and the California coasts where rivers and tributaries abound. Inside and around the modern-day Santa Barbara region, the Chumash lived with a bounty of resources; the tribe lived in an area of three environments: the interior, the coast, the Northern Channel Islands.
These provided a diverse array of materials to support the Chumash lifestyle. The interior is composed of the land outside the coast and spanning the wide plains and mountains; the coast covers the cliffs and land close to the ocean and, in reference to resources, the areas of the ocean from which the Chumash harvested. The Northern Channel Islands lie off the coast of the Chumash territory. All of the California coastal-interior has a Mediterranean climate due to the incoming ocean winds; the mild temperatures, save for winter, made gathering easy. What villagers gathered and traded during the seasons changed depending on where they resided. With coasts populated by masses of species of fish and land densely covered by trees and animals, the Chumash had a diverse array of food. Abundant resources and a winter harsh enough to cause concern meant the tribe lived a sedentary lifestyle in addition to a subsistence existence. Villages in the three aforementioned areas contained remains of sea mammals, indicating that trade networks existed for moving materials throughout the Chumash territory.
Such connections spread out the land’s wealth, allowing the Chumash to live comfortably without agriculture. The closer a village was to the ocean, the greater its reliance on maritime resources. Due to advanced canoe designs and island people could procure fish and aquatic mammals from farther out. Shellfish were a good source of nutrition: easy to find and abundant. Many of the favored varieties grew in tidal zones. Shellfish grew in abundance during winter to early spring; some of the consumed species included mussels, a wide array of clams. Haliotis rufescens was harvested along the Central California coast in the pre-contact era; the Chumash and other California Indians used red abalone shells to make a variety of fishhooks, beads and other artifacts. Ocean animals such as otters and seals were thought to be the primary meal of coastal tribes people, but recent evidence shows the aforementioned trade networks exchanged oceanic animals for terrestrial foods from the interior. Any village could acquire fish, but the coastal and island communities specialized in catching not just smaller fish, but the massive catches such as swordfish.
This feat, difficult for today’s technology, was made possible by the tomol plank canoe. Its design allowed for the capture of deepwater fish, it facilitated trade routes between villages. Before contact with Europeans, coastal Chumash relied less on terrestrial resources than they did on maritime. Regardless, they consumed similar land resources. Like many other tribes, deer were the most important land mammal. Interior Chumash placed greater value on the deer, to the extent that they had unique hunting practices for them, they dressed as deer and grazed alongside the animals until the hunters were in range to use their arrows. Chumash close to the ocean pursued deer, though in understandably fewer numbers, what more meat the villages needed they acquired from smaller animals such as rabbits and birds. Plant foods composed the rest of Chumash diet acorns, which were the staple food despite the work needed to remove their inherent toxins, they could be ground into a paste, easy to eat and store for years.
Coast live. Native Americans have lived along the California coast for at least 13,000 years; the first settlement started over 13,000 years ago near the Santa Barbara coast. The name Chumash means “bead maker” or “seashell people” being that they originated near the Santa Barbara coast; the Chumash tribes near the coast benefited most with the “close juxtaposition of a variety or marine and terrestrial habitats, intensive upwelling in coastal waters, intentional burning of the landscape made the Santa Barbara Channel region one of the most resource abundant places on the planet”. Before the mission period, the Chumash lived in over 150 independent villages, speaking variations of the same language. Much of their culture consisted of basketry, bead manufacturing and trading, cuisine of local abalone and clam, herbalism which consisted of using local herbs to produce teas and medical rel
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Pimería Alta was an area of the 18th century Sonora y Sinaloa Province in the Viceroyalty of New Spain, that encompassed parts of what are today southern Arizona in the United States and northern Sonora in Mexico. The area took its name from the Pima and related O'odham indigenous peoples residing in the Sonoran Desert. Pimería Alta was the site of the Spanish missions in the Sonoran Desert established by the Jesuit missionary Eusebio Kino in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. A significant Pima rebellion against Spanish rule occurred in 1751. Albrecht Classen, "Transcultural Encounters: German Jesuit Missionaries in the Pimería Alta," in Martinson, Steven D. / Schulz, Renate A. Transcultural German Studies / Deutsch als Fremdsprache: Building Bridges / Brücken bauen
A parish is a territorial entity in many Christian denominations, constituting a division within a diocese. A parish is under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of a parish priest, who might be assisted by one or more curates, who operates from a parish church. A parish covered the same geographical area as a manor, its association with the parish church remains paramount. By extension the term parish refers not only to the territorial entity but to the people of its community or congregation as well as to church property within it. In England this church property was technically in ownership of the parish priest ex-officio, vested in him on his institution to that parish. First attested in English in the late, 13th century, the word parish comes from the Old French paroisse, in turn from Latin: paroecia, the latinisation of the Ancient Greek: παροικία, translit. Paroikia, "sojourning in a foreign land", itself from πάροικος, "dwelling beside, sojourner", a compound of παρά, "beside, by, near" and οἶκος οἶκος, "house".
As an ancient concept, the term "parish" occurs in the long-established Christian denominations: Catholic, Anglican Communion, the Eastern Orthodox Church, Lutheran churches, in some Methodist, Congregationalist and Presbyterian administrations. The eighth Archbishop of Canterbury Theodore of Tarsus appended the parish structure to the Anglo-Saxon township unit, where it existed, where minsters catered to the surrounding district. Broadly speaking, the parish is the standard unit in episcopal polity of church administration, although parts of a parish may be subdivided as a chapelry, with a chapel of ease or filial church serving as the local place of worship in cases of difficulty to access the main parish church. In the wider picture of ecclesiastical polity, a parish see. Parishes within a diocese may be grouped into a deanery or vicariate forane, overseen by a dean or vicar forane, or in some cases by an archpriest; some churches of the Anglican Communion have deaneries as units of an archdeaconry.
The Church of England geographical structure uses the local parish church as its basic unit. The parish system survived the Reformation with the Anglican Church's secession from Rome remaining untouched, thus it shares its roots with the Catholic Church's system described above. Parishes may extend into different counties or hundreds and many parishes comprised extra outlying portions in addition to its principal district being described as'detached' and intermixed with the lands of other parishes. Church of England parishes nowadays all lie within one of 44 dioceses divided between the provinces of Canterbury, 30 and York, 14; each parish has its own parish priest and supported by one or more curates or deacons - although as a result of ecclesiastical pluralism some parish priests might have held more than one parish living, placing a curate in charge of those where they do not reside. Now, however, it is common for a number of neighbouring parishes to be placed under one benefice in the charge of a priest who conducts services by rotation, with additional services being provided by lay readers or other non-ordained members of the church community.
A chapelry was a subdivision of an ecclesiastical parish in England, parts of Lowland Scotland up to the mid 19th century. It had a similar status to a township but was so named as it had a chapel which acted as a subsidiary place of worship to the main parish church. In England civil parishes and their governing parish councils evolved in the 19th century as ecclesiastical parishes began to be relieved of what became considered to be civic responsibilities, thus their boundaries began to diverge. The word "parish" acquired a secular usage. Since 1895, a parish council elected by public vote or a parish meeting administers a civil parish and is formally recognised as the level of local government below a district council; the traditional structure of the Church of England with the parish as the basic unit has been exported to other countries and churches throughout the Anglican Communion and Commonwealth but does not continue to be administered in the same way. The parish is the basic level of church administration in the Church of Scotland.
Spiritual oversight of each parish church in Scotland is responsibility of the congregation's Kirk Session. Patronage was regulated in 1711 and abolished in 1874, with the result that ministers must be elected by members of the congregation. Many parish churches in Scotland today are "linked" with neighbouring parish churches served by a single minister. Since the abolition of parishes as a unit of civil government in Scotland in 1929, Scottish parishes have purely ecclesiastical significance and the boundaries may be adjusted by the local Presbytery; the church in Wales is made up of six dioceses. Parishes were civil administration areas until communities were established in 1974. Although they are more simply called congregations and have no geographic boundaries, in the United Methodist Church congregations are called parishes. A prominent example of this usage comes in The Book of Discipline of The United Methodist Church, in which the committee of every local congregation that handles staff support is referred to as the committee on Pastor-Parish Relations.
This committee gives recommendations to the bishop on behalf of the parish/congregation since it is the United Methodist Bishop of the episcopal area who appoints a pastor to each congregation. The same is true in the Af
Joseph John Chapman
Joseph John "Jose Juan" Chapman was an American merchant sailor a crew member under the privateer Hippolyte Bouchard one of the earliest English-speaking settlers and builders of Mexican Alta California. Chapman was one of the first known American-born permanent residents of Alta California; the scanty and inconsistent historical record makes it difficult to be sure of many details of Chapman's life, but he was a valued member of several early southern California settlements, interacted with a number of historical characters. Most sources say Joseph John Chapman was born in Boston, Massachusetts in 1784 the son of Daniel Chapman and Rosenda Cananta. Trained as a carpenter and shipbuilder, Chapman went to sea as a young man; when Argentina proclaimed its independence from Spain in 1811, Chapman headed for South America. He left Boston on board an American merchant ship, but ended up on board a vessel under the command of the Argentine privateer Hippolyte Bouchard. Sources disagree on how Chapman came to be in Bouchard's crew and how he left it.
One story, is that he was forcibly impressed into Bouchard's crew while on a stop in the Sandwich Islands. Another story is that he was in the crew of a Bouchard corvette named Santa Rosa which mutinied, sailed to Hawaii, tried to sell the ship to Kamehameha I, ruler of Hawaii. Bouchard, returning from the Philippines, reacquired the ship and Chapman before that deal could be completed. Found documents show that Chapman voluntarily joined the crew. After having been in charge of the Santa Rosa by order of Kamehameha. Chapman was a Bouchard crewman during the 1818 attack on California. At that point, the tales diverge again. Alta California governor Pablo Vicente de Solá reported that Chapman was one of three prisoners taken from one of Bouchard's two ships, the Santa Rosa, that surrendered after an artillery duel. A first-person account from the Bouchard crew says he was captured by Spanish soldiers during a sortie to the shore. Another variation says he was captured during an attack on Rancho Nuestra Señora del Refugio, on the coast north of Santa Barbara.
Still another story combines the two, with Chapman first being captured at Monterey freed by Bouchard's raiding party captured a second time at Rancho Nuestra Señora del Refugio. In a variation of this last, Chapman deserted Bouchard at Refugio and made his way inland to Mission Santa Inez, where he surrendered. A story told by a son concerned with family image, ignored the pirate episode altogether and claimed that Chapman entered California after being shipwrecked near San Pedro; the first historical record of Chapman's presence in California is from 1821, when he designed and helped build a fulling mill near Mission Santa Inés. During that time, he received notice from Governor Solá that he was included in a general amnesty granted by King Ferdinand VII of Spain to Anglo-American prisoners, he was held nominally as a prisoner until the arrival of news in 1821 proclaiming Mexico's independence from Spain. The following year, he was baptized at Mission San Buenaventura, married a Californio girl named Maria de Guadalupe Ortega at Mission Santa Inés.
His name from that point on was José Juan Chapman y Cananta. That same year, he is credited by some sources with helping to complete the roof of the Old Plaza Church in Los Angeles, by leading a logging crew into the San Gabriel Mountains to fell and bring back large pine trees for use as ceiling beams. By 1824, Chapman had prospered well enough to buy a house in the Los Angeles pueblo, along with some nearby farm land where he planted a vineyard, he continued to work on various projects for the pueblo and for Mission San Gabriel, found favor with padre José Bernardo Sánchez, head of the mission from 1821 to 1827. In 1827, Chapman was one of the few available local English-speakers summoned to Mission San Gabriel to greet fellow American Jedediah Smith. Smith's party had just completed the first recorded journey to southern California by land from the United States. Smith's clerk Harrison Rogers recorded many encounters with Chapman during the party's stay at the mission, including his supervision of a neophyte charcoal-making crew, a conversation in which Chapman told of the natural asphalt pool near the pueblo, known to the Spanish as La Brea.
Sometime between 1827 and 1831, Chapman designed and built a 60-ton schooner at San Pedro, which he christened Guadalupe in honor of his wife. In 1831, another Chapman skill was put to use. Unpopular California governor Manuel Victoria was wounded fighting rebellious locals at the Battle of Cahuenga Pass. Chapman was called on to dress his wounds, which he did well enough that Victoria survived; that same year, Chapman was naturalized as a Mexican citizen. Not long after 1831, Chapman and his family moved to Santa Barbara, where he acquired the property near the beach which became known as Burton Mound. Sources disagree as to whether he bought the land from Mission Santa Barbara or received it as a grant from governor Alvarado. In 1840, he sold that property to American former fur trapper George Nidever, he acquired other property: one source says in Santa Barbara County. Juan Jose Chapman died and was interred in the Mission Santa Barbara cemetery on January 10, 1849, he and Guadalupe were
Fulling known as tucking or walking, was a step in woollen clothmaking which involves the cleansing of cloth to eliminate oils and other impurities, to make it thicker. The worker who does the job is a fuller, tucker, or walker, all of which have become common surnames; the Welsh word for a fulling mill is pandy, which appears in many place-names, for example Tonypandy. Fulling involves two processes: scouring and milling. Fulling was carried out by the pounding of the woollen cloth with a club, or the fuller's feet or hands. In Scottish Gaelic tradition, this process was accompanied by waulking songs, which women sang to set the pace. From the medieval period, fulling was carried out in a water mill, followed by stretching the cloth on great frames known as tenters, to which it is attached by tenterhooks, it is from this process that the phrase being on tenterhooks is derived, as meaning to be held in suspense. The area where the tenters were erected was known as a tenterground. In Roman times, fulling was conducted by slaves working the cloth while ankle deep in tubs of human urine.
Urine was so important to the fulling business. Stale urine, known as wash, was a source of ammonium salts and assisted in cleansing and whitening the cloth. By the medieval period, fuller's earth had been introduced for use in the process; this is a soft clay-like material occurring as an impure hydrous aluminium silicate. It was used in conjunction with wash. More soap has been used; the second function of fulling was to thicken cloth by matting the fibres together to give it strength and increase waterproofing. This was vital in the case of woollens, made from carding wool, but not for worsted materials made from combing wool. After this stage, water was used to rinse out the foul-smelling liquor used during cleansing. Felting of wool occurs upon hammering or other mechanical agitation because the microscopic barbs on the surface of wool fibres hook together, somewhat like Velcro. From the medieval period, the fulling of cloth was undertaken in a water mill, known as a fulling mill, a walk mill, or a tuck mill, in Wales, a pandy.
In these, the cloth was beaten with wooden hammers, known as fulling hammers. Fulling stocks were of two kinds, falling stocks that were used only for scouring, driving or hanging stocks. In both cases the machinery was operated by cams on the shaft of a waterwheel or on a tappet wheel, which lifted the hammer. Driving stocks were pivoted so that the foot struck the cloth horizontally; the stock had a tub holding the cloth. This was somewhat rounded on the side away from the hammer, so that the cloth turned, ensuring that all parts of it were milled evenly. However, the cloth was taken out about every two hours to undo wrinkles. The'foot' was triangular in shape, with notches to assist the turning of the cloth. There are several Biblical references to fulling. Prior to this, at least one reference appears in the speeches of Lysias, written in Athens during the 5th century BC. By the time of the Crusades in the late eleventh century, fulling mills were active throughout the medieval world, they appear to have originated in 10th century in Europe.
The earliest known reference to a fulling mill in France, which dates from about 1086, was discovered in Normandy. Bleachfield List of laundry topics Posting "full". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved June 30, 2005. E. K. Scott, "Early Cloth Fulling and its Machinery", Trans. Newcomen Soc. 12, 30–52. E. M. Carus-Wilson, "An Industrial Revolution of the Thirteenth Century", Economic History Review, Old Series, 11, 39–60. Reginald Lennard, "Early English Fulling Mills: additional examples", Economic History Review, New Series, 3, 342–343. R. A. Pelham, Fulling Mills A. J. Parkinson, "Fulling mills in Merioneth", J. Merioneth Hist. & Rec. Soc. 9, 420–456. D. Druchunas Felting, Vogue Knitting, The Basics, Sixth & Spring Books, NY.. The dictionary definition of tenter at Wiktionary