Darmstadt is a city in the state of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine-Main-Area. Darmstadt had a population of around 157,437 at the end of 2016; the Darmstadt Larger Urban Zone has 430,993 inhabitants. Darmstadt holds the official title "City of Science" as it is a major centre of scientific institutions and high-technology companies; the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and the European Space Operations Centre are located in Darmstadt, as well as GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research, where several chemical elements such as bohrium, hassium, darmstadtium and copernicium were discovered. The existence of the following elements were confirmed at GSI Centre for Heavy Ion Research: nihonium, moscovium and tennessine; the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research is an international accelerator facility under construction. Darmstadt is the seat of the world's oldest pharmaceutical company, the city's largest employer. Darmstadt was the capital of a sovereign country, the Grand Duchy of Hesse and its successor, the People's State of Hesse, a federal state of Germany.
As the capital of an prosperous duchy, the city gained some international prominence and remains one of the wealthiest cities in Europe. In the 20th century, industry, as well as large science and electronics sectors became important, are still a major part of the city's economy, it is home to the football club SV Darmstadt 98. The name Darmstadt first appears towards the end of the 11th century as Darmundestat, its origins are unknown.'Dar-mund' in Middle Low German is translated as "Boggy Headlands", but it could be a misspelling in local dialect of another name. It is sometimes stated that the name derives from the'Darmbach'. In fact, the stream received its current name much after the city, not vice versa. Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen; the city called Darmstait, became a secondary residence for the counts, with a small castle established at the site of the current, much larger edifice.
When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse, was seat of the ruling landgraves and thereafter of the grand dukes of Hesse. The city grew in population during the 19th century from little over 10,000 to 72,000 inhabitants. A polytechnical school, which became a Technical University now known as TU Darmstadt, was established in 1877. In the beginning of the 20th century, Darmstadt was an important centre for the art movement of Jugendstil, the German variant of Art Nouveau. Annual architectural competitions led to the building of many architectural treasures of this period. During this period, in 1912 the chemist Anton Kollisch, working for the pharmaceutical company Merck, first synthesised the chemical MDMA in Darmstadt. Darmstadt's municipal area was extended in 1937 to include the neighbouring localities of Arheilgen and Eberstadt, in 1938 the city was separated administratively from the surrounding district. Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany.
The shops were only closed for one day, for "endangering communal order and tranquility". In 1942, over 3,000 Jews from Darmstadt were first forced into a collection camp located in the Liebigschule, deported to concentration camps where most died. Several prominent members of the German resistance movement against the Nazis were citizens of Darmstadt, including Wilhelm Leuschner and Theodor Haubach, both executed for their opposition to Hitler's regime. Darmstadt was first bombed on 30 July 1940, 34 other air raids would follow before the war's end; the old city centre was destroyed in a British bombing raid on 11 September 1944. This attack was an example of the firestorm technique, subsequently used against the historic city of Dresden in February 1945. To create a firestorm, a number of incendiary bombs are dropped around the city before the explosive blast bombs are dropped, thus beginning a self-sustaining combustion process in which winds generated by the fire ensure it continues to burn until everything possible has been consumed.
Darmstadt was selected as the secondary target for the raid, but was promoted to the primary target after clouds were observed over the primary which would have hindered any reconnaissance of the after-effects. During this fire attack an estimated 11,000 to 12,500 of the inhabitants burned to death, 66,000 to 70,000 were left homeless. Over three-quarters of Darmstadt's inner city was destroyed. Post-war rebuilding was done in a plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city's capture on 20 March 1945 by the American 4th Armored Division. Throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, Darmstadt became home to many technology companies and research institutes, has been promoting itself as a "city of science" since 1997, it is well known as a high-tech centre in the vicinity of Frankfurt Airport, with important activities in spacecraft operations, pharmacy, in
Spaceflight is ballistic flight into or through outer space. Spaceflight can occur with spacecraft without humans on board. Yuri Gagarin of the Soviet Union was the first human to conduct a spaceflight. Examples of human spaceflight include the U. S. Apollo Moon landing and Space Shuttle programs and the Russian Soyuz program, as well as the ongoing International Space Station. Examples of unmanned spaceflight include space probes that leave Earth orbit, as well as satellites in orbit around Earth, such as communications satellites; these operate either by telerobotic control or are autonomous. Spaceflight is used in space exploration, in commercial activities like space tourism and satellite telecommunications. Additional non-commercial uses of spaceflight include space observatories, reconnaissance satellites and other Earth observation satellites. A spaceflight begins with a rocket launch, which provides the initial thrust to overcome the force of gravity and propels the spacecraft from the surface of the Earth.
Once in space, the motion of a spacecraft – both when unpropelled and when under propulsion – is covered by the area of study called astrodynamics. Some spacecraft remain in space indefinitely, some disintegrate during atmospheric reentry, others reach a planetary or lunar surface for landing or impact; the first theoretical proposal of space travel using rockets was published by Scottish astronomer and mathematician William Leitch, in an 1861 essay "A Journey Through Space". More well-known is Konstantin Tsiolkovsky's work, "Исследование мировых пространств реактивными приборами", published in 1903. Spaceflight became an engineering possibility with the work of Robert H. Goddard's publication in 1919 of his paper A Method of Reaching Extreme Altitudes, his application of the de Laval nozzle to liquid fuel rockets improved efficiency enough for interplanetary travel to become possible. He proved in the laboratory that rockets would work in the vacuum of space, his attempt to secure an Army contract for a rocket-propelled weapon in the first World War was defeated by the November 11, 1918 armistice with Germany.
Nonetheless, Goddard's paper was influential on Hermann Oberth, who in turn influenced Wernher von Braun. Von Braun became the first to produce modern rockets as guided weapons, employed by Adolf Hitler. Von Braun's V-2 was the first rocket to reach space, at an altitude of 189 kilometers on a June 1944 test flight. Tsiolkovsky's rocketry work was not appreciated in his lifetime, but he influenced Sergey Korolev, who became the Soviet Union's chief rocket designer under Joseph Stalin, to develop intercontinental ballistic missiles to carry nuclear weapons as a counter measure to United States bomber planes. Derivatives of Korolev's R-7 Semyorka missiles were used to launch the world's first artificial Earth satellite, Sputnik 1, on October 4, 1957, the first human to orbit the Earth, Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1, on April 12, 1961. At the end of World War II, von Braun and most of his rocket team surrendered to the United States, were expatriated to work on American missiles at what became the Army Ballistic Missile Agency.
This work on missiles such as Juno I and Atlas enabled launch of the first US satellite Explorer 1 on February 1, 1958, the first American in orbit, John Glenn in Friendship 7 on February 20, 1962. As director of the Marshall Space Flight Center, Von Braun oversaw development of a larger class of rocket called Saturn, which allowed the US to send the first two humans, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, to the Moon and back on Apollo 11 in July 1969. Over the same period, the Soviet Union secretly tried but failed to develop the N1 rocket to give them the capability to land one person on the Moon. Rockets are the only means capable of reaching orbit or beyond. Other non-rocket spacelaunch technologies have yet to remain short of orbital speeds. A rocket launch for a spaceflight starts from a spaceport, which may be equipped with launch complexes and launch pads for vertical rocket launches, runways for takeoff and landing of carrier airplanes and winged spacecraft. Spaceports are situated well away from human habitation for safety reasons.
ICBMs have various special launching facilities. A launch is restricted to certain launch windows; these windows depend upon the position of celestial orbits relative to the launch site. The biggest influence is the rotation of the Earth itself. Once launched, orbits are located within constant flat planes at a fixed angle to the axis of the Earth, the Earth rotates within this orbit. A launch pad is a fixed structure designed to dispatch airborne vehicles, it consists of a launch tower and flame trench. It is surrounded by equipment used to erect and maintain launch vehicles; the most used definition of outer space is everything beyond the Kármán line, 100 kilometers above the Earth's surface. The United States sometimes defines outer space as everything beyond 50 miles in altitude. Rockets are the only practical means of reaching space. Conventional airplane engines cannot reach space due to the lack of oxygen. Rocket engines expel propellant to provide forward thrust that generates enough delta-v to reach orbit.
For manned launch systems launch escape systems are fitted to allow astronauts to escape in the case of emergency. Many ways to reach space other than rockets have been proposed. Ideas such as the space elevator, momentum exchange tethers li
Space Exploration Technologies Corp. doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California. It was founded in 2002 by entrepreneur Elon Musk with the goal of reducing space transportation costs and enabling the colonization of Mars. SpaceX has since developed the Falcon launch vehicle family and the Dragon spacecraft family, which both deliver payloads into Earth orbit. SpaceX's achievements include the first funded liquid-propellant rocket to reach orbit, the first private company to launch and recover a spacecraft, the first private company to send a spacecraft to the International Space Station, the first propulsive landing for an orbital rocket, the first reuse of an orbital rocket, the first private company to launch an object into orbit around the sun. SpaceX has flown 16 resupply missions to the International Space Station under a partnership with NASA. NASA awarded SpaceX a further development contract in 2011 to develop and demonstrate a human-rated Dragon, which would be used to transport astronauts to the ISS and return them safely to Earth.
SpaceX conducted the maiden launch of its Crew Dragon spacecraft on a NASA-required demonstration flight on March 2, 2019 and is set to launch its first crewed Crew Dragon in 2019. On 11 March at 8:45 a.m. EST, the Spacex Crew Dragon completed its first uncrewed flight that splash-landed in the Atlantic; the flight named SpX-DM1 has demonstrated the Crew Dragon's ability to safely transport crew to ISS and back.. SpaceX announced in 2011 that it was beginning a reusable launch system technology development program. In December 2015, the first Falcon 9 was flown back to a landing pad near the launch site, where it accomplished a propulsive vertical landing; this was the first such achievement by a rocket for orbital spaceflight. In April 2016, with the launch of CRS-8, SpaceX vertically landed the first stage on an ocean drone ship landing platform. In May 2016, in another first, SpaceX again landed the first stage, but during a more energetic geostationary transfer orbit mission. In March 2017, SpaceX became the first to re-launch and land the first stage of an orbital rocket.
In September 2016, CEO Elon Musk unveiled the mission architecture of the Interplanetary Transport System program, an ambitious funded initiative to develop spaceflight technology for use in crewed interplanetary spaceflight. In 2017, Musk unveiled an updated configuration of the system, now named Starship and Super Heavy, planned to be reusable and will be the largest rocket on its debut scheduled for the early 2020s. In 2001, Elon Musk conceptualized Mars Oasis, a project to land a miniature experimental greenhouse and grow plants on Mars. "This would be the furthest that life’s traveled" in an attempt to regain public interest in space exploration and increase the budget of NASA. Musk tried to buy cheap rockets from Russia but returned empty-handed after failing to find rockets for an affordable price. On the flight home, Musk realized that he could start a company that could build the affordable rockets he needed. According to early Tesla and SpaceX investor Steve Jurvetson, Musk calculated that the raw materials for building a rocket were only three percent of the sales price of a rocket at the time.
By applying vertical integration, producing around 85% of launch hardware in-house, the modular approach from software engineering, SpaceX could cut launch price by a factor of ten and still enjoy a 70% gross margin. In early 2002, Musk was seeking staff for his new space company, soon to be named SpaceX. Musk approached rocket engineer Tom Mueller and Mueller agreed to work for Musk, thus SpaceX was born. SpaceX was first headquartered in a warehouse in California; the company has grown since it was founded in 2002, growing from 160 employees in November 2005 to 1,100 in 2010, 3,800 employees and contractors by October 2013, nearly 5,000 by late 2015, about 6,000 in April 2017. As of November 2017, the company had grown to nearly 7,000. In 2016, Musk gave a speech at the International Astronautical Congress, where he explained that the US government regulates rocket technology as an "advanced weapon technology", making it difficult to hire non-Americans; as of March 2018, SpaceX had over 100 launches on its manifest representing about $12 billion in contract revenue.
The contracts included both commercial and government customers. In late 2013, space industry media quoted Musk's comments on SpaceX "forcing…increased competitiveness in the launch industry," its major competitors in the commercial comsat launch market being Arianespace, United Launch Alliance, International Launch Services. At the same time, Musk said that the increased competition would "be a good thing for the future of space." SpaceX is the leading global commercial launch provider measured by manifested launches. Musk has stated that one of his goals is to decrease the cost and improve the reliability of access to space by a factor of ten. CEO Elon Musk said: "I believe $500 per pound or less is achievable." A major goal of SpaceX has been to develop a reusable launch system. As of March 2013, the publicly announced aspects of this technology development effort include an active test campaign of the low-altitude, low-speed Grasshopper vertical takeoff, vertical landing technology demonstrator rocket, a high-altitude, high-speed Falcon 9 post-missi
Mercury Control Center
The Mercury Control Center provided control and coordination of all activities associated with the NASA's Project Mercury flight operation as well as the first Project Gemini flight, Gemini 3. It was located on the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station near Launch Complex 14; the facility was expanded in 1963 to support Project Gemini by contractor Pan American World Airways to provide more meeting space along with space for data analysis, a large space for a new Gemini spacecraft trainer. The more complex requirements of Gemini and Apollo flights forced control operations to move to a larger facility located in Houston, but the MCC continued to be used for training and meeting space until it was added as a historic tour stop on June 1, 1967 for public tours which continued through the mid-1990s; the MCC was smaller and simpler than subsequent control centers. It needed only support a mission of no more than 36 hours with a spacecraft less complex than those used on future missions. Positions included those for monitoring the spacecraft and astronauts during flight as well as positions for supporting the launch and recovery of the capsule.
The MCC featured a large backlit status map for display of the capsule position. Unlike mission control centers which featured computer generated graphics, this Mercury era display operated with a physical two-dimensional representation of the capsule suspended and lit in front of the map. More modern mission control centers were split between launch control, located at the launch site such as Cape Canaveral, Mission Control, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs or the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for unmanned missions. Though the MCC provided command and control, it was not the only facility involved in supporting Mercury or Gemini flights; the Computing and Communications Center was located at the Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt Maryland and provided compute power for missions. To minimize the time that the spacecraft was out of communications range with the ground, additional ground stations were established at US military facilities, tracking ships, in cooperation with the governments of Spain, Great Britain and Australia: Cape Canaveral Grand Bahama Island Grand Turk Island Bermuda Atlantic Ship Maspalomas Station, Grand Canary Island Kano, Nigeria Zanzibar Indian Ocean Ship Muchea, Australia Woomera, Australia Canton island, Kiribati Kauai, Hawaii Point Arguello California.
Guaymas, Mexico White Sands, New Mexico Corpus Christi, Texas Eglin Air Force Base The building was erected between 1956 and 1958 and was used throughout Project Mercury and for Project Gemini through Gemini 3. In 1999, much of the equipment and furnishings from the Flight Control Area were moved to the Visitor Complex where they became part of the exhibit there, they are on display to the public in the complex's Dr. Kurt H. Debus Conference Facility. Though the building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on April 16, 1984, as a contributing property to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, asbestos removal, other repairs and restoring the center to its original state would have cost $6 million; the decision was made to destroy the building. In 1999, consoles and other equipment were moved to the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex to a recreation of the MCC inside the Kurt Debus Center. Consoles and displays were reassembled and many are powered on. NASA KSC documentary videos on the Mercury Mission Control Center Photos of original building and recreation of the flight control area MCC Gallery Documentary of MCC
Goddard Space Flight Center
The Goddard Space Flight Center is a major NASA space research laboratory located 6.5 miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in unincorporated Prince George's County, United States. Established on May 1, 1959 as NASA's first space flight center, GSFC employs 10,000 civil servants and contractors, it is one of ten major NASA field centers, named in recognition of American rocket propulsion pioneer Dr. Robert H. Goddard. GSFC is within the former Goddard census-designated place. GSFC is the largest combined organization of scientists and engineers in the United States dedicated to increasing knowledge of the Earth, the Solar System, the Universe via observations from space. GSFC is a major US laboratory for operating unmanned scientific spacecraft. GSFC conducts scientific investigation and operation of space systems, development of related technologies. Goddard scientists can develop and support a mission, Goddard engineers and technicians can design and build the spacecraft for that mission. Goddard scientist John C.
Mather shared the 2006 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on COBE. GSFC operates two spaceflight tracking and data acquisition networks and maintains advanced space and Earth science data information systems, develops satellite systems for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. GSFC manages operations for many NASA and international missions including the Hubble Space Telescope, the Explorers Program, the Discovery Program, the Earth Observing System, INTEGRAL, MAVEN, OSIRIS-REx, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, the Solar Dynamics Observatory, Swift. Past missions managed by GSFC include the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, SMM, COBE, IUE, ROSAT. Unmanned earth observation missions and observatories in Earth orbit are managed by GSFC, while unmanned planetary missions are managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Goddard is NASA's first, oldest, space center, its original charter was to perform five major functions on behalf of NASA: technology development and fabrication, scientific research, technical operations, project management.
The center is organized into several directorates, each charged with one of these key functions. Until May 1, 1959, NASA's presence in Greenbelt, Maryland was known as the Beltsville Space Center, it was renamed the Goddard Space Flight Center, after Dr. Robert H. Goddard, its first 157 employees transferred from the United States Navy's Project Vanguard missile program, but continued their work at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, D. C. while the center was under construction. Goddard Space Flight Center contributed to Project Mercury, America's first manned space flight program; the Center assumed a lead role for the project in its early days and managed the first 250 employees involved in the effort, who were stationed at Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. However, the size and scope of Project Mercury soon prompted NASA to build a new Manned Spacecraft Center, now the Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas. Project Mercury's personnel and activities were transferred there in 1961.
Goddard Space Flight Center remained involved in the manned space flight program, providing computer support and radar tracking of flights through a worldwide network of ground stations called the Spacecraft Tracking and Data Acquisition Network. However, the Center focused on designing unmanned satellites and spacecraft for scientific research missions. Goddard pioneered several fields of spacecraft development, including modular spacecraft design, which reduced costs and made it possible to repair satellites in orbit. Goddard's Solar Max satellite, launched in 1980, was repaired by astronauts on the Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984; the Hubble Space Telescope, launched in 1990, remains in service and continues to grow in capability thanks to its modular design and multiple servicing missions by the Space Shuttle. Today, the center remains involved in each of NASA's key programs. Goddard has developed more instruments for planetary exploration than any other organization, among them scientific instruments sent to every planet in the Solar System.
The Center's contribution to the Earth Science Enterprise includes several spacecraft in the Earth Observing System fleet as well as EOSDIS, a science data collection and distribution system. For the manned space flight program, Goddard develops tools for use by astronauts during extra-vehicular activity, operates the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, a spacecraft designed to study the Moon in preparation for future manned exploration. Goddard's wooded campus is a few miles northeast of Washington, D. C. in Prince George's County. The center is on Greenbelt Road, Maryland Route 193. Baltimore, NASA Headquarters in Washington are 30–45 minutes away by highway. Greenbelt has a train station with access to the Washington Metro system and the MARC commuter train's Camden line; the High Bay Cleanroom located in building 29 is the world's largest ISO 7 cleanroom with 1.3 million cubic feet of space. Vacuum chambers in adjacent buildings 10 and 7 can be chilled or heated to +/- 200 °C. Adjacent building 15 houses the High Capacity Centrifuge, capable of generating 30 G on up to a 2.5 tons load.
Parsons Corporation assisted in the construction of the Class 10,000 cleanroom to support Hubble Space Telescope as well as other Goddard missions. The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center is NASA's designated center for the archiving and
Launch Control Center
The Launch Control Center is a four-story building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, used to manage launches of spacecraft from Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39. The LCC handles all American space flights with human crews. Attached to the southeast corner of the Vehicle Assembly Building, the LCC contains offices. LCC has conducted launches since the unmanned Apollo 4 launch on November 9, 1967. LCC's first launch with a human crew was Apollo 8 on December 21, 1968. NASA's Space Shuttle program used LCC. NASA has renovated the center for the upcoming Space Launch System missions, which are scheduled to begin in 2020 with Exploration Mission-1. Launch operations are controlled from several control rooms; the controllers are in control of the booster and spacecraft. Once the rocket has cleared the launch tower, is when control is switched over to the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. Extensive renovation of Control Room 4 was finished in 2006; the Launch Director is the head of the launch team, is responsible for making the final "go" or "no go" decision for launch after polling the relevant team members.
The Flow Director is responsible for the preparation of the spacecraft for launch, remains in the LCC in an advisory capacity. The NASA Test Director is responsible for all pre-launch testing, whether involving the flight crew, the orbiter, the external tank/solid rocket booster, or ground support equipment; the NTD is responsible for the safety of all personnel on the pad after fuelling has occurred. Reports to the Launch Director; the Orbiter Test Conductor is in charge of all pre-flight checkout and testing of the orbiter, manages the engineers in the firing room who monitor the orbiter's systems. OTC is an employee of a contractor rather than of NASA; the Payload Test Conductor is responsible for the pre-flight test and checkout of payloads carried by the orbiter and manages the engineering and test teams responsible for monitoring and controlling payload ground operations. PTC is a contractor member of the Space Shuttle Team; the LPS Coordinator oversees the LPS System. This is made possible by the Launch Processing System, or LPS — a automated, computer-controlled system that oversees the entire checkout and launch process.
The Superintendent of Range Operations ensures that all tracking and communications systems are ready to support the launch operation as well as ensuring that downrange airspace and splashdown areas remain clear for launch, monitors weather near the launch site. The Ground Launch Sequencer Engineer is responsible for monitoring the operation of the automated Ground Launch Sequencer system, which controls the countdown from T-9 minutes until launch. After this point through to T-31 seconds, they are in charge of implementing a manual hold if necessary. After T-31 seconds only an automatic cutoff is available; the automatic cutoff recycles the countdown clock to T-20 minutes. This will extend the launch time beyond the launch window causing a scrub and a 24-hour turnaround. Ground station Launch status check Mission control center Launch Control Center Launch Control Center Main page. Launch Team New Launch Control Room Ready for STS-121 Liftoff KSC Launch Processing System
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well