Unorganized North Sudbury District
Unorganized North Sudbury District is an unorganized area in the Canadian province of Ontario, comprising all portions of the Sudbury District which are not organized into incorporated municipalities. Despite its name, there is no longer an accompanying "South Part", as that subdivision has subsequently been incorporated into municipalities and Statistics Canada has not renamed the North Part; the subdivision consists of three non-contiguous areas, totalling 35,594.71 square kilometres, or about 92% of the district. It had a population of 2,306 in the Canada 2011 Census. Benny Biscotasing Cartier Estaire Foleyet Gogama Mattagami Metagama Paget Shining Tree Sultan West River Westree Whitefish Falls Willisville Burwash Jerome Mine Kormak Kukatush Nemegos Nicholson Ramsey Population: Population in 2006: 2415 Population in 2001: 2910 Population in 1996: 7147 Population in 1991: 7463Mother tongue: English as first language: 60.8% French as first language: 32.4% English and French as first language: 0.8% Other as first language: 6.0% List of townships in Ontario
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower. In 2015, hydropower generated 16.6% of the world's total electricity and 70% of all renewable electricity, was expected to increase about 3.1% each year for the next 25 years. Hydropower is produced in 150 countries, with the Asia-Pacific region generating 33 percent of global hydropower in 2013. China is the largest hydroelectricity producer, with 920 TWh of production in 2013, representing 16.9 percent of domestic electricity use. The cost of hydroelectricity is low, making it a competitive source of renewable electricity; the hydro station consumes no water, unlike gas plants. The average cost of electricity from a hydro station larger than 10 megawatts is 3 to 5 U. S. cents per kilowatt hour. With a dam and reservoir it is a flexible source of electricity since the amount produced by the station can be varied up or down rapidly to adapt to changing energy demands. Once a hydroelectric complex is constructed, the project produces no direct waste, in many cases, has a lower output level of greenhouse gases than fossil fuel powered energy plants.
Hydropower has been used since ancient times to perform other tasks. In the mid-1770s, French engineer Bernard Forest de Bélidor published Architecture Hydraulique which described vertical- and horizontal-axis hydraulic machines. By the late 19th century, the electrical generator was developed and could now be coupled with hydraulics; the growing demand for the Industrial Revolution would drive development as well. In 1878 the world's first hydroelectric power scheme was developed at Cragside in Northumberland, England by William Armstrong, it was used to power a single arc lamp in his art gallery. The old Schoelkopf Power Station No. 1 near Niagara Falls in the U. S. side began to produce electricity in 1881. The first Edison hydroelectric power station, the Vulcan Street Plant, began operating September 30, 1882, in Appleton, with an output of about 12.5 kilowatts. By 1886 there were 45 hydroelectric power stations in the U. S. and Canada. By 1889 there were 200 in the U. S. alone. At the beginning of the 20th century, many small hydroelectric power stations were being constructed by commercial companies in mountains near metropolitan areas.
Grenoble, France held the International Exhibition of Hydropower and Tourism with over one million visitors. By 1920 as 40% of the power produced in the United States was hydroelectric, the Federal Power Act was enacted into law; the Act created the Federal Power Commission to regulate hydroelectric power stations on federal land and water. As the power stations became larger, their associated dams developed additional purposes to include flood control and navigation. Federal funding became necessary for large-scale development and federally owned corporations, such as the Tennessee Valley Authority and the Bonneville Power Administration were created. Additionally, the Bureau of Reclamation which had begun a series of western U. S. irrigation projects in the early 20th century was now constructing large hydroelectric projects such as the 1928 Hoover Dam. The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers was involved in hydroelectric development, completing the Bonneville Dam in 1937 and being recognized by the Flood Control Act of 1936 as the premier federal flood control agency.
Hydroelectric power stations continued to become larger throughout the 20th century. Hydropower was referred to as white coal for its plenty. Hoover Dam's initial 1,345 MW power station was the world's largest hydroelectric power station in 1936; the Itaipu Dam opened in 1984 in South America as the largest, producing 14,000 MW but was surpassed in 2008 by the Three Gorges Dam in China at 22,500 MW. Hydroelectricity would supply some countries, including Norway, Democratic Republic of the Congo and Brazil, with over 85% of their electricity; the United States has over 2,000 hydroelectric power stations that supply 6.4% of its total electrical production output, 49% of its renewable electricity. The technical potential for hydropower development around the world is much greater than the actual production: the percent of potential hydropower capacity that has not been developed is 71% in Europe, 75% in North America, 79% in South America, 95% in Africa, 95% in the Middle East, 82% in Asia-Pacific.
The political realities of new reservoirs in western countries, economic limitations in the third world and the lack of a transmission system in undeveloped areas result in the possibility of developing 25% of the remaining technically exploitable potential before 2050, with the bulk of that being in the Asia-Pacific area. Some countries have developed their hydropower potential and have little room for growth: Switzerland produces 88% of its potential and Mexico 80%. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator; the power extracted from the water depends on the volume and on the difference in height between the source and the water's outflow. This height difference is called the head. A large pipe delivers water from the reservoir to the turbine; this method produces electricity to supply high peak demands by moving water between reservoirs at different elevations. At times of low electrical demand, the excess generation capacity is used to pump water into the higher reservoir.
When the demand becomes greater, water is released back into the lower reservoir through a turbine. Pumped-storage schemes provide the most commercially important means of large-scale grid energy storage and improve the daily capacity factor of the generation system. Pumped storag
Voyageur Hiking Trail
The Voyageur Hiking Trail is a public hiking trail between Sudbury and Thunder Bay in Northern Ontario, Canada. The name honours the early European fur traders of the region who travelled by canoe and were known as'voyageurs’ and ‘coureurs des bois’ The trail is used by all ages and levels of experience, from the day hiker to the hardy backpacker; the trail dates to 1973, is a work in progress that has involved hundreds of volunteers, private sector and government supporters. It is designed for foot traffic in summer and snowshoe/ski traffic in winter Over half the linear trail has been completed plus numerous side trails; the hiking trail crosses the vast and publicly owned forests of this rugged wilderness. The largest city on the completed trail is Sault Ste. Marie, situated between two of the Great Lakes – Lake Superior and Lake Huron – and bordering on the state of Michigan; the route parallels these two great bodies of water touching on the shoreline or affording glimpses from distant promontories.
The trail passes through many other communities along the route including Spanish, Elliot Lake, Iron Bridge, Marathon, Terrace Bay, Schreiber and Nipigon. While most of the trail has been built and maintained by volunteer members, portions within Provincial and Federal Park lands have been included with the consent of those agencies; the Voyageur Trail Association was created as a not-for-profit entity consisting of a collection of individual clubs. Each active club is represented on an elected Coordinating Council that oversees the affairs of the Association. Clubs offer scheduled outings as a way to meet fellow hikers and explore new trails; the Association is one of 27 formal hiking organizations across Ontario represented by Hike Ontario, the provincial voice for hikers. Portions of the trail are part of the Trans Canada Trail. A trail guidebook provides trail users with up-to-date maps and descriptions of the available trails. In addition, digital maps that can be downloaded to GPS units for on-trail navigation are available.
Many trail users participate in Geocaching, the number of geocaches that can be found along the trail is continually growing. Planning of the Voyageur Hiking Trail began on March 23, 1973 when the Commissioner of Parks and Recreation for the City of Sault Ste. Marie, Harold Brain, convened a meeting of ‘persons interested in establishing a hiking trail along the precipice of the Cambrian Shield’ from Gros Cap on Lake Superior to Hiawatha Park, just north of Sault Ste. Marie. One of those in attendance, Dr. Paul D. Syme, a Sault Ste. Marie forest research scientist and member of the Bruce Trail Association saw the possibility of extending this concept eastward to Espanola south across Manitoulin Island to link up with southern Ontario’s Bruce Trail; the vision has since evolved to link eastward with trails in the Sudbury region. Dr. Paul Syme was the leader of the group, which on October 24, 1973 chose the name “Voyageur Trail Association ” for their newly established group, he was the first elected president of the VTA.
Syme met with officials of the Bruce Trail Association, seeking advice and trail building training, bringing that knowledge back to the Sault visionaries. The group adopted the southern Ontario model of dividing the trail into sections and assigning responsibility for trail building, landowner relations, public hikes, etc. to local Voyageur Hiking Trail Clubs. A draft constitution was presented on November 15, 1973. On this basis, an interim board of directors was installed. Ian Morrison acted as general secretary at this meeting and was elected general secretary shortly thereafter. On July 3, 1974, the association was formally chartered as a corporation without share capital. Dieter Ropke was the longest-serving member of the board of directors, holding the position of treasurer for over 30 years; the Rainbow Section near Espanola was the first hikeable Voyageur Trail Section in 1973. In 1974, George Morrison, a teacher in Espanola, invited guests to hike the trail, which became the first organized outing on the Voyageur Hiking Trail.
The Saulteaux was the first Voyageur Hiking Trail Club formally established in 1974 and the Saulteaux Section opened for hiking at a ceremony on September 21, 1975. In recent years portions of the trail have been completed in the Elliot Marathon areas; the Voyageur Trail News, a regular newsletter for members and landowners, was first published on January 15, 1975. Government of Ontario, Ministry of Culture and Recreation. 1995. Adventures in cycling, nature observation and rock climbing 35 pages. Publ. # 6-95-45M/819-5 Robertson, Doug. 1984. The best hiking in Ontario Hurtig Publishers, Edmonton. 139 pages. ISBN 0-88830-256-8 Voyageur Trail Association. 2007. Voyageur Hiking Trail Guidebook, Edition 4.0 140 pages. ISBN 978-0-9680474-2-2 Voyageur Trail Association Coureurs de Bois Section Casque Isles Section
A sawmill or lumber mill is a facility where logs are cut into lumber. Modern saw mills use a motorized saw to cut logs lengthwise to make long pieces, crosswise to length depending on standard or custom sizes; the "portable" saw mill is iconic and of simple operation—the logs lay flat on a steel bed and the motorized saw cuts the log horizontally along the length of the bed, by the operator manually pushing the saw. The most basic kind of saw mill consists of a chainsaw and a customized jig, with similar horizontal operation. Before the invention of the sawmill, boards were made in various manual ways, either rived and planed, hewn, or more hand sawn by two men with a whipsaw, one above and another in a saw pit below; the earliest known mechanical mill is the Hierapolis sawmill, a Roman water-powered stone mill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor dating back to the 3rd century AD. Other water-powered mills followed and by the 11th century they were widespread in Spain and North Africa, the Middle East and Central Asia, in the next few centuries, spread across Europe.
The circular motion of the wheel was converted to a reciprocating motion at the saw blade. Only the saw was powered, the logs had to be loaded and moved by hand. An early improvement was the development of a movable carriage water powered, to move the log through the saw blade. By the time of the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century, the circular saw blade had been invented, with the development of steam power in the 19th century, a much greater degree of mechanisation was possible. Scrap lumber from the mill provided a source of fuel for firing the boiler; the arrival of railroads meant that logs could be transported to mills rather than mills being built besides navigable waterways. By 1900, the largest sawmill in the world was operated by the Atlantic Lumber Company in Georgetown, South Carolina, using logs floated down the Pee Dee River from the Appalachian Mountains. In the 20th century the introduction of electricity and high technology furthered this process, now most sawmills are massive and expensive facilities in which most aspects of the work is computerized.
Besides the sawn timber, use is made of all the by-products including sawdust, bark and wood pellets, creating a diverse offering of forest products. A sawmill's basic operation is much like those of hundreds of years ago. After trees are selected for harvest, the next step in logging is felling the trees, bucking them to length. Branches are cut off the trunk; this is known as limbing. Logs are taken by rail or a log drive to the sawmill. Logs are scaled either upon arrival at the mill. Debarking removes bark from the logs. Decking is the process for sorting the logs by species and end use. A sawyer uses a head saw to break the log into flitches. Depending upon the species and quality of the log, the cants will either be further broken down by a resaw or a gang edger into multiple flitches and/or boards. Edging will trim off all irregular edges leaving four-sided lumber. Trimming squares the ends at typical lumber lengths. Drying removes occurring moisture from the lumber; this can be done with kilns or air-dried.
Planing smooths the surface of the lumber leaving a uniform thickness. Shipping transports the finished lumber to market; the Hierapolis sawmill, a water-powered stone saw mill at Hierapolis, Asia Minor, dating to the second half of the 3rd century, is the earliest known sawmill. It incorporates a crank and connecting rod mechanism. Water-powered stone sawmills working with cranks and connecting rods, but without gear train, are archaeologically attested for the 6th century at the Byzantine cities Gerasa and Ephesus; the earliest literary reference to a working sawmill comes from a Roman poet, who wrote a topographical poem about the river Moselle in Germany in the late 4th century AD. At one point in the poem he describes the shrieking sound of a watermill cutting marble. Marble sawmills seem to be indicated by the Christian saint Gregory of Nyssa from Anatolia around 370/390 AD, demonstrating a diversified use of water-power in many parts of the Roman Empire. By the 11th century, hydropowered sawmills were in widespread use in the medieval Islamic world, from Islamic Spain and North Africa in the west to Central Asia in the east.
Sawmills became widespread in medieval Europe, as one was sketched by Villard de Honnecourt in c. 1250. They are claimed to have been introduced to Madeira following its discovery in c. 1420 and spread in Europe in the 16th century. Prior to the invention of the sawmill, boards were rived and planed, or more sawn by two men with a whipsaw, using saddleblocks to hold the log, a saw pit for the pitman who worked below. Sawing was slow, required strong and hearty men; the topsawer had to be the stronger of the two because the saw was pulled in turn by each man, the lower had the advantage of gravity. The topsawyer had to guide the saw so that the board was of thickness; this was done by following a chalkline. Early sawmills adapted the whipsaw to mechanical power driven by a water wheel to speed up the process; the circular motion of the wheel was changed to back-and-forth motion of the saw blade by a connecting rod known as a pitman arm. Only the saw was powered, the logs had to be lo
Lake Huron is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. Hydrologically, it comprises the easterly portion of Lake Michigan–Huron, having the same surface elevation as its westerly counterpart, to which it is connected by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, it is shared on the north and east by the Canadian province of Ontario and on the south and west by the state of Michigan in the United States. The name of the lake is derived from early French explorers who named it for the Huron people inhabiting the region; the Huronian glaciation was named due to evidence collected from Lake Huron region. The northern parts of the lake include the North Georgian Bay. Across the lake to the southwest is Saginaw Bay; the main inlet is the St. Marys River, the main outlet is the St. Clair River. By surface area, Lake Huron is the second-largest of the Great Lakes, with a surface area of 23,007 square miles — of which 9,103 square miles lies in Michigan. By volume however, Lake Huron is only the third largest of the Great Lakes, being surpassed by Lake Michigan and Lake Superior.
When measured at the low water datum, the lake contains a volume of 850 cubic miles and a shoreline length of 3,827 mi. The surface of Lake Huron is 577 feet above sea level; the lake's average depth is 32 fathoms 3 feet. It has a greatest breadth of 183 statute miles. Cities with over 10,000 people on Lake Huron include Sarnia, the largest city on Lake Huron, Saugeen Shores in Canada and Bay City, Port Huron, Alpena in the United States. A large bay that protrudes northeast from Lake Huron into Ontario, Canada, is called Georgian Bay. A notable feature of the lake is Manitoulin Island, which separates the North Channel and Georgian Bay from Lake Huron's main body of water, it is the world's largest lake island. Major centres on Georgian Bay include Owen Sound, Wasaga Beach, Midland, Port Severn and Parry Sound. A smaller bay that protrudes southwest from Lake Huron into Michigan is called Saginaw Bay. Historic High Water The lake fluctuates from month to month with the highest lake levels in October and November.
The normal high-water mark is 2.00 feet above datum. In the summer of 1986, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their highest level at 5.92 feet above datum. The high-water records began in February 1986 and lasted through the year, ending with January 1987. Water levels ranged from 3.67 to 5.92 feet above Chart Datum. Historic Low Water Lake levels tend to be the lowest in winter; the normal low-water mark is 1.00 foot below datum. In the winter of 1964, Lakes Michigan and Huron reached their lowest level at 1.38 feet below datum. As with the high-water records, monthly low-water records were set each month from February 1964 through January 1965. During this twelve-month period, water levels ranged from 1.38 to 0.71 feet below Chart Datum. The Great Lakes Circle Tour is a designated scenic road system connecting all the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence River. Lake Huron has the largest shore line length of any of the Great Lakes, counting its 30,000 islands. Lake Huron is separated from Lake Michigan, which lies at the same level, by the 5-mile-wide, 20-fathom-deep Straits of Mackinac, making them hydrologically the same body of water.
Aggregated, Lake Huron-Michigan, at 45,300 square miles, "is technically the world's largest freshwater lake." When counted separately, Lake Superior is 8,700 square miles higher. Lake Superior drains into the St. Marys River which flows southward into Lake Huron; the water flows south to the St. Clair River, at Port Huron and Sarnia, Ontario; the Great Lakes Waterway continues thence to Lake St. Clair. Like the other Great Lakes, it was formed by melting ice as the continental glaciers retreated toward the end of the last ice age. Before this, Lake Huron was a low-lying depression through which flowed the now-buried Laurentian and Huronian Rivers; the Alpena-Amberley Ridge is an ancient ridge beneath the surface of Lake Huron, running between Alpena and Point Clark, Ontario. About 9,000 years ago, when water levels in Lake Huron were about 100 m below today's levels, the ridge was exposed and the land bridge was used as a migration route for large herds of caribou. Since 2008, archaeologists have discovered at least 60 stone constructions along the submerged ridge that are thought to have been used as hunting blinds by Paleo-Indians.
The extent of development among Eastern Woodlands Native American societies on the eve of European contact is indicated by the archaeological evidence of a town on or near Lake Huron that contained more than one hundred large structures housing a total population of between 4,000 and 6,000. The French, the first European visitors to the region referred to Lake Huron as La Mer Douce, "the fresh-water sea". In 1656, a map by French cartographer Nicolas Sanson
Ontario Highway 129
King's Highway 129 referred to as Highway 129, is a provincially maintained highway in the Canadian province of Ontario. Located in the Algoma and Sudbury districts, the highway extends for 221 kilometres from a junction with Highway 17 in Thessalon to the town of Chapleau, just north of Highway 101; the route is isolated and travelled throughout its length. The highway was established in 1956 along the Chapleau Road. From the early 1960s to mid-1970s, Highway 129 was designated as the Chapleau Route of the Trans-Canada Highway. Highway 129 is one of the most isolated among the least used of the King's Highways. Although the highway is an important access route for several isolated communities, including Little Rapids, Sultan and Nemegos, as well as provincial parks such as Aubrey Falls, Five Mile Lake and Wakami Lake, the only community located directly on the highway's route between its termini is Wharncliffe. There are few services along Highway 129 between Wharncliffe and Highway 667. Tunnel Lake Trading Post and Aubrey Falls Trading Post & Resort offer some basic goods and lodging for travelers and local residents.
The route begins in the town of Thessalon at Highway 17, north of Lake Huron. It travels northeast through the Municipality of Huron Shores, passing the Thessalon Township Heritage Museum southeast of Little Rapids. Wedging between Basswood Lake and the Byrnes Lake White Birch Provincial Conservation Reserve, it enters the unorganized portions of Algoma District, it passes through Wharncliffe, crosses the Mississagi River and encounters Highway 554, which travels east to Kynoch. North of Highway 554, the route is parallel to the river and Mississagi River Provincial Park. After passing west of Wakomata Lake on its journey through undeveloped forest and muskeg, it reaches a junction with Highway 556 southwest of Aubrey Falls Provincial Park. Thereafter, the highway follows the Wenebegon River through Wenebegon River Provincial Park to Wenebegon Lake. Highway 129 encounters the entrance to Five Mile Provincial Park and meets Highway 667, which travels east through Sultan, becoming the Sultan Industrial Road and connecting with Highway 144.
From this junction, the route travels northwest towards Highway 101, where drivers must turn right to continue north on the route. Both highways travel concurrently northeast for 7.6 kilometres, at which point Highway 101 branches off to the east. Highway 129 continues north alongside the Sudbury–White River CPR line, it ends at the southern town limits of Chapleau, continuing north as a local road through the town and into the Chapleau Crown Game Preserve, the largest game preserve in the world. Highway 129 was first designated between Aubrey Falls and Chapleau in 1956, following the Thessalon–Chapleau Highway, a dirt road along the banks of the Mississagi River that opened to traffic on January 28, 1949. Though opened, this initial road was impassable, dangerous. Despite this, it gained notoriety for its breathtaking scenery and limitless hunting and fishing potential. However, the poor condition of the road left a terrible impression on tourists. John Austin Moore described his voyage up the road during the summer of 1951: "Our first trip by car took us over the famed Chapleau Road, the scenery and unique loneliness of which have been reported in magazines.
And its condition not long after it had opened to travel, when we first drove it in June 1951, was unforgettable. One trip over its 145 miles was guaranteed to shorten your life"The route was extended south on February 27, 1957, absorbing the entire length of Highway 559, itself designated in 1956; the Highway 559 designation has since been reused in Parry Sound District. In 1961, the gravel surfaced highway was designated as the Chapleau Route of the Trans-Canada Highway, despite being only a spur in the network at that time; this designation lasted until as early as 1974 and as late as 1978. Highway 129 was the last King's Highway to be paved; the one-lane Rapid River Bridge was replaced by an adjacent two-lane bridge in the second quarter of 2010. The following table lists the major junctions along Highway 129, as noted by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario
North West Company
The North West Company was a fur trading business headquartered in Montreal from 1779 to 1821. It competed with increasing success against the Hudson's Bay Company in what is present-day Western Canada. With great wealth at stake, tensions between the companies increased to the point where several minor armed skirmishes broke out, the two companies were forced by the British government to merge. After the French landed in Quebec in 1608, coureurs des bois spread out and built a fur trade empire in the St. Lawrence basin; the French competed with the English in New York and the English in Hudson Bay. Unlike the French who travelled into the northern interior and traded with First Nations in their camps and villages, the English made bases at trading posts on Hudson Bay, inviting the indigenous people to trade. After 1731, La Vérendrye pushed trade west beyond Lake Winnipeg. After the British conquest of New France in 1763, management of the fur trading posts was taken over by English-speakers.
These so-called "pedlars" began to merge because competition cost them money and because of the high costs of outfitting canoes to the far west. There are historical references to a North West Company, as early as 1770, involving the Montreal-based traders Benjamin Frobisher, Isaac Todd, Alexander Henry the elder and others, but the standard histories trace the Company to a 16-share organization formed in 1779. For the next four years, it was little more than a loose association of a few Montreal merchants who discussed how they might break the stranglehold the Hudson's Bay Company held on the North American fur trade. In the winter of 1783-84, the North West Company was created on a long-term basis, with its corporate offices on Vaudreuil Street in Montreal, it was led by businessmen Benjamin Frobisher, his brother Joseph, Simon McTavish, along with investor-partners who included Robert Grant, Nicholas Montour, Patrick Small, William Holmes, George McBeath. In 1787 the North West Company merged with a rival organization, Gregory, McLeod and Co. which brought several more able partners in, including John Gregory, Alexander Mackenzie, his cousin Roderick Mackenzie.
The 1787 company consisted of 20 shares, some held by the agents at Montreal, others by wintering partners, who spent the trading season in the fur country and oversaw the trade with the aboriginal peoples there. The wintering partners and the Montreal agents met each July at the company's depot at Grand Portage on Lake Superior moved to Fort William. Under the auspices of the company, Alexander Mackenzie conducted two important expeditions of exploration. In 1789, he descended the Grand River to the Arctic Ocean, in 1793 he went overland from Peace River to the Pacific Ocean. Further explorations were performed by David Thompson, starting in 1797, by Simon Fraser; these men pushed into the wilderness territories of the Rocky Mountains and all the way to the Gulf of Georgia on the Pacific Coast. The death of Benjamin Frobisher opened the door to a takeover of the North West Company by Simon McTavish, who made a deal with Frobisher's surviving brother Joseph; the firm of McTavish and Company, founded in November 1787 controlled eleven of the company’s twenty outstanding shares.
At the time the company consisted of 23 partners, but "its staff of Agents, clerks, interpreters, more known today as voyageurs amounted to 2000 people." In addition to Alexander Mackenzie, this group included Americans Peter Pond and Alexander Henry the elder. Further reorganizations of the partnership occurred in 1795 and 1802, the shares being subdivided each time to provide for more and more wintering partners. Vertical integration of the business was completed in 1792, when Simon McTavish and John Fraser formed a London house to supply trade goods and market the furs, McTavish and Company. While the organization and capitalization of the North West Company came from Anglo-Quebecers, both Simon McTavish and Joseph Frobisher married French Canadians. Numerous French Canadians played key roles in the operations both in the building and shareholding of the various trading posts scattered throughout the country, as well numbering among the voyageurs involved in the actual trading with natives.
In the northwest, the Company expanded its operations as far north as Great Bear Lake, westwards beyond the Rocky Mountains. For several years, they tried to sell furs directly to China, using American ships to avoid the British East India Company's monopoly, but little profit was made there; the company expanded into the United States' Northwest Territory. In 1796, to better position themselves in the global market, where politics played a major role, the North West Company established an agency in New York City. Despite its efforts, the North West Company was at a distinct disadvantage in competing for furs with the Hudson's Bay Company, whose charter gave it a virtual monopoly in Rupert's Land, where the best furs were trapped; the company tried to persuade the British Parliament to change arrangements, at least so the North West Company could obtain transit rights to ship goods to the west needed for trading for furs. It is said that Simon McTavish made a personal petition to Prime Minister William Pitt, but all requests were refused.
A few years with no relief to the Hudson's Bay Company's stranglehold, McTavish and his group decided to gamble. They organized an overland expedition from Montreal to a second expedition by sea. In September 1803, the overland party met the company's ship at Charlton Island