Lafayette County, Mississippi
Lafayette County is a county in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 47,351, its county seat is Oxford. The local pronunciation of the name is "la-FAY-et"; the county's name honors Marquis de Lafayette, a French military hero and American general who fought during the American Revolutionary War. The Oxford, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Lafayette County; the County is policed by the Lafayette County Sheriff's Department. Lafayette County is regarded as the inspiration for Yoknapatawpha County, the fictional setting of many of William Faulkner's stories. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 679 square miles, of which 632 square miles is land and 47 square miles is water. Marshall County Union County Pontotoc County Calhoun County Yalobusha County Panola County Tate County Holly Springs National Forest As of the census of 2000, there were 38,744 people, 14,373 households, 8,321 families residing in the county; the population density was 61 people per square mile.
There were 16,587 housing units at an average density of 26 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 71.85% White, 25.05% Black or African American, 0.16% Native American, 1.67% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 0.84% from two or more races. 1.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. The largest European ancestry groups in Lafayette county are: 13.4% English 12.5% Irish 9.1% German 4.4% Scots-Irish 2.8% Scottish 1.1% Polish 1.0% WelshMany people in Mississippi may claim Irish ancestry because of the term "Scots-Irish", but most of the time in Mississippi this term is used for those with Scottish roots, rather than Irish. In 2000, there were 14,373 households out of which 26.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.20% were married couples living together, 11.40% had a female householder with no husband present, 42.10% were non-families. 29.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.97. In the county, the population was spread out with 19.50% under the age of 18, 27.10% from 18 to 24, 26.30% from 25 to 44, 17.10% from 45 to 64, 9.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 27 years. For every 100 females there were 96.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.60 males. The median income for a household in the county was $28,517, the median income for a family was $42,910. Males had a median income of $30,964 versus $21,207 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,406. About 10.20% of families and 21.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.60% of those under age 18 and 19.40% of those age 65 or over. Oxford Abbeville Taylor University Denmark Harmontown Paris Springdale Tula Yocona Dogtown Orwood Sheriff F. D. “Buddy" East died in office in September 2018. He had been elected to office twelve times, starting in 1972 and was the state's longest-serving sheriff and at the time of his death the longest-serving sheriff in the nation.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Lafayette County, Mississippi University of Mississippi Lafayette County Records owned by the University of Mississippi and Special Collections
Chickasaw County, Mississippi
Chickasaw County is a county located in the U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,392, its county seats are Okolona. The county is named for the Chickasaw people. Most were removed to Indian Territory in the 1830s, but some remained and became citizens of the state and United States. Early in the 20th century, the first agricultural high school in Mississippi opened in the unincorporated community of Buena Vista. Cully Cobb, a pioneer of southern agriculture, long-term farm publisher, an official of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration in Washington, D. C. was the superintendent of the school from 1908-1910. The Mississippi state legislature created Chickasaw County in 1836, following the cession of the land by the Chickasaw Indians, it was settled by Americans from the east from the Southern states. By the time of the Civil War, riverfront landings had been developed by the many large cotton plantations worked by slaves, who outnumbered the white residents of the county.
The American Civil War devastated the local economy destroying the plantation-based infrastructure of Chickasaw County. The newly freed slaves had to adapt to the new labor system, in which the white landowners still retained partial control over their lives through the practice of sharecropping; the economy declined again in the late 19th century, when falling cotton prices reduced both black and white residents to poverty. Farmers began diversifying their crops, the economy began to improve. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 504 square miles, of which 502 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. U. S. Route 45 Mississippi Highway 8 Mississippi Highway 15 Mississippi Highway 32 Mississippi Highway 41 Mississippi Highway 47 Natchez Trace Parkway Pontotoc County Lee County Monroe County Clay County Webster County Calhoun County Natchez Trace Parkway Tombigbee National Forest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,392 people residing in the county.
54.0% were White, 42.1% Black or African American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Native American, 2.5% of some other race and 1.0% of two or more races. 3.7% were Hispanic or Latino. As of the census of 2000, there were 19,440 people, 7,253 households, 5,287 families residing in the county; the population density was 39 people per square mile. There were 7,981 housing units at an average density of 16 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 56.89% White, 41.26% Black or African American, 0.19% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.99% from other races, 0.46% from two or more races. 2.29% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. According to the census of 2000, the largest ancestry groups in Chickasaw County were English 44.1%, African 41% and Scots-Irish 13.5%. There were 7,253 households out of which 36.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.80% were married couples living together, 18.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.10% were non-families.
24.90% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.65 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.60% under the age of 18, 9.30% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 21.00% from 45 to 64, 13.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $26,364, the median income for a family was $33,819. Males had a median income of $25,459 versus $20,099 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,279. About 16.80% of families and 20.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.90% of those under age 18 and 22.40% of those age 65 or over. Okolona Houston New Houlka Woodland Singer-songwriter Bobbie Gentry, a Mississippi Musicians Hall of Fame inductee, was born in Chickasaw County in 1944.
Bukka White, early blues performer William Raspberry, journalist Milan Williams, founding member of The Commodores Jim Hood, Current Mississippi Attorney General Jeff Busby, Congressman that spearheaded the Natchez Trace Parkway Shaquille Vance, 2012 U. S. Paralympic National Championship, gold medal, silver medal Ida Mae Brandon Gladney, central character in the Pulitzer Prize winning book, The Warmth of Other Suns by Isabel Wilkerson Titus Andromedon, aka Ronald Ephen Wilkerson, a fictional Character from the comedy the Unbreakable Kimmy Schmidt, was from Chickasaw County. Candieland, the plantation of the fictional Calvin Candie, played by Leonardo DiCaprio in Quentin Tarantino's film Django Unchained, is located in Chickasaw County. National Register of Historic Places listings in Chickasaw County, Mississippi
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
Choctaw County, Mississippi
Choctaw County is a county located in the central part of U. S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 8,547, its northern border is the Big Black River, which flows southwest into the Mississippi south of Vicksburg. The county seat is Ackerman; the county is named after the Choctaw tribe of Native Americans, who long occupied this territory as their homeland before being forced to move west of the Mississippi River by federal troops under the Indian Removal Act of 1830. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 420 square miles, of which 418 square miles is land and 1.7 square miles is water. The Big Black River forms the county's northern border. Webster County, Mississippi - north Oktibbeha County, Mississippi - east Winston County, Mississippi - southeast Attala County, Mississippi - southwest Montgomery County, Mississippi - west Natchez Trace Parkway Tombigbee National Forest The adjacent table reflects major decreases in population from 1910 to 1920, from 1940 to 1960.
These were periods of the Great Migration from the South by African Americans, who first moved to jobs in industrial cities in the North and Midwest. In the 1940s and after, they moved to the West Coast for jobs in the defense industry. Farm work declined with mechanization of agriculture, but blacks migrated to escape the violence and social repression of Mississippi, where they had been disenfranchised since 1890 and lived under Jim Crow laws. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 8,543 people residing in the county. 68.1% were White, 30.2% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from some other race and 1.1% of two or more races. 1.4 % were Latino of any race. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,758 people, 3,686 households, 2,668 families residing in the county; the population density was 23 people per square mile. There were 4,249 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 68.03% White, 30.68% Black or African American, 0.31% Native American, 0.13% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.42% from other races, 0.42% from two or more races.
0.81% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 3,686 households out of which 32.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.30% were married couples living together, 14.60% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.60% were non-families. 25.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.06. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.80% under the age of 18, 8.80% from 18 to 24, 24.90% from 25 to 44, 23.50% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 91.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $27,020, the median income for a family was $31,095. Males had a median income of $26,966 versus $17,798 for females; the per capita income for the county was $13,474.
About 17.70% of families and 24.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 33.80% of those under age 18 and 21.30% of those age 65 or over. Choctaw County School District operates public schools, including Choctaw County High School, Ackerman Elementary, French Camp Elementary, Weir Elementary. French Camp Academy, which provides in-house private education in grades 7 through 12, is located in French Camp. Colleges and universities within a 60-mile radius of the center of the county include: East Mississippi Community College Holmes Community College Mississippi State University Mississippi University for Women Ackerman French Camp Mathiston Weir Bywy Chester ReformPanhandle Bankston Pigeon Roost James Blackwood, American Gospel singer and one of the founding members of legendary Southern Gospel quartet The Blackwood Brothers. Turner Catledge, Managing editor of The New York Times from 1952 to 1964 and the paper's first executive editor. David A. Chandler, Former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of Mississippi.
James Plemon "J. P." Coleman 52nd Governor of Mississippi and a United States Circuit Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit. Thomas Fulton, Former conductor of the New York Metropolitan Opera Dennis Johnson Fullback for Mississippi State University who played for the New York Giants and Buffalo Bills in the NFL. Kenneth Johnson, NFL defensive back for the Green Bay Packers Tony Kimbrough, Former professional football quarterback Raymond Edwin "Ray" Mabus Jr. 60th Governor of Mississippi and 75th United States Secretary of the Navy. Hoyt Ming, old-time fiddler. Alvin McKinley, NFL defensive tackle who played for the Carolina Panthers, Cleveland Browns, Denver Broncos and New Orleans Saints. Roy Oswalt, a major league pitcher for the Colorado Rockies, his wife Nicole live in Weir. Cheryl Prewitt, Miss America 1980 and Miss Mississippi 1979 Kristi M. Fondren, Author "Walking on the Wild Side: Long-Distance Hiking on the Appalachian Trail" The song "Choctaw County Affair" from Carrie Underwood's 2015 album Storyteller is set in Choctaw County, Mississippi.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Choctaw County, Mississippi Choctaw County Courthouse Pictures
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Saltillo is a city in Lee County, located in the northern part of the Tupelo micropolitan area. The population was 4,752 at the 2010 Census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 8.7 square miles, of which 8.7 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,393 people, 1,361 households, 974 families residing in the town; the population density was 389.5 people per square mile. There were 1,453 housing units at an average density of 166.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 93.93% White, 4.69% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.09% from other races, 0.74% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.59% of the population. There were 1,361 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.0% were married couples living together, 10.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 28.4% were non-families.
25.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.94. In the town the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 9.0% from 18 to 24, 34.0% from 25 to 44, 19.2% from 45 to 64, 10.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,912, the median income for a family was $44,018. Males had a median income of $33,333 versus $23,542 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,177. About 8.5% of families and 12.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.7% of those under age 18 and 17.3% of those age 65 or over. Saltillo is served by the Lee County School District. Steve Dillard, American baseball player Tim Dillard, American baseball player James Gilreath, American musician Merle Taylor, American musician Darryl Wilson, American basketball player List of municipalities in Mississippi National Register of Historic Places listings in Lee County, Mississippi GovernmentOfficial websiteGeneral information Geographic data related to Saltillo, Mississippi at OpenStreetMap Lee – Itawamba Library System at SirsiDynix
The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 to 1877 in American history. It was a significant chapter in the history of American civil rights; the term has two applications: the first applies to the complete history of the entire country from 1865 to 1877 following the American Civil War. Reconstruction ended the remnants of Confederate secession and ended slavery, making the newly-free slaves citizens with civil rights ostensibly guaranteed by three new Constitutional amendments. Three visions of Civil War memory appeared during Reconstruction: the reconciliationist vision, rooted in coping with the death and devastation the war had brought. Presidents Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson both took moderate positions designed to bring the South back into the Union as as possible, while Radical Republicans in Congress sought stronger measures to upgrade the rights of African Americans, including the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, while curtailing the rights of former Confederates, such as through the provisions of the Wade–Davis Bill.
Johnson, a former Tennessee Senator, former slave owner, the most prominent Southerner to oppose the Confederacy, followed a lenient policy toward ex-Confederates. Lincoln's last speeches show that he was leaning toward supporting the enfranchisement of all freedmen, whereas Johnson was opposed to this. Johnson's interpretations of Lincoln's policies prevailed until the Congressional elections of 1866; those elections followed outbreaks of violence against blacks in the former rebel states, including the Memphis riots of 1866 and the New Orleans riot that same year. The subsequent 1866 election gave Republicans a majority in Congress, enabling them to pass the 14th Amendment, take control of Reconstruction policy, remove former Confederates from power, enfranchise the freedmen. A Republican coalition came to power in nearly all the southern states and set out to transform the society by setting up a free labor economy, using the U. S. Army and the Freedmen's Bureau; the Bureau protected the legal rights of freedmen, negotiated labor contracts, set up schools and churches for them.
Thousands of Northerners came south as missionaries, teachers and politicians. Hostile whites began referring to these politicians as "carpetbaggers". In early 1866, Congress passed the Freedmen's Bureau and Civil Rights Bills and sent them to Johnson for his signature; the first bill extended the life of the bureau established as a temporary organization charged with assisting refugees and freed slaves, while the second defined all persons born in the United States as national citizens with equality before the law. After Johnson vetoed the bills, Congress overrode his vetos, making the Civil Rights Act the first major bill in the history of the United States to become law through an override of a presidential veto; the Radicals in the House of Representatives, frustrated by Johnson's opposition to Congressional Reconstruction, filed impeachment charges. The action failed by one vote in the Senate; the new national Reconstruction laws – in particular laws requiring suffrage for freedmen – incensed white supremacists in the South, giving rise to the Ku Klux Klan.
During 1867-69 the Klan murdered Republicans and outspoken freedmen in the South, including Arkansas Congressman James M. Hinds. Elected in 1868, Republican President Ulysses S. Grant supported Congressional Reconstruction and enforced the protection of African Americans in the South through the use of the Enforcement Acts passed by Congress. Grant used the Enforcement Acts to combat the Ku Klux Klan, wiped out, although a new incarnation of the Klan would again come to national prominence in the 1920s. President Grant was unable to resolve the escalating tensions inside the Republican Party between the Northerners on the one hand, those Republicans hailing from the South on the other. Meanwhile, "redeemers", self-styled conservatives in close cooperation with a faction of the Democratic Party opposed Reconstruction, they alleged widespread corruption by the "carpetbaggers", excessive state spending, ruinous taxes. Meanwhile, public support for Reconstruction policies, requiring continued supervision of the South, faded in the North after the Democrats, who opposed Reconstruction, regained control of the House of Representatives in 1874.
In 1877, as part of a Congressional bargain to elect Republican Rutherford B. Hayes as president following the disputed 1876 presidential election, U. S. Army troops were withdrawn from the three states; this marked the end of Reconstruction. Historian Eric Foner argues: What remains certain is that Reconstruction failed, that for blacks its failure was a disaster whose magnitude cannot be obscured by the genuine accomplishments that did endure. In different states Reconstruction ended at different times. In recent decades most historians follow Foner in dating the Reconstruction of the South as starting in 1863 rather than 1865; the usual ending for Reconstruction has always been 1877. Reconstruction policies were debated in the North when the