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Mississippi Braves

The Mississippi Braves, or M-Braves as they are referred to locally, are a minor league baseball team based in Pearl, Mississippi, a suburb of Jackson. The team is the Class AA affiliate of the Atlanta Braves, plays in the Southern League; the team is owned and operated by Liberty Media, which owns the Atlanta Braves. Liberty purchased the Braves from Time Warner's Turner Broadcasting unit in 2007. For 20 years, from 1984 to 2004, the Mississippi Braves were based in Greenville, South Carolina, known as the Greenville Braves. Due to the condition of Greenville Municipal Stadium, the failure to reach an agreement with the Greenville County council for a new ballpark, the team pursued relocation. Before the 2004 season, the Braves announced their intention to relocate to Pearl, after the season's conclusion; the Braves' first season began on April 18, 2005. The Braves opened their inaugural season in Trustmark Park with a loss against the Montgomery Biscuits. On September 13, 2008, the Mississippi Braves beat the Carolina Mudcats, 3–2, in the 10th inning of the decisive Game 5 of the Southern League Championship Series.

This was the M-Braves first championship since relocating to Mississippi and was the first Southern League title for Atlanta's Double-A franchise since 1997. All Mississippi Braves games are televised live on MiLB. TV. Beginning with the 2009 season, all regular and post-season Mississippi Braves games air on WYAB 103.9 FM. The current home play-by-play broadcaster is Blake Scott. Derrel Palmer voices away games, in addition to serving as the public address announcer at Trustmark Park. * Promoted directly to Atlanta. Official site Manager Phillip Wellman's tirade "Mississippi Braves Media Guide". 2007. Archived from the original on 2008-02-28. Retrieved 2007-10-04. Mississippi Braves photos

Taxation in the United States

The United States of America has separate federal and local governments with taxes imposed at each of these levels. Taxes are levied on income, property, capital gains, imports and gifts, as well as various fees. In 2010, taxes collected by federal and municipal governments amounted to 24.8% of GDP. In the OECD, only Chile and Mexico are taxed less as a share of their GDP. However, taxes fall much more on labor income than on capital income. Divergent taxes and subsidies for different forms of income and spending can constitute a form of indirect taxation of some activities over others. For example, individual spending on higher education can be said to be "taxed" at a high rate, compared to other forms of personal expenditure which are formally recognized as investments. Taxes are imposed on net income of individuals and corporations by the federal, most state, some local governments. Citizens and residents are allowed a credit for foreign taxes. Income subject to tax is determined under tax accounting rules, not financial accounting principles, includes all income from whatever source.

Most business expenses reduce taxable income. Individuals are permitted to reduce taxable income by personal allowances and certain non-business expenses, including home mortgage interest and local taxes, charitable contributions, medical and certain other expenses incurred above certain percentages of income. State rules for determining taxable income differ from federal rules. Federal marginal tax rates vary from 10% to 37% of taxable income. State and local tax rates vary by jurisdiction, from 0% to 13.30% of income, many are graduated. State taxes are treated as a deductible expense for federal tax computation, although the 2017 tax law imposed a $10,000 limit on the state and local tax deduction, which raised the effective tax rate on medium and high earners in high tax states. Prior to the SALT deduction limit, the average deduction exceeded $10,000 in most of the Midwest, exceeded $11,000 in most of the Northeastern United States, as well as California and Oregon; the states impacted the most by the limit were California.

The United States is one of two countries in the world that taxes its non-resident citizens on worldwide income, in the same manner and rates as residents. The U. S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of imposition of such a tax in the case of Cook v. Tait. Payroll taxes are imposed by the federal and all state governments; these include Social Security and Medicare taxes imposed on both employers and employees, at a combined rate of 15.3%. Social Security tax applies only to the first $132,900 of wages in 2019. There is an additional Medicare tax of 0.9% on wages above $200,000. Employers must withhold income taxes on wages. An unemployment tax and certain other levies apply to employers. Payroll taxes have increased as a share of federal revenue since the 1950s, while corporate income taxes have fallen as a share of revenue.. Property taxes are imposed by most local governments and many special purpose authorities based on the fair market value of property. School and other authorities are separately governed, impose separate taxes.

Property tax is imposed only on realty, though some jurisdictions tax some forms of business property. Property tax rules and rates vary with annual median rates ranging from 0.2% to 1.9% of a property's value depending on the state. Sales taxes are imposed by most states and some localities on the price at retail sale of many goods and some services. Sales tax rates vary among jurisdictions, from 0% to 16%, may vary within a jurisdiction based on the particular goods or services taxed. Sales tax is collected by the seller at the time of sale, or remitted as use tax by buyers of taxable items who did not pay sales tax; the United States imposes tariffs or customs duties on the import of many types of goods from many jurisdictions. These tariffs or duties must be paid before the goods can be imported. Rates of duty vary from 0 % based on the particular goods and country of origin. Estate and gift taxes are imposed by the federal and some state governments on the transfer of property inheritance, by will, or by lifetime donation.

Similar to federal income taxes, federal estate and gift taxes are imposed on worldwide property of citizens and residents and allow a credit for foreign taxes. The U. S. has an assortment of federal, state and special-purpose governmental jurisdictions. Each imposes taxes to or fund its operations; these taxes may be imposed on the same income, property or activity without offset of one tax against another. The types of tax imposed at each level of government vary, in part due to constitutional restrictions. Income taxes are imposed at most state levels. Taxes on property are imposed only at the local level, although there may be multiple local jurisdictions that tax the same property. Other excise taxes are imposed by the federal and some state governments. Sales taxes are imposed by many local governments. Customs duties or tariffs are only imposed by the federal government. A wide variety of user fees or license fees are imposed. A federal wealth tax would be required by the U. S. Constitution to be distributed to the States according to their populations, as this type of tax is considered a direct tax.

State and local government property taxes are wealth taxes

Missouri Air National Guard

The Missouri Air National Guard is the aerial militia of the State of Missouri, United States of America. It is, along with the Missouri Army National Guard, an element of the Missouri National Guard; as state militia units, the units in the Missouri Air National Guard are not in the normal United States Air Force chain of command. They are under the jurisdiction of the Governor of Missouri though the office of the Missouri Adjutant General unless they are federalized by order of the President of the United States; the Missouri Air National Guard is headquartered at Rosecrans Air National Guard Base, St. Joseph, its commander is Major General Stephen L. Danner. Under the "Total Force" concept, Missouri Air National Guard units are considered to be Air Reserve Components of the United States Air Force. Missouri ANG units are trained and equipped by the Air Force and are operationally gained by a Major Command of the USAF if federalized. In addition, the Missouri Air National Guard forces are assigned to Air Expeditionary Forces and are subject to deployment tasking orders along with their active duty and Air Force Reserve counterparts in their assigned cycle deployment window.

Along with their federal reserve obligations, as state militia units the elements of the Missouri ANG are subject to being activated by order of the Governor to provide protection of life and property, preserve peace and public safety. State missions include disaster relief in times of earthquakes, hurricanes and forest fires and rescue, protection of vital public services, support to civil defense; the Missouri Air National Guard consists of the following major units: 131st Bomb WingEstablished 23 June 1923. The 139th remains globally engaged in continuing operations. Support Unit Functions and Capabilities: 157th Air Operations GroupInvolves work to provide meteorological support and deploy with and assist the ground force commander in planning, requesting and controlling close air support, tactical air reconnaissance, tactical airlift.231st Civil Engineer SquadronHeadquarters Augmentation Unit provides staff augmentation, project management, engineering support and construction oversight.

The Missouri Air National Guard origins date to 14 August 1917 with the establishment of the 110th Aero Squadron as part of the World War I United States Army Air Service. After the 1918 Armistice with Germany the squadron was demobilized in 1919; the Militia Act of 1903 established the present National Guard system, units raised by the states but paid for by the Federal Government, liable for immediate state service. If federalized by Presidential order, they fall under the regular military chain of command. On 1 June 1920, the Militia Bureau issued Circular No.1 on organization of National Guard air units. Early in 1923 a group of local St. Louis aviation enthusiasts including Major William B. Robertson and his brothers Frank and Dan, went to Washington to seek support for selection of St. Louis as the site for the "International Air Races" and a charter for organization of an Army National Guard Air Unit for the state, Their mission was successful and they returned with the approval for both activities.

The interest which St. Louis had shown as an aviation center and recommendation of Col. C. S. Thornton 138th Infantry Regiment Commander influenced Brig. Gen. W. A. Raupp, Missouri National Guard Commander in selection of St. Louis as site for the Air Unit. Local newspapers informed the public that "enlistments would not be limited to aviators but a number of young men who wanted to learn to fly or maintain flying equipment would be taken." Members would be paid for a maximum of 60 "drills" a year which were described as periods of instruction in ground work, machine-shop practice and flying. War maneuvers would be taught and bombing and machine gun firing would be directed at targets on the nearby Missouri River. Personnel assigned to the Photo Section would learn to make pictures for use in war and intelligence Personnel would be trained as Scouts of the Air and will have radio equipment. A five-day "recruiting drive" enlisted a total of 110 men. On June 23, 1923 the 110th Observation Squadron, 110th Photo Section and 110th Intelligence Section, 35th Division, Missouri National Guard were federally recognized.

It is one of the 29 original National Guard Observation Squadrons of the United States Army National Guard formed before World War II. The 110th Observation Squadron was ordered into active service on 23 December 1940 as part of the buildup of the Army Air Corps. On 24 May 1946, the United States Army Air Forces, in response to dramatic postwar military budget cuts imposed by President Harry S. Truman, allocated inactive unit designations to the National Guard Bureau for the formation of an Air Force National Guard; these unit designations were allotted and transferred to various State National Guard bureaus to provide them unit designations to re-establish them as Air National Guard units. The modern Missouri ANG received federal recognition on 3 July 1946 as th