Washington County, Alabama
Washington County is a county in the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,581; the county seat is Chatom. The county was named in honor of the first President of the United States, it is a dry county, with the exception of Chatom. The area of today's Washington County was long inhabited by various indigenous people. In historic times, European traders encountered first Choctaw and Creek Indians, who had moved southwest from Georgia as early European settlers encroached on their land. Washington County was organized on June 4, 1800 from the Tombigbee District of the Mississippi Territory by proclamation of territorial governor Winthrop Sargent, it was the first county organized in what would become Alabama, as settlers moved westward after the American Revolutionary War. Washington County is the site of the first territorial capital of Alabama. In 1807 former U. S. Vice President Aaron Burr was arrested at Wakefield in Washington County, during his flight from being prosecuted for alleged treason.
Though the U. S. government removed most of the Choctaw and Creek to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River in the 1830s, some Native Americans remained behind and become state citizens. They struggled to maintain their Choctaw culture through years during which the U. S. government imposed a binary system of dividing people into "all other" people of color. In 1979 Alabama recognized the MOWA Band of Choctaw Indians, its members are concentrated along the border of Washington counties. In the 19th century, the county was developed for cotton plantations, with labor supplied by thousands of African-American slaves. Many were transported by slave traders to the Deep South in a forced migration. During the American Civil War, more than three quarters of the adult white men in the county were serving in the Confederate Army by 1863. In that year, a group of children petitioned the Confederate government to avoid drafting more white men, so they might serve as a home guard militia; the petition claimed it was needed to guard against a potential slave uprising, since there were numerous plantations with large numbers of slaves.
While the county continued to rely on agriculture into the 20th century, the infestation of the boll weevil destroyed many crops. Mechanization reduced the need for labor, thousands of African Americans left the South in the Great Migration to Northern and Midwestern industrial cities, where they could get better jobs and escape the legal segregation of the South; the county has developed other businesses and industry petrochemical. Due to damage from Hurricane Frederic, the county was declared a disaster area in September 1979. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,089 square miles, of which 1,080 square miles is land and 8.4 square miles is water. This makes Washington County larger than the state of Rhode Island in terms of land area; the county is located 60 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico, exceeds 682,000 acres of land. About 88 percent of the land area is situated pine plantations; the Tombigbee River borders Washington County to the east. From the southern point of the river, the boundary runs diagonally south-west, bisecting the community of Calvert.
From there, the southern boundary runs west following the 31°08' N parallel, towards the Mississippi state line, stopping just short before descending due south into Mobile County and forming part of a rectangle that connects with the state line. The western boundary is defined by the Alabama-Mississippi state line; the northern boundary runs west from the state line along the 31°41' N parallel until reaching the Tombigbee River. Choctaw County Clarke County Baldwin County Mobile County Greene County, Mississippi Wayne County, Mississippi U. S. Highway 43 U. S. Highway 45 State Route 17 State Route 56 The Norfolk Southern Railroad runs north out of the Port of Mobile and along the eastern corridor of Washington County, providing transport of raw materials to several chemical and electrical plants situated along the Tombigbee River. According to the 2010 United States Census, the racial makeup of the county is as follows: 65.5% White 24.9% Black 8.0% Native American 0.1% Asian 0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.2% Two or more races 0.9% Hispanic or Latino As of the census of 2000, there were 18,097 people, 6,705 households, 5,042 families residing in the county.
The population density was 17 people per square mile. There were 8,123 housing units at an average density of 8 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 64.98% White, 26.89% Black or African American, 7.12% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.05% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. 1.1% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 6,705 households out of which 37.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.10% were married couples living together, 12.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.80% were non-families. 22.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.69 and the average family size was 3.17. In the county, the population was spread out with 28.70% under the age of 18, 8.60% from 18 to 24, 27.40% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, 12.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years.
For every 100 females
The Tennessee River is the largest tributary of the Ohio River. It is 652 miles long and is located in the southeastern United States in the Tennessee Valley; the river was once popularly known as the Cherokee River, among other names, as many of the Cherokee had their territory along its banks in eastern Tennessee and northern Alabama. Its current name is derived from the Cherokee village Tanasi; the Tennessee River is formed at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad rivers in present-day Knoxville, Tennessee. From Knoxville, it flows southwest through East Tennessee into Chattanooga before crossing into Alabama, it travels through the Huntsville and Decatur area before reaching the Muscle Shoals area, forms a small part of the state's border with Mississippi, before returning to Tennessee. Its route northwesterly through Tennessee defines the boundary between two of Tennessee's Grand Divisions: Middle and West Tennessee; the Tennessee–Tombigbee Waterway, a U. S. Army Corps of Engineers project providing navigation on the Tombigbee River and a link to the Port of Mobile, enters the Tennessee River near the Tennessee-Alabama-Mississippi boundary.
This waterway reduces the navigation distance from Tennessee, north Alabama, northern Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico by hundreds of miles. The final part of the Tennessee's run is north through western Kentucky, where it separates the Jackson Purchase from the rest of the state, it flows into the Ohio River at Kentucky. The river has been dammed numerous times during the 20th century since the 1930s by Tennessee Valley Authority projects; the construction of TVA's Kentucky Dam on the Tennessee River and the Corps of Engineers' Barkley Dam on the Cumberland River led to the development of associated lakes, the creation of what is called Land Between the Lakes. A navigation canal located at Grand Rivers, links Kentucky Lake and Lake Barkley; the canal allows for a shorter trip for river traffic going from the Tennessee to most of the Ohio River, for traffic going down the Cumberland River toward the Mississippi. The river appears on French maps from the late 17th century with the names "Caquinampo" or "Kasqui."
Maps from the early 18th century call it "Cussate," "Hogohegee," "Callamaco," and "Acanseapi." A 1755 British map showed the Tennessee River as the "River of the Cherakees." By the late 18th century, it had come to be called "Tennessee," a name derived from the Cherokee village named Tanasi. The Tennessee River begins at mile post 652, where the French Broad River meets the Holston River, but there were several different definitions of its starting point. In the late 18th century, the mouth of the Little Tennessee River was considered to be the beginning of the Tennessee River. Through much of the 19th century, the Tennessee River was considered to start at the mouth of Clinch River. An 1889 declaration by the Tennessee General Assembly designated Kingsport as the start of the Tennessee, but the following year a federal law was enacted that fixed the start of the river at its current location. At various points since the early 19th century, Georgia has disputed its northern border with Tennessee.
In 1796, when Tennessee was admitted to the Union, the border was defined by United States Congress as located on the 35th parallel, thereby ensuring that at least a portion of the river would be located within Georgia. As a result of an erroneously conducted survey in 1818, the actual border line was set on the ground one mile south, thus placing the disputed portion of the river in Tennessee. Georgia made several unsuccessful attempts to correct what Georgia felt was an erroneous survey line "in the 1890s, 1905, 1915, 1922, 1941, 1947 and 1971 to'resolve' the dispute", according to C. Crews Townsend, Joseph McCoin, Robert F. Parsley, Alison Martin and Zachary H. Greene, writing for the Tennessee Bar Journal, a publication of the Tennessee Bar Association, appearing on May 12, 2008. In 2008, as a result of a serious drought and resulting water shortage, the Georgia General Assembly passed a resolution directing the governor to pursue its claim in the United States Supreme Court. According to a story aired on WTVC-TV in Chattanooga on March 14, 2008, a local attorney familiar with case law on border disputes, says the U.
S. Supreme Court will maintain the original borders between states and avoid stepping into border disputes, preferring the parties work out their differences; the Chattanooga Times Free Press reported on 25 March 2013 that Georgia senators approved House Resolution 4 stating that if Tennessee declines to settle with them, the dispute will be handed over to the attorney general, who will take Tennessee before the Supreme Court to settle the issue once and for all. The Atlantic Wire, in commenting on Georgia's actions stated: The Great Georgia-Tennessee Border War of 2013 Is Upon Us Historians, take note: On this day, not a day in 1732, a boundary dispute between two Southern states took a turn for the wet. In a two-page resolution passed overwhelmingly by the state senate, Georgia declared that it, not its neighbor to the north, controls part of the Tennessee River at Nickajack. Georgia doesn't want Nickajack, it wants that water.. The Tennessee River is an important part of the Great Loop, the recreational circumnavigation of Eastern North America by water.
The Tennessee River has been a major highway for riverboats through the south and today they are still found along the river in abundance. Major ports include Guntersville, Chattanooga and Yellow Creek, Muscle Shoals. Navigation has contributed greatly
William C. C. Claiborne
William Charles Cole Claiborne was an American politician, best known as the first non-colonial Governor of Louisiana. He has the distinction of being the youngest Congressman in U. S. history, although reliable sources differ about his age. Claiborne supervised the transfer of Louisiana to U. S. control after the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, governing the "Territory of Orleans" from 1804 through 1812, the year in which Louisiana became a state. He won the first election for Louisiana's state Governor and served through 1816, for a total of thirteen years as Louisiana's executive administrator. New Orleans served as the capital city during both the colonial period and the early statehood period. William C. C. Claiborne was born in Virginia; the date is unknown, but has been variously quoted as being 13 August 1773, or between 23 November 1773 and 23 November 1774, or in August 1775. His parents were Mary Leigh Claiborne, he was a descendant of Colonel William Claiborne, born in Crayford, Kent and settled in the Colony of Virginia.
Claiborne studied at the College of William and Mary Richmond Academy. At the age of 16 he moved to New York City, where he worked as a clerk under John Beckley, the clerk of the United States House of Representatives, seated in that city, he moved to Philadelphia with the Federal Government. He began to study law, moved to Tennessee in 1794 to start a law practice. Governor John Sevier appointed Claiborne to the Tennessee Supreme Court in 1796. In 1797, Claiborne resigned to run for a seat in the U. S. House of Representatives, he won, succeeded Andrew Jackson, though he was not yet twenty-five years of age as required by the United States Constitution. Earlier in 1797, he described his age to George Washington vaguely: "Born Sir at a period, when every American Breast palpitated for freedom, I became early attached to civil Liberty...."Claiborne took his seat in the House on November 23, 1797. State records indicate that, when he took his seat, he was 24. Other sources speculate he was 22, his gravestone says he was 23.
Claiborne served in the House through 1801. The United States presidential election of 1800 was decided in the House of Representatives, due to a tie in the Electoral College, by which time Claiborne had turned 25 years old. Claiborne was appointed governor and superintendent of Indian affairs in the Mississippi Territory, from 1801 through 1803. Although he favored acquiring some land from the Choctaw and Chickasaw, Claiborne was sympathetic and conciliatory toward Indians, he worked long and patiently to iron out differences that arose, to improve the material well-being of the Indians. Claiborne was partly successful in promoting the establishment of law and order, in the region. From 1803-1804, he offered a two-thousand dollar reward, to eliminate and for all, a gang of outlaws headed by the notorious Samuel Mason, his position on issues indicated a national rather than regional outlook, though he did not ignore his constituents. Claiborne expressed the philosophy of the Republican Party and helped that party defeat the Federalists.
When a smallpox epidemic broke out in the spring of 1802, Claiborne's actions resulted in the first recorded mass vaccination in the territory and saved Natchez from the disease. Claiborne moved to New Orleans and oversaw the transfer of Louisiana to U. S. control after the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. Local French and Spanish inhabitants saw it for what it was, i.e. a military occupation which they resented, quoting in their remonstrances and meetings that they were no more than conquered subjects who had not been consulted. He governed what would become the state of Louisiana termed the "Territory of Orleans", during its period as a United States territory from 1804 until 1812. Relations with Louisiana's Créole population were rather strained: Claiborne was young and unsure of himself, at the time of his arrival spoke no French; the white elite were alarmed when Claiborne retained the services of free people of color in the militia, who had served with considerable distinction during the preceding forty-year Spanish rule.
Claiborne bestowed a ceremonial flag and'colors' on the battalion, an act which would enmesh him in a duel three years later. It was held in then-Spanish territory, near the current Houmas House plantation, with his arch-enemy Daniel Clark. On June 8, 1807, the Governor was shot with the bullet lodging in the other leg. Claiborne gained the confidence of the French elite and oversaw the taking in of Francophone refugees from the Haitian Revolution. An event, now said to have been the largest slave revolt in U. S. history, the 1811 German Coast Uprising, occurred. However, the American government, over which he presided, had little participation in its suppression; the parish courts, dominated by wealthy planters, imposed quick convictions and sentencing of those black slaves who survived the fighting. Federal military forces arrived too late to either capture the slave rebels or prevent what amounted to their slaughter at the hands of the local militia, i.e. the powerful white planters along the Mississippi River.
Claiborne himself wrote at least twice to parish officials requesting that they refer cases to him for executive pardon or clemency, rather than accept the wholesale death sentences which were being handed out in Orleans Parish, as well as in St. Charles Parish and St. John the Baptist Parish; the only known beneficiaries of his pardon were two men named Henry.
James Wilkinson was an American soldier and statesman, associated with several scandals and controversies. He served in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, but he was twice compelled to resign, he was twice the Senior Officer of the U. S. Army, appointed to be the first Governor of the Louisiana Territory in 1805, commanded two unsuccessful campaigns in the St. Lawrence River theater during the War of 1812, he died. In 1854, following extensive archival research in Madrid, Louisiana historian Charles Gayarré exposed General James Wilkinson as having been a paid spy in the service of the Spanish Empire. In the years since Gayarré's research became public, General James Wilkinson has been savagely condemned by American historians and politicians. According to President Theodore Roosevelt, "n all our history, there is no more despicable character." James Wilkinson was born about three miles northeast of Benedict, Charles County, Maryland, on a farm south of Hunting Creek. His grandfather had been sufficiently wealthy to buy a large property known as Stoakley Manor in Calvert County.
The family felt that, although their property was smaller, they still belonged to a higher social class. According to historian Andro Linklater, James grew up with the idea that "the image of respectability excused the reality of betrayal", his father, Joseph Wilkinson, inherited the property but, by that time, the family was in debt. In 1764, Stoakley Manor was sold, his older brother, inherited the property after his father died and, as the second son, James was left with nothing. Linklater argued that his upbringing led to James' aggressive reaction towards insults of his behavior, his father had left with the last words of "My son, if you put up with an insult, I will disinherit you." Wilkinson received his early education from a private tutor, funded by his grandmother. Wilkinson married Ann Biddle of the prominent Biddle family of Philadelphia on November 12, 1778 in Philadelphia, she was a first cousin of Charles Biddle, an associate of Aaron Burr, Wilkinson's marriage to the dynamic Biddle helped his career as a politician and general.
She died on February 23, 1807. The couple had four sons: John, James Biddle, Joseph Biddle, Walter. James and Walter both served as Captains in the US Army. After Ann's death, James Wilkinson married Celestine Laveau Trudeau, daughter of Charles Laveau Trudeau, on March 5, 1810, with whom he had three children: twin girls Stephanie and Theofannie and a son Theodore, born 1819. Theofannie died as a child in early 1822. Wilkinson first served in Thompson's Pennsylvania rifle battalion, 1775–76, was commissioned a captain in September 1775, he served as an aide to Nathanael Greene during the Siege of Boston, participated in the placing of guns on the Dorchester Heights in March 1776, following the British abandonment of Boston, went with the rest of the Continental Army to New York where he left Greene's staff and was given command of an infantry company. Sent to Canada as part of the reinforcements for Benedict Arnold's army besieging Quebec, he arrived just in time to witness the arrival of 8,000 British reinforcements under General John Burgoyne – which precipitated the collapse of the American effort in Canada.
He became aide to Arnold just prior to the final retreat and left Canada with Arnold on the last boat out. Shortly thereafter, he left Arnold's service and became an aide to General Horatio Gates in August 1776; when Gates sent him to Congress with official dispatches about the victory at the Battle of Saratoga in 1777, Wilkinson kept Congress waiting while he attended to personal affairs. When he showed up, he embellished his own role in the victory, was brevetted as a brigadier general on November 6, 1777, appointed to the newly created Board of War; the promotion over more senior colonels caused an uproar among Continental officers because Wilkinson's gossiping seemed to indicate he was a participant in the Conway Cabal, a conspiracy to replace George Washington with Horatio Gates as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army. Gates soon had enough of Wilkinson, the young officer was compelled to resign in March 1778. On July 29, 1779, Congress appointed him clothier-general of the Army, but he resigned on March 27, 1781, due to his "lack of aptitude for the job".
After his resignation from the Continental Army, Wilkinson reluctantly became a brigadier general in the Pennsylvania militia in 1782 and a state assemblyman in 1783, due to the wishes of George Washington. He moved to Kentucky in 1784, he was active there in efforts to achieve independence from Virginia. In April 1787, Wilkinson made a controversial trip to New Orleans, the capital of Spanish colonial Louisiana. At that time, Americans were allowed to trade on the Mississippi River, but they had to pay a hefty tariff. Wilkinson met with Spanish Governor Esteban Rodríguez Miró and managed to convince him to allow Kentucky to have a trading monopoly on the River. On August 22, 1787, Wilkinson signed an expatriation declaration and swore allegiance to the King of Spain to satisfy his own commercial needs; the "Spanish Conspiracy", as it is known, was initiated by Wilkinson's "First Memorial", a 7,500-word report written before he left New Orleans for Charleston, to the Spanish concerning the "political future of western
John Adams was an American statesman, diplomat and Founding Father who served as the second president of the United States from 1797 to 1801. Before his presidency he was a leader of the American Revolution that achieved independence from Great Britain, served as the first vice president of the United States. Adams was a dedicated diarist and corresponded with many important figures in early American history including his wife and adviser and his letters and other papers are an important source of historical information about the era. A lawyer and political activist prior to the revolution, Adams was devoted to the right to counsel and presumption of innocence, he defied anti-British sentiment and defended British soldiers against murder charges arising from the Boston Massacre. Adams was a Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress and became a principal leader of the Revolution, he assisted in drafting the Declaration of Independence in 1776 and was its foremost advocate in Congress.
As a diplomat in Europe, he helped negotiate the peace treaty with Great Britain and secured vital governmental loans. Adams was the primary author of the Massachusetts Constitution in 1780, which influenced the United States' own constitution, as did his earlier Thoughts on Government. Adams was elected to two terms as vice president under President George Washington and was elected as the United States' second president in 1796. During his single term, Adams encountered fierce criticism from the Jeffersonian Republicans and from some in his own Federalist Party, led by his rival Alexander Hamilton. Adams signed the controversial Alien and Sedition Acts and built up the Army and Navy in the undeclared "Quasi-War" with France; the main accomplishment of his presidency was a peaceful resolution of this conflict in the face of public anger and Hamilton's opposition. During his term, he became the first president to reside in the executive mansion now known as the White House. In his bid for reelection, opposition from Federalists and accusations of despotism from Republicans led to Adams's loss to his former friend Thomas Jefferson, he retired to Massachusetts.
He resumed his friendship with Jefferson by initiating a correspondence that lasted fourteen years. He and his wife generated a family of politicians and historians now referred to as the Adams political family, which includes their son John Quincy Adams, the sixth president of the United States. John Adams died on the fiftieth anniversary of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence, hours after Jefferson's death. Surveys of historians and scholars have favorably ranked his administration. John Adams was born on October 1735 to John Adams Sr. and Susanna Boylston. He had two younger brothers and Elihu. Adams was born on the family farm in Massachusetts, his mother was from a leading medical family of Massachusetts. His father was a deacon in the Congregational Church, a farmer, a cordwainer, a lieutenant in the militia. John Sr. supervised the building of schools and roads. Adams praised his father and recalled their close relationship. Adams's great-grandfather Henry Adams emigrated to Massachusetts from Braintree, England around 1638.
Though raised in modest surroundings, Adams felt pressured to live up to his heritage. His was a family of Puritans, who profoundly affected their region's culture and traditions. By the time of John Adams's birth, Puritan tenets such as predestination had waned and many of their severe practices moderated, but Adams still "considered them bearers of freedom, a cause that still had a holy urgency." Adams recalled that his parents "held every Species of Libertinage in... Contempt and horror," and detailed "pictures of disgrace, or baseness and of Ruin" resulting from any debauchery. Adams noted that "As a child I enjoyed the greatest of blessings that can be bestowed upon men – that of a mother, anxious and capable to form the characters of her children."Adams, as the eldest child, was compelled to obtain a formal education. This began at age six at a dame school for boys and girls, conducted at a teacher's home, was centred upon The New England Primer. Shortly thereafter, Adams attended Braintree Latin School under Joseph Cleverly, where studies included Latin, rhetoric and arithmetic.
Adams's early education included incidents of truancy, a dislike for his master, a desire to become a farmer. All discussion on the matter ended with his father's command that he remain in school: "You shall comply with my desires." Deacon Adams hired a new schoolmaster named Joseph Marsh, his son responded positively. At age sixteen, Adams entered Harvard College in 1751; as an adult, Adams was a keen scholar, studying the works of ancient writers such as Thucydides, Plato and Tacitus in their original languages. Though his father expected him to be a minister, after his 1755 graduation with an A. B. degree, he taught school while pondering his permanent vocation. In the next four years, he began to seek prestige, craving "Honour or Reputation" and "more defference from fellows", was determined to be "a great Man." He decided to become a lawyer to further those ends, writing his father that he found among lawyers "noble and gallant achievements" but, among the clergy, the "pretended sanctity of some absolute dunces."
His aspirations conflicted with his Puritanism, prompting reservations about his self-described "trumpery" and failure to share the "happiness of fellow men."As the French and Indian War began in 1754, Ada
Tennessee is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee is the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee is bordered by Kentucky to the north, Virginia to the northeast, North Carolina to the east, Georgia and Mississippi to the south, Arkansas to the west, Missouri to the northwest; the Appalachian Mountains dominate the eastern part of the state, the Mississippi River forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a 2017 population of 667,560. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which had a population of 652,236 in 2017; the state of Tennessee is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians. What is now Tennessee was part of North Carolina, part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.
Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war. Tennessee furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined. Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting; this reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century. In the 20th century, Tennessee transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge; this city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan near the end of World War II.
Tennessee's major industries include agriculture and tourism. Poultry and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products, major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, electrical equipment; the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, a section of the Appalachian Trail follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border. Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium in Chattanooga; the earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee town named Tanasi in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee; the town was located on a river of the same name, appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.
The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest, it has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend". According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost; the modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina created "Tennessee County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee; when a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Tennessee is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812 because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee during the Battle of New Orleans.
Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname. This explanation is more because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican–American War resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee alone in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee Governor and Texas politician, Sam Houston. Tennessee borders eight other states: Virginia to the north. Tennessee is tied with Missouri as the state bordering the most other states; the state is trisected by the Tennessee River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome at 6,643 feet (
Perdido River Rio Perdido, is a 65.4-mile-long river in the U. S. states of Florida. During the early 19th century it played a central role in a series of rotating boundary changes and disputes among France, Great Britain, the United States, it rises in southwestern Alabama in Escambia County 8 miles northwest of Atmore. It flows south 5 miles to latitude 31°N, south of which it forms the remainder of the Alabama/Florida border, it flows east-southeast in a winding course and enters the north end of Perdido Bay on the Gulf of Mexico 10 miles west of Pensacola. The word "perdido" is Spanish for "lost". From 1682 to 1763, the Perdido formed the boundary between the French colony of Louisiana and the Spanish colony of Florida. Following the British victory over the French in the French and Indian War, Great Britain received the French colonial territory between the Mississippi River and the Perdido River, as well as the Spanish colony of Florida, while Spain received the French territory west of the Mississippi, plus the city of New Orleans.
The British divided their newly acquired colony into West Florida and East Florida at the Apalachicola River. Twenty years as part of the Treaty of Paris, Britain returned all of Florida to Spain, at which point Spain controlled the entire coast of the Gulf of Mexico. In 1800, as part of the Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain returned the Louisiana colony to France, retaining control of the lands east of the Mississippi River. In 1803, France sold Louisiana to the United States in the Louisiana Purchase. A boundary dispute erupted between the U. S. and Spain, with the U. S. claiming the land west of the Perdido River as part of the original Louisiana colony, whereas the Spanish claimed that only the portion of Louisiana west of the Mississippi River had been returned to France. The Gulf coast south of 31 degrees latitude, between the Mississippi and Perdido rivers, remained disputed between the two nations. In 1810, the Republic of West Florida declared its independence from a weakened Spain. Ninety days U.
S. military forces entered its capital and annexed the short-lived nation. However, this action did not extend all the way to the Perdido River. During the War of 1812, U. S. military forces entered Mobile to enforce the surrender of the Spanish officials there. A year or so U. S. garrisons were defending Gulf coast forts against British naval attacks and attempting to stop the British Army from capturing New Orleans. This coastal area, the land west of the Perdido River, was incorporated into the Mississippi Territory by the United States. In 1817 the Alabama Territory was carved out of the eastern half of the Mississippi Territory; the dispute with Spain was resolved in 1819 with the Adams-Onís Treaty, in which Spain ceded all of Florida to the United States. The treaty wasn't ratified by the Spanish government until a couple of years later. In 1822 the Florida Territory was established, with the Perdido River as the boundary between it and the new state of Alabama. U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Perdido River Perdido River Watershed - Florida DEP