Anheuser-Busch Brewery is a brewery complex in St. Louis, Missouri; the brewery, opened in 1852 by German immigrant Adolphus Busch, is designated as a National Historic Landmark District. Free public tours of the brewery are given; the tour takes visitors through the complex, those of the legal age can enjoy two free glasses of any Anheuser-Busch product in the Hospitality Room after the tour. Tourists can see beer being packaged in a working part of the brewery; the company keeps a rotation of its famous Budweiser Clydesdales at its headquarters. Visitors to the brewery can observe the Clydesdales in their exercise field and see their places in the carriage house; some of the herd is kept at the company farm in St. Louis County. Known as Grant's Farm, this complex is home to a menagerie of animals such as elephants, a variety of exotic hooved mammals. Since 2008 half of the Budweiser Clydesdales are kept at the Warm Springs Ranch near Booneville, Missouri; the brewery was designated a U. S. National Historic Landmark in 1966, recognizing the company's importance in the history of beer brewing and distribution in the United States.
The landmarked area includes 189 structures spread over 142 acres, including many red brick Romanesque ones "with square crenelated towers and elaborate details." The Brew House, built in 1891-1892, is notable for its "multi-storied hop chandeliers, intricate iron-work, utilization of natural light". List of National Historic Landmarks in Missouri National Register of Historic Places listings in St. Louis south and west of downtown Anheuser Busch Brewery Tour Official Website Anheuser Busch Brewery Tour Photo Gallery
Missouri Historical Society
The Missouri Historical Society was founded in St. Louis on August 11, 1866. Founding members created the historical society "for the purpose of saving from oblivion the early history of the city and state." The Missouri Historical Society operates the Missouri History Museum in St. Louis' Forest Park, as well as the Library and Research Center. Admission to the museum and library are free to the public. There is a fee for special museum exhibitions; the Library and Research Center houses a regional history collection documenting St. Louis, the Mississippi and Missouri Valleys, the Louisiana Purchase Territory, the American West; the Library and Research Center collections include: Library Collections Manuscript Collections Photographs and Prints Architecture Collections Broadcast Media Archives Museum CollectionsNo appointment is needed to view the library and manuscript collections, but might be needed for other collections. Among its unique collections are the 301 freedom suits of the 19th-century St. Louis Circuit Court Records, the largest group of such case files in the country.
These have been scanned into a searchable database, online for researchers. They document the slaves' petitions for freedom under state law before the American Civil War; the research library is housed in a historic 1927 Byzantine revival synagogue building erected by the United Hebrew Congregation on Skinker Boulevard. The Missouri Historical Society offers programs and outreach services, including traveling exhibitions, tours and musical presentations, programs for school classes and youth groups, family festivals, special events and lectures. In 1952, the Missouri Historical Society was involved in efforts to lobby the U. S. government to create commemorative coins for the 150th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase. The Missouri Historical Society website Digitized copy of The Universal Exposition of 1904 by David R. Francis Lewis and Clark: The National Bicentennial Exhibit The 1904 World's Fair: Looking Back at Looking Forward
Louisiana Purchase Exposition
The Louisiana Purchase Exposition, informally known as the St. Louis World's Fair, was an international exposition held in St. Louis, United States, from April 30 to December 1, 1904. Local and federal funds totaling $15 million were used to finance the event. More than 60 countries and 43 of the 45 American states maintained exhibition spaces at the fair, attended by nearly 19.7 million people. Historians emphasize the prominence of themes of race and empire, the fair's long-lasting impact on intellectuals in the fields of history, art history and anthropology. From the point of view of the memory of the average person who attended the fair, it promoted entertainment, consumer goods and popular culture. In 1904, St. Louis hosted a World's Fair to celebrate the centennial of the 1803 Louisiana Purchase; the idea for such a commemorative event seems to have emerged early in 1898, with Kansas City and St. Louis presented as potential hosts for a fair based on their central location within the territory encompassed by the 1803 land annexation.
The exhibition was grand in scale and lengthy in preparation, with an initial $5 million committed by the city of St. Louis through the sale of city bonds was authorized by the Missouri state legislature in April 1899. An additional $5 million was generated through private donations by interested citizens and businesses from around Missouri, a fundraising target reached in January 1901; the final installment of $5 million of the exposition's $15 million capitalization came in the form of earmarked funds that were part of a congressional appropriations bill passed at the end of May 1900. The fundraising mission was aided by the active support of President of the United States William McKinley, won by organizers in a February 1899 White House visit. While conceived as a centennial celebration to be held in 1903, the actual opening of the St. Louis exposition was delayed until April 30, 1904, to allow for full-scale participation by more states and foreign countries; the exposition remained in operation from its opening until December 1, 1904.
During the year of the fair, the Louisiana Purchase Exposition supplanted the annual St. Louis Exposition of agricultural and scientific exhibitions, held in the city since the 1880s; the fair's 1,200-acre site, designed by George Kessler, was located at the present-day grounds of Forest Park and on the campus of Washington University, was the largest fair to date. There were over 1,500 buildings, connected by some 75 miles of walkways, it was said to be impossible to give a hurried glance at everything in less than a week. The Palace of Agriculture alone covered some 20 acres. Exhibits were staged by 50 foreign nations, the United States government, 43 of the then-45 U. S. states. These featured industries, private organizations and corporations, theater troupes, music schools. There were over 50 concession-type amusements found on "The Pike". Over 19 million individuals were in attendance at the fair. In conjunction with the Exposition the U. S. Post Office issued a series of five commemorative stamps celebrating the 100th anniversary of the Louisiana Purchase.
The 1-cent value portrayed Robert Livingston, the ambassador who negotiated the purchase with France, the 2-cent value depicts Thomas Jefferson, who executed the purchase, the 3-cent honors James Monroe, who participated in negotiations with the French, the 5-cent memorializes William McKinley, involved with early plans for the Exposition and the 10-cent presents a map of the Louisiana Purchase. Louisiana Purchase Commemoratives Kessler, who designed many urban parks in Texas and the Midwest, created the master design for the Fair. A popular myth says that Frederick Law Olmsted, who had died the year before the Fair, designed the park and fair grounds. There are several reasons for this confusion. First, Kessler in his twenties had worked for Olmsted as a Central Park gardener. Second, Olmsted was involved with Forest Park in New York. Third, Olmsted had planned the renovations in 1897 to the Missouri Botanical Garden several blocks to the southeast of the park. Olmsted's sons advised Washington University on integrating the campus with the park across the street.
In 1901 the Louisiana Purchase Exposition Corporation selected prominent St. Louis architect Isaac S. Taylor as the Chairman of the Architectural Commission and Director of Works for the fair, supervising the overall design and construction. Taylor appointed Emmanuel Louis Masqueray to be his Chief of Design. In the position for three years, Masqueray designed the following Fair buildings: Palace of Agriculture, the Cascades and Colonnades, Palace of Forestry and Game, Palace of Horticulture and Palace of Transportation, all of which were emulated in civic projects across the United States as part of the City Beautiful movement. Masqueray resigned shortly after the Fair opened in 1904, having been invited by Archbishop John Ireland of St. Paul, Minnesota to design a new cathedral for the city. Paul J. Pelz was architect for the Palace of Machinery. According to a claim in a 1923 edition of The Colored Citizen of Pensacola, the majority of work in building the fair was done by African Americans, including all the engineering calculations for the layout of the park.
Many African Americans were not credited. Florence Hayward, a successful freelance writer in St. Lo
Saint Louis Art Museum
The Saint Louis Art Museum is one of the principal U. S. art museums, with paintings, cultural objects, ancient masterpieces from all corners of the world. Its three-story building stands in Forest Park in St. Louis, where it is visited by up to a half million people every year. Admission is free through a subsidy from the cultural tax district for County. In addition to the featured exhibitions, the museum offers rotating installations; these include the Currents series, which features contemporary artists, as well as regular exhibitions of new media art and works on paper. The museum was founded in 1879 as the Saint Louis School and Museum of Fine Arts, an independent entity within Washington University in St. Louis, housed in a downtown building; the building was built by Wayman Crow as a memorial to honor his son, Wayman Crow Jr. Crow employed Boston architects Peabody & Stearns to design the building located at 19th and Lucas Place; the school, led by directory Halsey C. Ives, educated two generations of St. Louis artists and craftspeople and offered studio and art history classes supported by a museum collection.
After the school moved to Washington University's campus and the museum moved to Forest Park, the building fell into disrepair and was demolished in 1919. The museum moved after the 1904 World's Fair known as the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to the Palace of Fine Arts, built for the fair from 1902 to 1903; the building was designed by architect Cass Gilbert, who took inspiration from the Baths of Caracalla in Rome, Italy. The Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum remained part of Washington University, the collection was lent to the Saint Louis Art Museum for several years. In 1908, the museum's first director, Halsey Cooley Ives, arranged for a municipal tax to support the museum; the following year, the museum separated from Washington University and was renamed the City Art Museum. An organizing board was assigned to take control in 1912. During the 1950s, the museum added an extension to include an auditorium for films and lectures. In 1971, efforts to secure the museum's financial future led voters in St. Louis City and County to approve the creation of the Metropolitan Zoological Park and Museum District.
This expanded the tax base for the 1908 tax to include St. Louis County. In 1972, the museum was again renamed, to the Saint Louis Art Museum. Today, the museum is supported financially by the tax, donations from individuals and public associations, sales in the Museum Shop, foundation support. Plans to expand the museum, which existed in the 1995 Forest Park Master Plan and the museum's 2000 Strategic Plan, began in earnest in 2005, when the museum board selected the British architect Sir David Chipperfield to design the expansion; the St. Louis-based firm, Hellmuth and Kassabaum was the architect of record to work with the construction team. On November 5, 2007, museum officials released the design plans to the public and hosted public conversations about those plans. A model of the new building was displayed in the museum's Sculpture Hall throughout the construction project. In 2008, citing the declining state of the economy, the museum announced that it would delay the start of the expansion, whose cost was estimated at $125 million.
Construction began in 2009. The expansion added more than 224,000 square feet of gallery space, including an underground garage, within the lease lines of the property. Money for the project was raised through private gifts to the capital campaign from individuals and corporations, from proceeds from the sale of tax-exempt bonds; the fundraising campaigned covered the $130-million cost of construction and a $31.2 million increase to the museum's endowment to support incremental costs of operating the larger facility. The expanded facility opened in the summer of 2013; the collection of the Saint Louis Art Museum contains more than 30,000 art works dating from antiquity to the present. The collection is divided into eleven areas: African American Ancient and Islamic Asian Contemporary Decorative Arts and Design European Modern Oceanic Mesoamerican and American Indian Prints and PhotographsThe modern art collection includes works by the European masters Matisse, Monet, Giambattista Pittoni and Van Gogh.
The museum's strong collection of 20th-century German paintings includes the world's largest Max Beckmann collection, which includes Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery. In recent years, the museum has been acquiring post-war German art to complement its Beckmanns, such as works by Joseph Beuys, Gerhard Richter, Martin Kippenberger and others; the collection includes Chuck Close's Keith. The collections of Oceanic and Mesoamerican works, as well as handwoven Turkish rugs, are among the finest in the world; the museum holds the Egyptian mummy Amen-Nestawy-Nakht, two mummies on loan from Washington University. Its collection of American artists includes the largest U. S.-museum collection of paintings by George Caleb Bingham. The collection contains at least six pieces that Nazis confiscated from their own museums as degenerate; these include Max Beckmann’s “Christ and the Woman Taken in Adultery” which came to the museum through a New York art dealer, Curt Valentin, who specialized in Nazi confiscations, Matisse's “Bathers with a Turtle” which Joseph Pulitzer purchased at the Galerie Fischer auction held in the Grand Hôtel National, Switzerland, June 30, 1939.
In the context of the museum's 2013 expansion, British artist Andy Goldsworthy created Stone Sea, a site-specific work for a narrow space between the old and
Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990
The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 is a civil rights law that prohibits discrimination based on disability. It affords similar protections against discrimination to Americans with disabilities as the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which made discrimination based on race, sex, national origin, other characteristics illegal. In addition, unlike the Civil Rights Act, the ADA requires covered employers to provide reasonable accommodations to employees with disabilities, imposes accessibility requirements on public accommodations. In 1986, the National Council on Disability had recommended enactment of an Americans with Disabilities Act and drafted the first version of the bill, introduced in the House and Senate in 1988; the final version of the bill was signed into law on July 1990, by President George H. W. Bush, it was amended in 2008 and signed by President George W. Bush with changes effective as of January 1, 2009. ADA disabilities include both physical medical conditions. A condition does not need to be permanent to be a disability.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission regulations provide a list of conditions that should be concluded to be disabilities: deafness, blindness, an intellectual disability or missing limbs or mobility impairments requiring the use of a wheelchair, cancer, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection, multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, schizophrenia. Other mental or physical health conditions may be disabilities, depending on what the individual's symptoms would be in the absence of "mitigating measures", during an "active episode" of the condition. Certain specific conditions that are considered anti-social, or tend to result in illegal activity, such as kleptomania, exhibitionism, etc. are excluded under the definition of "disability" in order to prevent abuse of the statute's purpose. Additionally, other specific conditions, such as gender identity disorders, are excluded under the definition of "disability".
See US labor law and 42 U. S. C. §§ 12111–12117. The ADA states that a "covered entity" shall not discriminate against "a qualified individual with a disability"; this applies to job application procedures, hiring and discharge of employees, job training, other terms and privileges of employment. "Covered entities" include employers with 15 or more employees, as well as employment agencies, labor organizations, joint labor-management committees. There are strict limitations on when a covered entity can ask job applicants or employees disability-related questions or require them to undergo medical examination, all medical information must be kept confidential. Prohibited discrimination may include, among other things, firing or refusing to hire someone based on a real or perceived disability and harassment based on a disability. Covered entities are required to provide reasonable accommodations to job applicants and employees with disabilities. A reasonable accommodation is a change in the way things are done that the person needs because of a disability, can include, among other things, special equipment that allows the person to perform the job, scheduling changes, changes to the way work assignments are chosen or communicated.
An employer is not required to provide an accommodation that would involve undue hardship, the individual who receives the accommodation must still perform the essential functions of the job and meet the normal performance requirements. An employee or applicant who engages in the illegal use of drugs is not considered qualified when a covered entity takes adverse action based on such use. There are many ways to discriminate against people based on disabilities, including psychological ones. Anyone known to have a history of mental disorders can be considered disabled. Employers with more than 15 employees must take care to treat all employees and with any accommodations needed; when an employee is doing a job exceptionally well, she or he is not no longer disabled. Part of Title I was found unconstitutional by the United States Supreme Court as it pertains to states in the case of Board of Trustees of the University of Alabama v. Garrett as violating the sovereign immunity rights of the several states as specified by the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution.
The Court determined. State employees can, file complaints at the Department of Justice or the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, who can sue on their behalf. Title II prohibits disability discrimination by all public entities at the local level, e.g. school district, city, or county, at state level. Public entities must comply with Title II regulations by the U. S. Department of Justice; these regulations cover access to all services offered by the entity. Access includes physical access described in the ADA Standards for Accessible Design and programmatic access that might be obstructed by discriminatory policies or procedures of the entity. Title II applies to public transportation provided by public entities through regulations by the U. S. Department of Transportation, it includes the National Railroad Passenger Corporation, along with all other commuter au
The Gateway Arch is a 630-foot monument in St. Louis, United States. Clad in stainless steel and built in the form of a weighted catenary arch, it is the world's tallest arch, the tallest man-made monument in the Western Hemisphere, Missouri's tallest accessible building. Built as a monument to the westward expansion of the United States, dedicated to "the American people," the Arch referred to as "The Gateway to the West" is the centerpiece of Gateway Arch National Park and has become an internationally recognized symbol of St. Louis, as well as a popular tourist destination; the Arch was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen in 1947. The monument opened to the public on June 10, 1967, it is located at the site of St. Louis's founding on the west bank of the Mississippi River. Around late 1933, civic leader Luther Ely Smith, returning to St. Louis from the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park in Vincennes, saw the St. Louis riverfront area and envisioned that building a memorial there would both revive the riverfront and stimulate the economy He communicated his idea to mayor Bernard Dickmann, who on December 15, 1933, raised it in a meeting with city leaders.
They sanctioned the proposal, the nonprofit Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Association was formed. Smith was appointed chairman and Dickmann vice chairman; the association's goal was to create: A suitable and permanent public memorial to the men who made possible the western territorial expansion of the United States President Jefferson, his aides Livingston and Monroe, the great explorers and Clark, the hardy hunters, trappers and pioneers who contributed to the territorial expansion and development of these United States, thereby to bring before the public of this and future generations the history of our development and induce familiarity with the patriotic accomplishments of these great builders of our country. Many locals did not approve of depleting public funds for the cause. Smith's daughter SaLees related that when "people would tell him we needed more practical things", he would respond that "spiritual things" were important; the association expected that $30 million would be needed to undertake the construction of such a monument.
It called upon the federal government to foot three-quarters of the bill. The suggestion to renew the riverfront was not original, as previous projects were attempted but lacked popularity; the Jefferson memorial idea emerged amid the economic disarray of the Great Depression and promised new jobs. The project was expected to create 5,000 jobs for three to four years. Committee members began to raise public awareness by writing pamphlets, they engaged Congress by planning budgets and preparing bills, in addition to researching ownership of the land they had chosen, "approximately one-half mile in length... from Third Street east to the present elevated railroad." In January 1934, Senator Bennett Champ Clark and Representative John Cochran introduced to Congress an appropriation bill seeking $30 million for the memorial, but the bill failed to garner support due to the large amount of money solicited. In March of the same year, joint resolutions proposed the establishment of a federal commission to develop the memorial.
Although the proposal aimed for only authorization, the bill incurred opposition because people suspected that JNEMA would seek appropriation. On March 28 the Senate bill was reported out, on April 5 it was turned over to the House Library Committee, which reported favorably on the bills. On June 8, both the Senate and House bills were passed. On June 15, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the bill into law, instituting the United States Territorial Expansion Memorial Commission; the commission comprised 15 members, chosen by Roosevelt, the House, the Senate, JNEMA. It first convened on December 19 in St. Louis, where members examined the project and its planned location. Meanwhile, in December, the JNEMA discussed organizing an architectural competition to determine the design of the monument. Local architect Louis LeBeaume had drawn up competition guidelines by January 1935. On April 13, 1935, the commission certified JNEMA's project proposals, including memorial perimeters, the "historical significance" of the memorial, the competition, the $30 million budget.
Between February and April, the Missouri State Legislature passed an act allowing the use of bonds to facilitate the project. On April 15 Governor Guy B. Park signed it into law. Dickmann and Smith applied for funding from two New Deal agencies—the Public Works Administration and the Works Progress Administration. On August 7, both Ickes and Hopkins assented to the funding requests, each promising $10 million, said that the National Park Service would manage the memorial. A local bond issue election granting $7.5 million for the memorial's development was held on September 10 and passed. On December 21, President Roosevelt signed Executive Order 7253 to approve the memorial, allocating the 82-acre area as the first National Historic Site; the order appropriated $3.3 million through the WPA and $3.45 million through the PWA. The motivation of the project was two-fold—commemorating westward expansion and creating jobs; some taxpayers began to file suits to block the construction of the monument, which they called a "boondoggle".
Using the 1935 grant of $6.75 million and $2.25 million in city bonds, the NPS acquired the buildings withi