Misumenoides formosipes is a species of crab spiders found in the US and Canada. The species' unofficial common name is white banded crab spider, which refers to a white line that runs through the plane of their eyes; this species is a sit-and-wait predator that captures pollinators as they visit the inflorescences on which the spider sits. The spider has strong front legs; the female spider is much larger than the male. The length of females is 5.0–11.3 millimetres and the length of males is 2.5–3.2 mm. The pattern of markings on females is variable and the overall color of the body can change between white and yellow dependent on the color of their surroundings; the color pattern for males, which does not change in their lifetime, differs from females in that the four front legs of males are dark brown and the abdomen is gold. The spider can be found throughout the United States. Males search for sedentary females within a heterogeneous habitat
Misumena vatia is a species of crab spider with holarctic distribution. In North America, where it is the largest and best-known flower spider, it is called the goldenrod crab spider or flower spider, because it is found hunting in goldenrod sprays in the autumn. Young males in the early summer may be quite small and overlooked, but females can grow up to 10 mm; these spiders may be white, depending on the flower in which they are hunting. Younger females, which may hunt on a variety of flowers such as daisies and sunflowers, may change color at will. Older females require large amounts of large prey to produce the best possible clutch of eggs, they are therefore, in North America, most found in goldenrod, a bright yellow flower which attracts large numbers of insects in autumn. It is very hard for a searching human to recognize one of these spiders on a yellow flower; these spiders are sometimes called banana spiders because of their striking yellow color. The much smaller males scamper from flower to flower in search of females and are seen missing one or more of their legs.
This may be due either to near misses to fighting with other males. When a male finds a female, he climbs over her head over her opisthosoma onto her underside, where he inserts his pedipalps to inseminate her; the young spend the winter on the ground. They molt for the last time in May of the next year; because Misumena vatia employs camouflaging, it is able to focus more energy on growth and reproduction rather than finding food and escaping from predators. As in many Thomisidae species, there is a positive correlation between female weight and egg clutch size, or fecundity. Selection for larger female body size thus increases reproductive success; these spiders change color by secreting a liquid yellow pigment into the outer cell layer of the body. On a white base, this pigment is transported into lower layers, so that inner glands, filled with white guanine, become visible; the color similarity between the spider and the flower is well matched with a white flower, in particular the Chaerophyllum temulum, compared to a yellow flower based on the spectral reflectance functions.
If the spider dwells longer on a white plant, the yellow pigment is excreted. It will take the spider much longer to change to yellow, because it will have to produce the yellow pigment first; the color change is induced by visual feedback. The color change from white to yellow takes between the reverse about six days; the yellow pigments have been identified as kynurenine and 3-hydroxykynurenine Active camouflage Camouflage Crab spiders Pictures of M. vatia, BugGuide Pictures of M. vatia Goldenrod crab spider Nature Pictures
Wikispecies is a wiki-based online project supported by the Wikimedia Foundation. Its aim is to create a comprehensive free content catalogue of all species. Jimmy Wales stated that editors are not required to fax in their degrees, but that submissions will have to pass muster with a technical audience. Wikispecies is available under the GNU Free Documentation License and CC BY-SA 3.0. Started in September 2004, with biologists across the world invited to contribute, the project had grown a framework encompassing the Linnaean taxonomy with links to Wikipedia articles on individual species by April 2005. Benedikt Mandl co-ordinated the efforts of several people who are interested in getting involved with the project and contacted potential supporters in early summer 2004. Databases were evaluated and the administrators contacted, some of them have agreed on providing their data for Wikispecies. Mandl defined two major tasks: Figure out how the contents of the data base would need to be presented—by asking experts, potential non-professional users and comparing that with existing databases Figure out how to do the software, which hardware is required and how to cover the costs—by asking experts, looking for fellow volunteers and potential sponsorsAdvantages and disadvantages were discussed by the wikimedia-I mailing list.
The board of directors of the Wikimedia Foundation voted by 4 to 0 in favor of the establishment of a Wikispecies. The project is hosted at species.wikimedia.org. It was merged to a sister project of Wikimedia Foundation on September 14, 2004. On October 10, 2006, the project exceeded 75,000 articles. On May 20, 2007, the project exceeded 100,000 articles with a total of 5,495 registered users. On September 8, 2008, the project exceeded 150,000 articles with a total of 9,224 registered users. On October 23, 2011, the project reached 300,000 articles. On June 16, 2014, the project reached 400,000 articles. On January 7, 2017, the project reached 500,000 articles. On October 30, 2018, the project reached 600,000 articles, a total of 1.12 million pages. Wikispecies comprises taxon pages, additionally pages about synonyms, taxon authorities, taxonomical publications, institutions or repositories holding type specimen. Wikispecies asks users to use images from Wikimedia Commons. Wikispecies does not allow the use of content.
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Skippers are a family, Hesperiidae, of the Lepidoptera. Being diurnal, they are called butterflies, they were placed in a separate superfamily, Hesperioidea. They are named for their darting flight habits. Most have the antenna tip modified into a narrow hook-like projection. More than 3500 species of skippers are recognized, they occur worldwide, but with the greatest diversity in the Neotropical regions of Central and South America. Traditionally, the Hesperiidae were placed in a monotypic superfamily Hesperioidea, because they are morphologically distinct from other Rhopalocera, which belong to the typical butterfly superfamily Papilionoidea; the third and rather small butterfly superfamily is the moth-butterflies which are restricted to the Neotropics. However, recent phylogenetic analyses suggest the traditional Papilionoidea are paraphyletic, thus the subfamilies should be reorganised to reflect true cladistic relationships. Collectively, these three groups of butterflies share many characteristics in the egg and pupal stages.
However, skippers have the antennae clubs hooked backward like a crochet hook, while the typical butterflies have club-like tips to their antennae, moth-butterflies have feathered or pectinate antennae similar to moths. Skippers have stockier bodies and larger compound eyes than the other two groups, with stronger wing muscles in the plump thorax, in this resembling many moths more than the other two butterfly lineages do, but unlike, for example, the Arctiidae, their wings are small in proportion to their bodies. Some have larger wings, but only as large in proportion to the body as in other butterflies; when at rest, skippers keep their wings angled upwards or spread out, only fold them up completely. The wings are well-rounded with more or less sharply-tipped forewings. There are some with prominent hindwing tails, others have more angled wings. Most have a drab coloration of browns and greys. Yellow and blue hues are less found, but some brown species are quite rich-colored too. Green colors and metallic iridescence are absent.
Sexual dichromatism is present in some. Many species of skippers look alike. For example, some species in the genera Amblyscirtes and Hesperia cannot be distinguished in the field by experts; the only reliable method of telling them apart involves dissection and microscopic examination of the genitalia, which have characteristic structures that prevent mating except between conspecifics. There are about 3500 species of skippers, they are now classified in the following subfamilies: Coeliadinae – awls and policemen Euschemoninae – regent skipper Eudaminae – dicot skippers Pyrginae – spread-winged skippers and firetips Heteropterinae – skipperlings Hesperiinae – grass skippers Megathyminae – giant skippers Trapezitinae – Australian skippers Ackery, P. R.. I.: The Butterflies: Hedyloidea and Papilionoidae. In: Kristensen, N. P.: Handbook of Zoology. A Natural History of the phyla of the Animal Kingdom. Volume IV Arthropoda: Insecta, Part 35: Lepidoptera and Butterflies Vol.1: Evolution and Biogeography: 263-300.
Walter de Gruyter, New York. Brower, Andrew V. Z. & Warren, Andrew: Tree of Life Web Project – Hesperiidae. Version of 2008-APR-07. Retrieved 2009-DEC-24. Brower, Andrew V. Z. & Warren, Andrew: The higher classification of the Hesperiidae Full Article. Retrieved 2012-OCT-26. Evans, W. H.: A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. Part I. Pyrrhophyginae. - London, British Museum. 92 pp. + p15. 1-9. Evans, W. H.: A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. Part II. Pyrginae. Section I. - London, British Museum. 178 pp. + pls. 10-25. Evans, W. H.: A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. Part III. Pyrginae. Section II. - London, British Museum. 246 pp. + pls. 26-53. Evans, W. H.: A Catalogue of the Hesperiidae indicating the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum. Part IV. Hesperiinae and Megathyminae. - London, British Museum.
499 pp. + pls. 54-88. Heikkilä, M. Kaila, L. Mutanen, M. Peña, C. & Wahlberg, N.. Cretaceous origin and repeated tertiary diversification of the redefined butterflies. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 279, 1093-1099. Kawahara, A. Y. & Breinholt, J. W.. Phylogenomics provides strong evidence for relationships of moths. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 281, 20140970. Korolev, Vladimir A.: Catalogus on the collection of Lepidoptera. Part I. Hesperiidae. - Moscow, 310 p. ISBN 978-5-00077-066-5. Glassberg, Jeffrey Butterflies through Binoculars, The West Guppy, Crispin S. and Shepard, Jon H. Butterflies of British Columbia James, David G. and Nunnallee, David Life Histories of Cascadia Butterflies Pelham
The Thomisidae are a family of spiders, including about 175 genera and over 2,100 species. The common name crab spider is linked to species in this family, but is applied loosely to many other species of spiders. Among the Thomisidae, "crab spider" refers most to the familiar species of "flower crab spiders", though not all members of the family are limited to ambush hunting in flowers. Rationalisation for the name crab spider is subjective and anecdotal, it is said to refer to a fancied resemblance to crabs, or to the way such spiders hold their two front pairs of legs, or their ability to scuttle sideways or backwards. Some spiders so called angular. At all events, the Thomisidae are the family most referred to as "crab spiders". However, some members of the Sparassidae are called "giant crab spiders", the Selenopidae are called "wall crab spiders", various members of the Sicariidae are sometimes called "six-eyed crab spiders"; some unrelated orb-weaver spider species such as Gasteracantha cancriformis are called "crab spiders".
Such names are of little biological significance, the following emphasis is on the Thomisidae. Thomisidae do not build webs to trap prey, though all of them produce silk for drop lines and sundry reproductive purposes; some species sit beside flowers or fruit, where they grab visiting insects. Individuals of some species, such as Misumena vatia, are able to change color over a period of some days, to match the flower on which they are sitting; some species frequent promising positions among leaves or bark, where they await prey, some of them sit in the open, where they are startlingly good mimics of bird droppings. However, these members of the family Thomisidae are not to be confused with the spiders that are called bird-dropping spiders, not all of which are close relatives of crab spiders. Other species of crab spiders with flattened bodies either hunt in the crevices of tree trunks or under loose bark, or shelter under such crevices by day, come out at night to hunt. Members of the genus Xysticus hunt in the leaf litter on the ground.
In each case, crab spiders use their powerful front legs to grab and hold on to prey while paralysing it with a venomous bite. The spider family Aphantochilidae was incorporated into the Thomisidae in the late 1980s. Aphantochilus species mimic Cephalotes ants; the spiders of Thomisidae are not known to be harmful to humans. However, spiders of an unrelated genus, which are sometimes referred to as "crab spiders", or "six-eyed crab spiders", are close cousins to the recluse spiders, are venomous, though human bites are rare. Several different types of sexual dimorphism have been recorded in crab spiders; some species exhibit color dimorphisms. In some species, this is small. In other cases, the difference is extreme. Several hypothesized explanations are given for the evolution of sexual size dimorphisms in the Thomisidae and other sister taxa; the most acknowledged hypothesis for female growth is the fecundity hypothesis: selection favors larger females so they can produce more eggs and healthier offspring.
Because males do not carry and lay eggs, a growth in size does not confer a fitness advantage. However, sexual size dimorphism may be a result of male dwarfism; the gravity hypothesis states that the smaller size allows the male to travel with greater ease, providing him with an increased opportunity to find mates. Females are comparatively stationary and a smaller size provides them no additional benefit. Other hypotheses propose that sexual size dimorphism evolved by chance, no selective advantage exists to larger females or smaller males. List of Thomisidae species Spider families Biolib family Thomisidae Crab Spider Misumenoides formocipes diagnostic photos Crab Spider Xysticus sp. photos and information Tmarus angulatus guarding her eggs Picture of Amyciaea albomaculata Photos of American Crab Spiders Photos and Info on Australian Crab Spiders Kentucky Crab Spiders Photos and Information Picture of Stephanopis championi Pictures of crab spiders Photos of Crab Spiders hosted by University of California, Berkeley
Solidago called goldenrods, is a genus of about 100 to 120 species of flowering plants in the aster family, Asteraceae. Most are herbaceous perennial species found in open areas such as meadows and savannas, they are native to North America, including Mexico. Some American species have been introduced into Europe and other parts of the world. Solidago species are perennials growing from woody rhizomes, their stems ranges from decumbent to ascending or erect, with a range of heights going from 5 cm to over a meter. Most species are unbranched. Both stems vary from glabrous to various forms of pubescence. In some species, the basal leaves are shed before flowering; the leaf margins are most entire, but display heavier serration. Some leaves may display trinerved venation rather than the pinnate venation usual across Asteraceae; the flower heads are of the radiate type but sometimes discoid. Only ray florets are female, others are hermaphroditic or entire sterile. Head involucres are campanulate to attenuate.
Floret corollas are yellow, but white in the ray florets of a few species. Heads include between 2 and 35 disc florets, but in some species this may go up to 60. Filaments are inserted closer to the base of the corolla than its middle. Numerous heads are grouped in complex compound inflorescences where heads are arranged in multiple racemes, corymbs, or secund arrays. Solidago cypselae are narrowly obconic to cylindrical in shape, they are sometimes somewhat compressed, they have eight to 10 ribs and are hairless or moderately hispid. The Pappus is big with barbellate bristles; the many goldenrod species can be difficult to distinguish, due to their similar bright, golden-yellow flower heads that bloom in late summer. Propagation is by wind-disseminated seeds or by spreading underground rhizomes which can form colonies of vegetative clones of a single plant, they are short-day plants and bloom in late summer and early fall. Some species produce abundant nectar when moisture is plentiful, or when the weather is warm and sunny.
Young goldenrod leaves are edible. Native Americans used the seeds of some species for food. Herbal teas are sometimes made with goldenrod. Goldenrod is inaccurately said to cause hay fever in humans; the pollen causing this allergic reaction is produced by ragweed, blooming at the same time as the goldenrod and pollinated by wind. Goldenrod pollen is too heavy and sticky to be blown far from the flowers, is pollinated by insects. Frequent handling of goldenrod and other flowers, can cause allergic reactions, sometimes irritating enough to force florists to change occupation. Goldenrods are attractive sources of nectar for bees, flies and butterflies. Honey from goldenrods is dark and strong because of admixtures of other nectars. However, when honey flow is strong, a light, spicy-tasting monofloral honey is produced. While the bees are ripening the honey produced from goldenrods, it has taste. Goldenrods are, in some places, considered a sign of good fortune, they are considered weeds by many in North America, but they are prized as garden plants in Europe, where British gardeners adopted goldenrod as a garden subject long before Americans did.
Goldenrod began to gain some acceptance in American gardening during the 1980s. They have become invasive species including China. Goldenrod species are used as a food source by the larvae of many Lepidoptera species; the invading larva may induce the plant to form a bulbous tissue mass called a gall around it, upon which the larva feeds. Various parasitoid wasps find these galls and lay eggs in the larvae, penetrating the bulb with their ovipositors. Woodpeckers are known to eat the insects in the center. Cultivated goldenrods include S. bicolor, S. caesia, S. canadensis, S. cutleri, S. riddellii, S. rigida, S. shortii, S. virgaurea. A number of cultivars have been selected, including several of hybrid origin. A putative hybrid with aster, known as ×Solidaster is less unruly, with pale yellow flowers suitable for dried arrangements. Molecular and other evidence points to ×Solidaster being a hybrid of Solidago ptarmicoides and Solidago canadensis, the former now in Solidago, but the "aster" in question.
The cultivars'Goldenmosa' and S. × luteus'Lemore' have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. Inventor Thomas Edison experimented with goldenrod to produce rubber. Edison created a cultivation process to maximize the rubber content in each plant, his experiments produced a 12 ft-tall plant. The tires on the Model T given to him by his friend Henry Ford were made from goldenrod. Like George Washington Carver, Henry Ford was interested in the regenerative properties of soil and the potential of alternative crops such as pe