Mitanni called Hanigalbat in Assyrian or Naharin in Egyptian texts, was a Hurrian-speaking state in northern Syria and southeast Anatolia from c. 1500 to 1300 BC. Mitanni came to be a regional power after the Hittite destruction of Amorite Babylon and a series of ineffectual Assyrian kings created a power vacuum in Mesopotamia. At the beginning of its history, Mitanni's major rival was Egypt under the Thutmosids. However, with the ascent of the Hittite Empire and Egypt struck an alliance to protect their mutual interests from the threat of Hittite domination. At the height of its power, during the 14th century BC, Mitanni had outposts centred on its capital, whose location has been determined by archaeologists to be on the headwaters of the Khabur River; the Mitanni dynasty ruled over the northern Euphrates-Tigris region between c. 1475 and c. 1275 BC. Mitanni succumbed to Hittite and Assyrian attacks and was reduced to the status of a province of the Middle Assyrian Empire. While the Mitanni kings were Indo-Aryan, they used the language of the local people, at that time a non-Indo-European language, Hurrian.

Their sphere of influence is shown in Hurrian place names, personal names and the spread through Syria and the Levant of a distinct pottery type. The Mitanni controlled trade routes down the Khabur to Mari and up the Euphrates from there to Carchemish. For a time they controlled the Assyrian territories of the upper Tigris and its headwaters at Nineveh, Erbil and Nuzi, their allies included Kizuwatna in southeastern Anatolia. To the east, they had good relations with the Kassites; the land of Mitanni in northern Syria extended from the Taurus mountains to its west and as far east as Nuzi and the river Tigris in the east. In the south, it extended from Aleppo across to Mari on the Euphrates in the east, its centre was in the Khabur River valley, with two capitals: Taite and Washukanni, called Taidu and Ussukana in Assyrian sources. The whole area supported agriculture without artificial irrigation and cattle and goats were raised, it is similar to Assyria in climate, was settled by both indigenous Hurrian and Amoritic-speaking populations.

The Mitanni kingdom was referred to as the Maryannu, Nahrin or Mitanni by the Egyptians, the Hurri by the Hittites, the Hanigalbat by the Assyrians. The different names seem to have referred to the same kingdom and were used interchangeably, according to Michael C. Astour. Hittite annals mention. A Hittite fragment from the time of Mursili I, mentions a "King of the Hurri"; the Assyro-Akkadian version of the text renders "Hurri" as Hanigalbat. Tushratta, who styles himself "king of Mitanni" in his Akkadian Amarna letters, refers to his kingdom as Hanigalbat. Egyptian sources call Mitanni "nhrn", pronounced as Naharin, from the Assyro-Akkadian word for "river", cf. Aram-Naharaim; the name Mitanni is first found in the "memoirs" of the Syrian wars of the official astronomer and clockmaker Amenemhet, who returned from the "foreign country called Me-ta-ni" at the time of Thutmose I. The expedition to the Naharina announced by Thutmosis I at the beginning of his reign may have taken place during the long previous reign of Amenhotep I.

Helck believes that this was the expedition mentioned by Amenhotep II. The ethnicity of the people of Mitanni is difficult to ascertain. A treatise on the training of chariot horses by Kikkuli, a Mitanni writer, contains a number of Indo-Aryan glosses. Kammenhuber suggested that this vocabulary was derived from the still undivided Indo-Iranian language, but Mayrhofer has shown that Indo-Aryan features are present; the names of the Mitanni aristocracy are of Indo-Aryan origin, their deities show Indo-Aryan roots, though some think that they are more related to the Kassites. The common people's language, the Hurrian language, is neither Semitic. Hurrian is related to Urartian, the language of Urartu, both belonging to the Hurro-Urartian language family, it had been held. A Hurrian passage in the Amarna letters – composed in Akkadian, the lingua franca of the day – indicates that the royal family of Mitanni was by speaking Hurrian as well. Bearers of names in the Hurrian language are attested in wide areas of Syria and the northern Levant that are outside the area of the political entity known to Assyria as Hanilgalbat.

There is no indication. In the 14th century BC numerous city-states in northern Syria and Canaan were ruled by persons with Hurrian and some Indo-Aryan names. If this can be taken to mean that the population of these states was Hurrian as well it is possible that these entities were a part of a larger polity with a shared Hurrian identity; this is assumed, but without a critical examination of the sources. Differences in dialect and regionally different pantheons point to the existence of several groups of Hurrian speakers. No native sources for the history of Mitanni have been found so far; the account is based on Assyrian and Egyptian sources, as

Champion Bat Tournament

The Champion Bat Tournament was a cricket tournament played in the late 1800s in present-day South Africa. Rather than a cup, the winner of the tournament was presented with the "Champion Bat" – a cricket bat emblazoned with a silver crest. Contested every three to four years, it was first held in 1876 in Port Elizabeth, between teams representing the major settlements of the Cape Colony. Although the exact composition varied, the town-based format continued until the tournament's final edition during the 1890–91 season, played between Eastern Province, Griqualand West, Western Province; the tournament was played five times before being superseded by the Currie Cup as the premier South African cricket tournament. Only the last edition of the Champion Bat was accorded first-class status; the inaugural tournament was played in Port Elizabeth from 6–12 January 1876, with the tournament's prize, the Champion Bat, donated by the town's mayor, Henry William Pearson, on behalf of the Port Elizabeth Town Council.

Four teams competed in the 1876 tournament, representing Cape Town, King William's Town, Port Elizabeth, with all matches played at St George's Park. Matches were played over two innings, invariably lasting only one day each owing to their low-scoring nature; each team was to play each other once, for a total of six matches: 6 January 1876: Grahamstown defeats Port Elizabeth by 47 runs, with Grahamstown's A. Edkins taking a ten-wicket haul, 5/11 in each innings. 7 January 1876: King William's Town defeats Grahamstown by six wickets, with Edkins taking another ten-wicket haul, 8/32 and 2/49. William Heugh took 7/34 in Grahamstown first innings. 8 January 1876: King William's Town defeats Port Elizabeth by three wickets. 10 January 1876: Cape Town defeats Port Elizabeth by three wickets, with Cape Town's Melck taking a ten-wicket haul, 5/16 and 7/24. 11 January 1876: King William's Town defeats Cape Town by four wickets, with Melck taking another ten-wicket haul, 6/19 and 4/13. 12 January 1876: Cape Town versus Grahamstown – fixtured, but no scorecard recorded by CricketArchive.

As the Grahamstown team had won all three of its matches, its captain was presented with the Champion Bat, to be held until the next tournament. A celebratory dinner and ball were held at the Port Elizabeth City Hall, on 8 and 12 January, respectively; the second tournament was held in King William's Town from 14–22 January 1880, included a team from Queenstown for the first time. A final was played, with King William's Town defeating Port Elizabeth to win the tournament for the first time; the third tournament was held in Port Elizabeth for a second time, from 22–31 December 1884. The tournament was reduced to four teams, with the teams from Grahamstown and Queenstown replaced by a team from the far inland town of Kimberley, in Griqualand West, newly annexed to the Cape Colony. Port Elizabeth won the tournament for the first time; the fourth tournament was held at Grahamstown's Albany Sports Club from 26 December 1887 to 3 January 1888. Cape Town was replaced by the host. Kimberley won the tournament for the first time.

The fifth and final tournament was held at Cape Town's Newlands ground from 26 December 1890 to 3 January 1891. Eastern Province, Griqualand West, Western Province fielded sides, the three matches played were accorded first-class status

IEEE Circuits and Systems Society

The IEEE Circuits and Systems Society is a society of the IEEE. It is known by the acronym IEEE CAS. In the hierarchy of IEEE, the Circuits and Systems Society is one of close to 40 technical societies organized under the IEEE's Technical Activities Board. From the IEEE CAS web site, the field of interest of the society is defined to be "The theory, analysis and practical implementation of circuits, the application of circuit theoretic techniques to systems and to signal processing; the coverage of this field includes the spectrum of activities from, including, basic scientific theory to industrial applications." The first meeting of the IRE Professional Group on Circuit Theory was on March 20 of 1951. After the IRE and the AIEE merged, the IRE Professional Group on Circuit Theory became the IEEE Professional Technical Group on Circuit Theory on March 25 of 1963. In 1966 the group changed its name to the Group on Circuit Theory, in 1973 became the IEEE Circuits and Systems Society; the Society operates local chapters around the world.

It coordinates the operation of several councils, task forces, technical committees. The Circuits and Systems Society oversees the publication of eleven periodical magazines and scholarly journals: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Regular Papers IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II: Express Briefs IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems IEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration Systems IEEE Transactions on Multimedia IEEE Transactions on Mobile Computing Circuits and Devices Magazine IEEE Design & Test of Computers Magazine Circuits and Systems Magazine The Society organizes, co-sponsors many conferences every year. A list of them can be retrieved by the link:. International Symposium on Circuits and Systems—Biomedical Circuit and Systems Conference -- Design Automation Conference The Circuit and System Society's Website