University of Sydney
The University of Sydney is an Australian public research university in Sydney, Australia. Founded in 1850, it was Australia's first university and is regarded as one of the world's leading universities; the university is colloquially known as one of Australia's sandstone universities. Its campus is ranked in the top 10 of the world's most beautiful universities by the British Daily Telegraph and The Huffington Post, spreading across the inner-city suburbs of Camperdown and Darlington; the university comprises 9 faculties and university schools, through which it offers bachelor and doctoral degrees. In 2018-19, the QS World University Rankings ranked Sydney as one of the world's top 25 most reputable universities, its graduates as the top 5 most employable in the world and first in Australia. Five Nobel and two Crafoord laureates have been affiliated with the university as graduates and faculty; the university has educated seven Australian prime ministers, two Governors-General of Australia, nine state governors and territory administrators, 24 justices of the High Court of Australia, including four chief justices.
Sydney has produced 110 Rhodes Scholars and several Gates Scholars. The University of Sydney is a member of the Group of Eight, CEMS, the Association of Pacific Rim Universities and the Worldwide Universities Network. In 1848, in the New South Wales Legislative Council, William Wentworth, a graduate of the University of Cambridge and Charles Nicholson, a medical graduate from the University of Edinburgh Medical School, proposed a plan to expand the existing Sydney College into a larger university. Wentworth argued that a state secular university was imperative for the growth of a society aspiring towards self-government, that it would provide the opportunity for "the child of every class, to become great and useful in the destinies of his country", it would take two attempts on Wentworth's behalf, before the plan was adopted. The university was established via the passage of the University of Sydney Act, on 24 September 1850 and was assented on 1 October 1850 by Sir Charles Fitzroy. Two years the university was inaugurated on 11 October 1852 in the Big Schoolroom of what is now Sydney Grammar School.
The first principal was John Woolley, the first professor of chemistry and experimental physics was John Smith. On 27 February 1858 the university received its Royal Charter from Queen Victoria, giving degrees conferred by the university rank and recognition equal to those given by universities in the United Kingdom. By 1859, the university had moved to its current site in the Sydney suburb of Camperdown. In 1858, the passage of the electoral act provided for the university to become a constituency for the New South Wales Legislative Assembly as soon as there were 100 graduates of the university holding higher degrees eligible for candidacy; this seat in the Parliament of New South Wales was first filled in 1876, but was abolished in 1880 one year after its second member, Edmund Barton, who became the first Prime Minister of Australia, was elected to the Legislative Assembly. Most of the estate of John Henry Challis was bequeathed to the university, which received a sum of £200,000 in 1889.
This was thanks in part due to William Montagu Manning who argued against the claims by British Tax Commissioners. The following year seven professorships were created: anatomy. A significant figure from 1927 to 1958, termed'Sydney's best known academic', was the Professor of Philosophy at the University John Anderson. A native of Scotland, Anderson's controversial views as a self-proclaimed Atheist and advocate of free thought in all subjects raised the ire of many to the point of being censured by the state parliament in 1943; the New England University College was founded as part of the University of Sydney in 1938 and separated in 1954 to become the University of New England. During the late 1960s, the University of Sydney was at the centre of rows to introduce courses on Marxism and feminism at the major Australian universities. At one stage, newspaper reporters descended on the university to cover brawls, secret memos and a walk-out by David Armstrong, a respected philosopher who held the Challis Chair of Philosophy from 1959 to 1991, after students at one of his lectures demanded a course on feminism.
The philosophy department split over the issue to become the Traditional and Modern Philosophy Department, headed by Armstrong and following a more traditional approach to philosophy, the General Philosophy Department, which follows the French continental approach. Under the terms of the Higher Education Act 1989 the following bodies were incorporated into the university in 1990: Sydney Branch of the Sydney Conservatorium of Music Cumberland College of Health Sciences Sydney College of the Arts of the Institute of the Arts Sydney Institute of Education of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Institute of Nursing Studies of the Sydney College of Advanced Education Guild Centre of the Sydney College of Advanced Education. Prior to 1981, the Sydney Institute of Education was the Sydney Teachers College; the Orange Agricultural College was transferred to the University of New England under the Act, but transferred to the University of Sydney in 1994, as part of the reforms to the University of New England undertaken by the University of New England Act 1993 and the Southern Cross University Act 1993.
In January 2005, the University of Sydney transferred the OAC to Charles Sturt University. In February 2007, the university agreed to acquire a portion of the land granted to St John's College to develop the Sydney
Peter Howard Costello, AC, is a former Australian politician and lawyer who served as the Treasurer in the Australian Howard Government from 1996 to 2007. He is the longest-serving Treasurer in Australia's history. Costello was a Member of the Australian House of Representatives from 1990 to 2009, representing the Division of Higgins, he served as the Deputy Leader of the Liberal Party from 1994 to 2007. On 18 September 2008, Costello was appointed as chairman of the World Bank's new Independent Advisory Board to provide advice on anti-corruption measures. Costello was born on 14 August 1957 in Melbourne into a middle-class family of practising Christians, he was the second of three children: his elder brother, Tim Costello, is a prominent Baptist minister and former CEO of World Vision Australia. Costello was educated at Carey Baptist Grammar School and Monash University, where he studied arts and law, graduating with honours in 1982. Costello is a descendant of Irish immigrant Patrick Costello, expelled from the Parliament of Victoria in the 1860s for electoral fraud.
During the 1980s, Costello was a solicitor at the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques became a barrister and represented employers in some of Australia's best known industrial relations disputes. In 1982 Costello married Tanya, daughter of writer and former politician Peter Coleman. In 1983 and 1984, Costello represented the National Farmers' Federation in a case against the Australasian Meat Industry Employees Union; the AMIEU was seeking a unit tally system to be set up in abattoirs in the Northern Territory. The dispute focussed on one abattoir, which chose to fight the AMIEU claim; the AMIEU claim was unsuccessful. Costello became counsel to organisations representing small business and rose to prominence in the 1985 Dollar Sweets case, as junior counsel assisting Alan Goldberg QC representing a confectionery company involved in a bitter industrial dispute. During his student years, Costello was active in student politics. For a time, he was an office-bearer of the Social Democratic Students Association of Victoria, an affiliate of the Balaclava Branch of Australian Young Labor.
In 1977, Costello was assaulted by a left-wing student politician, receiving mainstream media attention for the first time in his career as a result. After graduating, Costello became more conservative but retained liberal views on some social issues. In 1984 he was a founding member of the H. R. Nicholls Society, a think tank on industrial relations. In the late 1980s, he was identified as part of the New Right movement, organised to some extent in the H. R. Nicholls Society. In 1990, Costello defeated sitting member Roger Shipton in a preselection ballot for the comfortably safe Liberal electorate of Higgins, the seat once held by Harold Holt and John Gorton, he entered the House of Representatives at the age of 32. Costello made his maiden speech in May 1990 and mentioned "government should be subservient to the citizen, he was promoted to the Opposition front bench and proved an effective debater against the Labor government of Bob Hawke and Paul Keating. By 1992 he was shadow Attorney-General, in 1993 he became shadow Finance Minister under John Hewson.
Hewson's shock defeat at the 1993 election brought Costello into consideration as a leadership contender. Costello's profile became higher after the "sports rorts affair" with Sport Minister Ros Kelly: after revealing Kelly did not handle funding properly for the policy and Costello demanded she resign, she did. Hewson was deposed as Liberal leader in May 1994, Costello supported Alexander Downer for the leadership, becoming his Deputy Leader and shadow Treasurer. What may have prevented Costello from challenging Hewson for the leadership himself was that it would have proven correct an accusation by Victorian Liberal Premier Jeff Kennett that Costello and his friend, former Victorian Liberal party president Michael Kroger, had undermined Hewson's leadership prior to Hewson calling the leadership spill that occurred because of Costello in the first place. However, Downer resigned in January 1995. Costello did not seek the leadership, it was revealed in July 2006 that this was due to a December 1994 meeting between Howard and Ian McLachlan during which Howard agreed to stand aside after one and a half terms as Prime Minister in return for Costello's agreement not to challenge for the leadership.
Howard denied. Hewson noted with irony in 2009 that Costello's best chances of becoming leader were at the 1994 leadership spill or when Downer stood down, several months later; as Deputy Leader until 2007, he was the longest serving in that role, achieving that status in 2006 after breaking the record of the party's first Deputy Leader Sir Eric Harrison. He spent all but the last two years of his career on the front bench; the Liberal/National coalition headed by Howard won the 1996 election, defeating the Keating government on a 29-seat swing, Costello became Federal Treasurer at age 38, the same age at which Howard himself had become treasurer in 1977. He oversaw the return to and maintenance of federal budget surpluses, which enabled significant reduction in government debt. Costello brought down twelve consecutive Federal Budgets, including ten surpluses. During this period he eliminated the Commonwealth Government net debt of $96 billion, he sold 2/3rds of the Reserve Bank's substantial gold holdings at a record low price.
Inflation, interest rates and unemployment all fell and remained low during Costello's term as Treasurer
Anthony John Abbott is an Australian politician who served as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia from 2013 to 2015 and Leader of the Liberal Party from 2009 to 2015. He served as Leader of the Opposition from 2009 to 2013. Abbott was first elected Member of Parliament for Warringah in 1994. Abbott was born in London to an Australian mother and a British father, moved to Sydney at the age of two, he studied economics and law at the University of Sydney, attended The Queen's College, Oxford, as a Rhodes Scholar, studying Philosophy and Economics. After graduating from Oxford, Abbott trained as a Roman Catholic seminarian, worked as a journalist and political adviser. In 1992, he was appointed director of Australians for Constitutional Monarchy, a position he held until his election to parliament at the 1994 Warringah by-election. After the 1998 election, Abbott was appointed Minister for Employment Services in the Second Howard Ministry, he was promoted to cabinet in 2001 as Minister for Employment, Workplace Relations and Small Business.
In 2003, Abbott became Minister for Health and Ageing, retaining this position until the defeat of the Howard Government at the 2007 election. Serving in the shadow cabinets of Brendan Nelson and Malcolm Turnbull, Abbott resigned from the front bench in November 2009, in protest against Turnbull's support for the Rudd Government's proposed Emissions Trading Scheme. Forcing a leadership ballot on the subject, Abbott defeated Turnbull by 42 votes to 41, to become the party's leader and Leader of the Opposition. Abbott led the Coalition at the 2010 election. Following negotiations, Labor formed a Government, with the support of one Greens MP and three Independent MPs. Abbott was re-elected. Abbott went on to lead the Coalition to victory in the 2013 election and was sworn in as the 28th Prime Minister of Australia on 18 September 2013. On 14 September 2015, Abbott was defeated in a vote for the Liberal leadership by Malcolm Turnbull, who replaced Abbott as Prime Minister the following day. Abbott was born on 4 November 1957 at the General Lying-In Hospital in Lambeth, England.
He is the oldest of four children born to Richard Henry "Dick" Abbott. He has three younger sisters, including Christine Forster, involved in politics, his mother was born in Sydney, while his father was born in Newcastle upon England. In 1940, during World War II, 16-year-old Dick Abbott came to Australia with his British parents. Dick was called up to the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942. Dick and his mother returned to the United Kingdom in 1954 where he met and married Fay Peters, a dietitian. Willemina Bredschneijder, Abbott's maternal great-grandmother, was the first of his ancestors to arrive in Australia, she immigrated to Australia from the Netherlands in 1912 with her five-year-old son, Anthony Bredschneijder. His maternal grandmother Phyllis Lacey was born in Wales, married Anthony Peters in New South Wales in 1932. On 7 September 1960, his parents, younger sister Jane, left the UK for Australia on the Assisted Passage Migration Scheme ship SS Oronsay. Settling in Sydney, the family first lived in the suburb of Bronte and moved to Chatswood.
Dick Abbott established what was to become one of the largest orthodontics practices in Australia, retiring in 2002. Abbott attended primary school at St Aloysius' College at Milson's Point, before completing his secondary school education at St Ignatius' College, both Jesuit schools, he graduated with a Bachelor of Economics in 1979 and a Bachelor of Laws in 1981 from the University of Sydney. He was president of the Student Representative Council. Influenced by his chaplain at St Ignatius', Father Emmet Costello, he attended The Queen's College, Oxford, as a Rhodes Scholar, where in June 1983 he graduated as a Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy and Economics and on 21 October 1989 proceeded by seniority to Master of Arts. During his university days, Abbott gained media attention for political opposition to the dominant left-wing student leadership. Once he was violently beaten at a university conference. A student newspaper editor with political views opposed to those of Abbott took him to court for indecent assault after he touched her during a student debate.
According to the Sun-Herald newspaper, it was "an ugly and violent time", Abbott's tactics in student politics were like "an aggressive terrier". Abbott organised rallies in support of Governor-General John Kerr after he dismissed the Whitlam Government in November 1975, as well as a pro-Falklands War demonstration during his time at Oxford. At St. Ignatius College, Abbott had been influenced by the Jesuits. At university, he encountered B. A. Santamaria, a Catholic layman who led a movement against Communism within the Australian labour movement in the 1950s, culminating in the 1955 Labor Party split and the formation of the Democratic Labor Party. Santamaria has been described as Abbott's "political hero", he wrote the foreword to a novelisation of Santamaria's life written by Alan Reid, in 2015 launched a biography of Santamaria written by Gerard Henderson. Abbott was a student boxer, he was a heavyweight with modest reach. Following his time in Britain, Abbott returned to Australia and told his family of his intention to join the priesthood.
In 1984, aged 26, he entered St Patrick's Seminary, Manly. Abbott did not complete his studies at the seminary, leavi
Richard Alston (politician)
Richard Kenneth Robert Alston is a former member of the Australian Senate from 1986 to 2004, representing the state of Victoria for the Liberal Party. He served as the Federal President of the Liberal Party of Australia from 2014 to 2017. Alston was educated at Xavier College, the University of Melbourne and Monash University, graduating with bachelor's degrees in law and commerce from Melbourne University and master's degrees in Law and Business Administration from Monash University, he was a barrister before entering politics. On 7 May 1986 Alston was appointed by the Parliament of Victoria under section 15 of the Australian Constitution to fill the vacancy in the Australian Senate caused by the death of Senator Alan Missen, he was re-elected in 1987, 1990, 1996 and 2001. Alston was a member of the Opposition Shadow Ministry from 1989 to 1996, was Deputy Leader of the Opposition in the Senate 1993–96. Shadow Minister for Social Security, Child Care and Superannuation,as well as Communications and the Arts, were among the positions he held in the shadow ministry.
He was Minister for Communications and the Arts 1996–97, Minister for Communications, the Information Economy and the Arts 1997–98 and Minister for Communications, Information Technology and the Arts 1998–2003. He was Deputy Leader of the Government in the Senate 1996–2003. Alston resigned from the Senate on 10 February 2004, he was replaced by Mitch Fifield. From February 2005 to February 2008, Alston served as Australian High Commissioner to the United Kingdom. Since 2004 he has been an Adjunct Professor of Information Technology at Bond University. Since leaving Parliament, Alston has served as Chairman of three listed Australian companies and as a director of a number of listed public companies in both Australia and the United Kingdom These have been in fields as diverse as information technology, broadcasting services, public relations and ironsands. Alston served as a member of the international board of CQS LLP, a United Kingdom-based hedge fund for seven years and remains a director of its Australian subsidiary.
Alston served for six years as director of United Kingdom-based public company, Chime PLC. Alston is Chairman of Amex Ltd, the Waratah Group of companies, Chairman of the advisory board of Australian long short fund of Qato Capital and agricultural producer Sunny Ridge Pty Ltd, he is a director of China Telecom Australia, Balmoral Gardens Pty Ltd, a member of the national board of CPA Australia. His brother is noted academic Philip Alston. At the 2015 Australia Day Honours, Alston was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia for distinguished service to the Parliament of Australia, to international relations through diplomatic roles, to business development in diverse sectors, to the community. Alston was awarded the Centenary Medal in 2001 for service as Minister for Communications, Information Technology and the Arts
Parliament of Victoria
The Parliament of Victoria is the bicameral legislature of the Australian state of Victoria. It follows a Westminster-derived parliamentary system and consists of The Queen, represented by the Governor of Victoria, it has a fused executive drawn from members of both chambers. The Parliament meets at Parliament House in the state capital Melbourne; the two Houses of Parliament have 128 Members in total, 88 in the lower house and 40 in the upper house. Victoria has compulsory voting and uses preferential ballot in single-member seats for the Legislative Assembly, single transferable vote in multi-member seats for the proportionally represented Legislative Council. Government is formed by parties who command confidence and supply within the Assembly; the Council is a house of review. Majorities in the Legislative Council are rare, so the government of the day must negotiate with other parties to pass much of its legislative agenda. All members serve four-year terms; the parliament's functions and processes have evolved over time, undergoing significant changes as Victoria changed from an independent colony to a state within the federated Australia.
The Parliament may make laws for any matter within Victoria, subject to the Victorian Constitution. Its power is further limited by the ability for the federal government to override it in some circumstances, subject to the Australian Constitution; the Supreme Court of Victoria provides judicial oversight of Parliament and is vested with equal power. The leader of the governing party or parties is the Premier; the incumbent Labor Party government, re-elected at the 2018 election, holds a majority in the Assembly. Parliament has sat at Parliament House, Melbourne since 1856, with the exception of the period 1901–1927, when Parliament House was used by the Federal Parliament and the Parliament of Victoria sat at the Royal Exhibition Building. Prior to 1851 the area of Australia now known as Victoria was part of the colony of New South Wales and was administered by the Government of New South Wales in Sydney. On 5 August 1850, the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed the Australian Colonies Government Act which made provision for the separation of Victoria from New South Wales.
Enabling legislation was passed by the Parliament of New South Wales, Victoria was formally created a separate colony of the United Kingdom on 1 July 1851. The Australian Colonies Government Act provided for the colony to be administered by a Lieutenant-Governor and a Legislative Council of 51 members, 21 of which were to be elected and the remainder appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor; the Lieutenant-Governor was subordinate in some matters to the Governor of New South Wales, given the title Governor-General. The Legislative Council met for the first time in November 1851 at Melbourne; the first Legislative Council existed for five years and was responsible for at least three significant and enduring contributions to the parliamentary system of Victoria: It drafted the Victorian Constitution, which provides the framework for the system of government in Victoria. The Victorian Constitution was approved by the Legislative Council in March 1854, was sent to Britain where it was passed by the United Kingdom Parliament as the Victoria Constitution Act 1855, was granted Royal Assent on 16 July 1855 and was proclaimed in Victoria on 23 November 1855.
The constitution established the Westminster-style system of responsible government that continues in Victoria today. It further stipulated several preconditions on voting that have since been rescinded such as restricting voting to only men of at least 21 years of age who met minimum wealth standards. Rural districts were very over-represented in order to favour large landowners; the election for the first Victorian Parliament was held during the spring of 1856, the first Victorian Members of Parliament met on 21 November 1856 in the completed Parliament House and were sworn in, on 25 November 1856 the first Victorian Parliament was opened by Acting Governor Major-General Edward Macarthur. The Legislative Council consisted of thirty members representing six Provinces, each province returning five Members; the Legislative Assembly consisted of sixty members representing thirty-seven multi and single-member electorates. Although the White Australia policy denied the vote to Indigenous Australians in some states, Victoria did not directly legislate voting based on race.
Therefore, Indigenous Victorian men were entitled to vote from 1857, provided they met the other requirements. Furthermore, Indigenous Victorians who enrolled to vote in Victoria were allowed to vote in federal elections from 1901. Voting was restricted based on gender, though. Victoria was the last state within Australia to intentionally recognise female voters; the Electoral Act 1863 granted the vote to all rate payers. Therefore women were allowed to, indeed did, vote in the election of 1864; the act was clarified in 1865 to exclude women. Agitation for allowing women to vote began in earnest in 1891, with presentation of an immense petition containing over 30,000 signatures was presented to the Parliament; this petition was proudly used as a promotional tool for the federation of Australia. The newly federated nation allowed women to vote in elections, as well as stand for office, since 1902, yet Victoria did not expand its suffrage to include women until 1908, nor allow women to stand for office until 1924.
The first woman was not elected into the Victorian Parliament until 1933. Political parties
Minister for Families and Social Services
The Australian Minister for Families and Social Services oversees Australian government social services, including mental health and children's policy, support for carers and people with disabilities, seniors. The Hon. Paul Fletcher was appointed as Minister for Families and Social Services on 26 August 2018, following swearing in by the Governor-General; the current Assistant Minister for Social Services and Disability Services is the Hon. Sarah Henderson, since 26 August 2018; the current Assistant Minister for Children and Families is the Hon. Michelle Landry, since 26 August 2018. In the Government of Australia, the Ministers administer the portfolio through the Department of Social Services. Other portfolio bodies for which the Ministers are responsible include: Aged Care Standards and Accreditation Agency Australian Institute of Family Studies Commonwealth Advisory Committee on Homelessness Community and Disability Services Ministers' Conference Community Services Ministers' Advisory Council Emergency Relief State Advisory Committees National Childcare Accreditation Council Inc.
National Disability Advisory Council National Disability Insurance Agency National Supported Accommodation Assistance Program Coordination and Development Committee representatives and Information Sub-committee Social Security Appeals Tribunal The following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Social Services, or any of its precedent titles: The following individuals have been appointed as Assistant Minister for Social Services and Disability Services, or any of its precedent titles: The following individuals have been appointed as Assistant Minister for Children and Families, or any precedent titles: The first Minister for Housing was Les Bury, appointed in 1963, although there were Ministers in charge of War Service Homes from 1932 to 1938 and 1941 to 1945. In 1945 Bert Lazzarini was appointed Minister for Works and Housing and this title continued until 1952, when Wilfrid Kent Hughes became Minister for Works. No minister included "works" or "construction" in his portfolio after Stewart West lost this title in 1987 reflecting the progressive outsourcing of the Commonwealth's construction activities and ownership of assets.
The John Howard government had no Minister of Housing reflecting the decline of the significance of the commonwealth-state housing agreements as a means of providing new housing since the post-war years. The following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Housing and Homelessness, or any precedent titles: Notes 1 Whitlam was one of a two-man ministry consisting of himself and Lance Barnard for two weeks until the full ministry was announced. Ministers for aged care or ageing were appointed from 1988 to 1993 and again from 1998 to 2013; the portfolio gained a mental health component in 2010. The latter returned to the health portfolio in 2013, with ageing moving to social services; the following individuals have been appointed as Minister for Mental Health and Ageing, or any of its precedent titles: The Turnbull Government transferred the aged care portfolio back to the Department of Health in October 2015. The following individuals have been appointed as Assistant Minister for Social Services and Multicultural Affairs, or any precedent titles: Ministers' website
2018 Liberal Party of Australia leadership spills
Leadership spills of the federal parliamentary leadership of the Liberal Party of Australia were held on 21 and 24 August 2018 and were called by the incumbent leader of the party, Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull. Turnbull called the first spill in a scheduled party room meeting of the Liberal Party on 21 August, amid media reports that Minister for Home Affairs Peter Dutton was considering a challenge. Dutton submitted himself as a candidate for the leadership, but was defeated by Turnbull, who won the ballot 48 votes to 35. Dutton immediately resigned from the ministry. Dutton requested a spill motion two days later. Turnbull refused to call the spill without first receiving a list of signatures representing the majority of his Party room, referred Dutton to the Attorney General's office to test his eligibility to sit in Parliament, he declared that if Dutton had the numbers to carry a spill motion, he would take it as a vote of no confidence and not stand to contest the leadership. Dutton secured the numbers for a spill and Turnbull did not re-contest the leadership, opening the way for supporters Scott Morrison and Julie Bishop to stand against Dutton.
Dutton, Treasurer Morrison and Foreign Minister Bishop contested the ballot. Bishop was eliminated in the first round of voting, in the second round Morrison defeated Dutton by 45 votes to 40, thereby becoming the leader of the Liberal Party and Prime Minister of Australia. A ballot for the deputy leadership of the party occurred and was won by Josh Frydenberg, subsequently appointed Treasurer in the Morrison Government; the Liberal-National Coalition won office under the leadership of Tony Abbott in the 2013 Australian federal election. The Abbott Government was brought down by an internal party room challenge, launched by Malcolm Turnbull in September 2015, in which Turnbull won 54 votes of the Liberal Party room to 44 and the Turnbull Government became the executive government of Australia. Turnbull cited Newspoll results and "economic leadership" as reasons for mounting his challenge against Abbott. Under the slogan "jobs and growth," Turnbull led the Coalition to the 2016 Election in which their majority in the House of Representatives was reduced to one seat.
Turnbull's ousting of Abbott had divided the Liberal Party rank and file and tensions continued in the parliamentary Party. The Government reached the 30-consecutive-Newspoll-losses benchmark Turnbull had used to unseat Abbott, in April 2018; the government suffered by-election losses in July 2018. Dissent from conservative MPs over issues such as energy prices and immigration levels grew during Turnbull's final months. On 21 August, Turnbull announced a leadership spill ahead of his 39th consecutive Newspoll loss. Leadership spills have become a common feature of Australian federal politics in the twenty-first century; as of 2018, no prime minister has served a full term between federal elections since Liberal Prime Minister John Howard's final term ended in 2007. Turnbull had served as a Minister in the Howard Government and first lead the Coalition in Opposition, by challenging his predecessor Brendan Nelson for the role of Opposition Leader in a 2008 spill. After extended poor Newspoll results against the Rudd Government, he lost the leadership in the wake of the Utegate affair and a Party dispute over climate policy.
Tony Abbott defeated Turnbull for the Leadership in a 2009 spill, lead the party in to a narrow loss in the 2010 Election and to government in the 2013 Election. Abbott included Turnbull in his Cabinet, from where Turnbull launched his leadership challenge in September 2015, becoming the first and only Liberal to assume the Prime Ministership by challenging an incumbent; as of January 2018, voters were split in polls for preferred leader of the Liberal party between Malcolm Turnbull and Julie Bishop. Scott Morrison and Peter Dutton each had around 5% support. In April 2018, Dutton outlined his desire to lead the Liberal party in the future, Morrison revealed prime ministerial ambitions. Peter Dutton had served as Minister during the Howard Government in 2004 and to the Cabinet in the Abbott Government in 2013 Given the poor performance by the Liberal National Party of Queensland in the Longman by-election on 28 July 2018, who holds the neighbouring seat of Dickson, was viewed as a leader who could strengthen support for the Coalition in regional Queensland.
Dutton had been seen as a leading figure among the conservative wing of the Liberal Party, which had clashed with Turnbull and his more moderate supporters over the National Energy Guarantee with targets to reduce carbon emissions in compliance with the Paris Agreement, among other issues in mid-2018. Conservative supporters of Dutton included Tony Abbott, ousted by Turnbull as party leader and Prime Minister in September 2015. In the days prior to the leadership spills, Turnbull was forced to make concessions on the NEG in an attempt to satisfy the more conservative members of his party, most notably abandoning the emissions reduction targets, despite the possibility of winning votes for the NEG from Labor. Tony Abbott characterised Turnbull's concessions on the NEG as a "conversion of convenience". On 19 August 2018, Dutton declared that he supported Malcolm Turnbull and the policies of the government. However, support had been growing for a conservative Liberal Party member Dutton to challenge Turnbull since 2017 when Turnbull performed poorly against the Labor Party in opinion polls.
In the weeks leading up to the poll, Dutton made contradictory remarks regarding his intentions. He refused to rule out his interest in becoming Prime Minister during a Hack interview, claimed that he would resign from cabinet if he found himself unabl