Baker County, Georgia
Baker County is a county in Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 3,451; the county seat and only city is Newton. The county was created December 12, 1825 from the eastern portion of Early County by an act of the Georgia General Assembly and is named for Colonel John Baker, a hero of the American Revolutionary War. Baker County is included in GA Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Baker County Courthouse is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Three other properties in Newton are listed on the register: Notchaway Baptist Church and Cemetery, Pine Bloom Plantation, Tarver Plantation. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 349 square miles, of which 342 square miles is land and 7.2 square miles is water. The eastern half of Baker County is located in the Lower Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin; the western half of the county is located in the Ichawaynochaway Creek sub-basin of the same ACF River Basin. State Route 37 State Route 91 State Route 200 State Route 216 State Route 253 Dougherty County, Georgia - northeast Mitchell County, Georgia - east Decatur County, Georgia - southwest Early County, Georgia - west Miller County, Georgia - west Calhoun County, Georgia - northwest As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 3,451 people, 1,372 households, 892 families residing in the county.
The population density was 10.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,652 housing units at an average density of 4.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 48.5% white, 46.7% black or African American, 0.7% Asian, 0.3% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 2.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.2% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 7.3% were English, 0.0% were American. Of the 1,372 households, 30.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 44.2% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.0% were non-families, 30.5% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.52 and the average family size was 3.14. The median age was 41.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $27,462 and the median income for a family was $42,585. Males had a median income of $25,954 versus $25,688 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,379.
About 23.1% of families and 30.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 49.1% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,074 people, 1,514 households, 1,094 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 1,740 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 50.39% Black or African American, 47.42% White, 0.22% Native American, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.33% from other races, 0.61% from two or more races. 2.72% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,514 households out of which 33.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.70% were married couples living together, 19.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 27.70% were non-families. 25.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.68 and the average family size was 3.20.
In the county, the population was spread out with 27.30% under the age of 18, 10.00% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 22.10% from 45 to 64, 13.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.30 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,338, the median income for a family was $36,438. Males had a median income of $25,891 versus $16,462 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,969. About 19.90% of families and 23.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.50% of those under age 18 and 20.10% of those age 65 or over. Baker County School System operates public schools. Although Barry Goldwater, George Wallace and Richard Nixon carried it in successive elections between 1964 and 1972, Baker County is Democratic. In 1956 Adlai Stevenson received over 96% of the county's vote, it has gone majority Democratic from 1992 to 2012, but by much closer margins than that.
In 2008 Barack Obama won with just 50.1% to John McCain's 49.1%. Newton Cheevertown Dewsville Fish Trap LedbetterSource: National Register of Historic Places listings in Baker County, Georgia Baker County Sheriff's Office Baker County historical marker
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Pelham is a city in Mitchell County, United States. The population was 3,898 at the 2010 census. Pelham is at the crossroads of US 19 and State Route 93 and is 38 miles south of Albany and about 26 miles north of Thomasville. Pelham was incorporated in 1881 and may have been named in honor of American Civil War officer John Pelham. However, it is just as that it was named for an early employee of the railroad. Pelham is at 31°7′36″N 84°9′10″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.1 square miles, of which 4.1 square miles is land and 0.25% is water. Pelham has a humid subtropical climate, characterized by mild winters, it receives 52 inches of rain per year. The average number of days with any measurable precipitation is 90. Pelham has on average 233 sunny days per year; the July high is around 93 degrees Fahrenheit. The January low is 39 degrees Fahrenheit; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,467 households and 999 families in the city. The population density was 1,019.2 people per square mile.
There were 1,591 housing units at an average density of 393.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 56.13% African American, 41.66% White, 0.24% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.78% from other races, 0.70% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.43% of the population. There were 1,467 households, out of which 33.9% had children younger than 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 28.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.9% were non-families. 28.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.21. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.1% younger than 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 18.2% from 45 to 64, 16.7% who were 65 or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and older, there were 72.8 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $20,040, the median income for a family was $24,968. Males had a median income of $21,476 versus $17,161 for females; the per capita income for the city was $10,703. About 29.6% of families and 33.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 47.0% of those younger than 18 and 19.5% of those age 65 or older. The Pelham City School District holds pre-school to grade 12, consists of one elementary school, a middle school and a high school; the district has 101 full-time teachers and over 1,627 students. Pelham Elementary School Pelham City Middle School Pelham High School Donnie Cochran - former commander of the Blue Angels Precision Air team and first black member Don Griffin - two-time Super Bowl winner with San Francisco 49'ers
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Flint River (Georgia)
The Flint River is a 344-mile-long river in the U. S. state of Georgia. The river drains 8,460 square miles of western Georgia, flowing south from the upper Piedmont region south of Atlanta to the wetlands of the Gulf Coastal Plain in the southwestern corner of the state. Along with the Apalachicola and the Chattahoochee rivers, it forms part of the ACF basin. In its upper course through the red hills of the Piedmont, it is considered scenic, flowing unimpeded for over 200 miles, it was called the Thronateeska River. The Flint River rises in west central Georgia in the city of East Point in southern Fulton County on the southern outskirts of the Atlanta metropolitan area as ground seepage; the exact start can be traced to the field located between Plant Street, Willingham Drive, Elm Street, Vesta Avenue. It travels under the runways of the Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Flowing south through rural western Georgia, the river passes through Sprewell Bluff State Park 10 miles west of Thomaston.
Farther south, it comes within 5 miles of Andersonville, the site of the Andersonville prison during the Civil War. In southwestern Georgia, the river flows through the largest city on the river. At Bainbridge it joins Lake Seminole, formed at its confluence with the Chattahoochee River upstream from the Jim Woodruff Dam near the Florida state line. From this confluence, the Apalachicola River flows south from the reservoir through Florida to the Gulf of Mexico; the Flint River is fed by Kinchafoonee Creek just north of Albany, by Ichawaynochaway Creek in southwestern Mitchell County 15 miles northeast of Bainbridge. In addition to Lake Seminole, the Flint River is impounded 15 miles upstream from Albany to form the Lake Blackshear reservoir; the Flint River is one of only 40 rivers in the nation to flow more than 200 miles unimpeded by dams or other manmade systems, is valued for that. In the 1970s, a plan by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers to build a dam at Sprewell Bluff in Upson County was defeated by the Jimmy Carter, Governor of Georgia, other supporters.
Carter's hometown of Plains is located near the Flint River. The river is considered to have three distinct sections as it flows southward through western Georgia. In its upper reaches in the red hills of the Piedmont, it flows through a incised channel etched into crystalline rocks. South of its fall line near Culloden, the channel transforms to a broad, forested swampy flood plain. South of Lake Blackshear, it transforms again, flowing through a channel in limestone rock above the Upper Floridan Aquifer below southwestern Georgia and northwestern Florida; the river has been prone to floods throughout its history. In 1994, during flooding from Tropical Storm Alberto, the river crested at 43 feet in Albany, resulting in the emergency evacuation of over 23,000 residents, it caused one of the worst natural disasters in the state's history. Interstate 75 was closed in Macon, Albany State University was seriously flooded, as the river became a few miles or several kilometers wide in some places; the water lifted caskets from cemeteries and left them, along with drowned cattle and other livestock, stuck in trees and other places.
Montezuma, Georgia was inundated after the Flint River topped the 29-foot levee protecting the town from floodwater. The official depth of the river at the height of the flood was estimated at 34 feet; the nearby gauge was underwater. Cleanup and restoration of Albany took months to complete. In 1998 another serious flood occurred in Albany, but it was not as damaging as the one of 1994. Bainbridge flooded in 1998. Other significant floods occurred in 1841 and 1925. In January 2002, a winter storm blew through Atlanta the day after New Year's Day; the airport's drainage system overflowed. Although the antifreeze entered the drinking water of some residents, no one became ill; the airport changed its drainage system to prevent the problem in the future. No problems were reported after an unusually heavy 4 inches of rain fell at the airport at the beginning of March 2009. In May 2009, the National Fish Habitat Action Plan named the Lower Flint River one of its "10 Waters to Watch" for 2009 for its habitat restoration work.
In October 2009, AmericanRivers.org declared the Flint to be one of the most endangered rivers in the country due to new plans to put a dam on it. The Flint is one of four rivers in the southeast with significant remaining populations of Hymenocallis coronaria, the Shoals spider-lily. Four separate stands of the plant have been studied and documented in the river, ranging from Yellow Jacket Shoals to Hightower Shoals. In Gone With the Wind, author Margaret Mitchell describes the Flint River as bordering the fictional plantation Tara. American country music singer Luke Bryan, a native of Georgia, references the river in his songs "That's My Kind of Night". List of Georgia rivers Georgia Wildlife Federation: Flint River Sherpa Guides: Flint River Basin Jimmy Carter: Land Between the Rivers De Soto Trail historical marker