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Mithridatic Wars

The Mithridatic Wars were three conflicts fought by Rome against the Kingdom of Pontus and its allies between 88 BC and 63 BC. They are named after Mithridates VI, the King of Pontus who initiated the hostilities after annexing the Roman province of Asia into its Pontic Empire and committing massacres against the local Roman population known as the Asian Vespers; as Roman troops were sent to recover the territory, they faced an uprising in Greece organized and supported by Mithridates. Mithridates was able to mastermind such general revolts against Rome and played the magistrates of the optimates party off against the magistrates of the populares party in the Roman civil wars; the first war ended with a Roman victory, confirmed by the Treaty of Dardanos signed by Lucius Sulla and Mithridates. Greece was restored to Roman rule and Pontus was expected to restore the status quo ante bellum in Asia Minor; as the treaty of Dardanos was implemented in Asia Minor, the Roman general Murena decided to wage a second war against Pontus.

The second war resulted in a Roman defeat and gave momentum to Mithridates, who forged an alliance with Tigranes the Great, the Armenian King of Kings. Tigranes was the son-in-law of Mithridates and was in control of an Armenian empire that included territories in the Levant. Pontus won the Battle of Chalcedon, gave support to Cilician pirates against Roman commerce, the third war soon began. For the third war, the Romans sent the consul Lucullus to fight against Pontus. Lucullus won the Battle of Cabira and the Battle of Tigranocerta but his progress was nullified after the Battle of Artaxata and the Battle of Zela. Meanwhile, the campaign of Pompey against the Cilician pirates in the Mediterranean was successful and Pompey was named by the senate to replace Lucullus. Pompey's subsequent campaigns caused the collapse of the Armenian Empire in the Levant and the affirmation of Roman power over Anatolia and nearly all the eastern Mediterranean. Tigranes became a client king of Rome. Hunted, stripped of his possessions, in a foreign country, Mithridates had a servant kill him.

His former kingdom was combined with one of his hereditary enemies, Bithynia, to form the province of Bithynia and Pontus, which would forestall any future pretender to the throne of Pontus. The bellum Mithridaticum, referred in official Roman circles to the mandate, or warrant, issued by the Roman Senate in 88 BC pertaining to the declaration of war against Mithridates by that body. Handed at first to the consuls, it would not end until the death of Mithridates or the declaration by the Senate that it was at an end; as there were no intermissions in the warrant until the death of Mithridates in 63 BC, there was only one Mithridatic War. In its final phases it was taken over by the Roman Assembly, which had precedence over the Senate, and, convinced that the Senate could not execute the warrant; this latter change, brought about by a new law, the Lex Manilia, after Manilius, its proposer, was a marked constitutional change. It established an alternative path to power besides the Cursus Honorum.

The empire would before long be created from it. Subsequently, historians noticed; some of them began to term these subdivisions the "First," "Second," and "Third" in the same texts in which they used the term in the singular. As the Roman Republic faded from general memory, the original legal meaning was not recognized. A few historians folded events prior to the declaration of war into the war. Today anything to do with the war can be included under it. Hence "First Mithridatic War" is extended to include the wars between the states of Asia Minor as well as Roman support or lack of it for the parties of these wars; the officers offering this support were acting under other mandates from the Senate. The wars within the mandate of the bellum Mithridaticum are as follows: The First Mithridatic War began with a declaration of war by the Senate; the casus belli was the Asiatic Vespers. Consul Lucius Cornelius Sulla having received the mandate by lot was given several legions fresh from the Social War to implement the mandate.

Athenion, a peripatetic adherent at Athens sent to Mithridates as ambassador, won over by the latter, returned to Athens to convince it to rise in revolt, making him general. Most of Greece followed some not. Athenion, implementing a new constitution that he believed was based on Aristotle's Politics, conducted a reign of terror on behalf of the redistribution of wealth; the wealthy that could escaped the city to become exiles. Athenion sent an old comrade and known rare document thief, Apellicon of Teos, with a force to recover the Athenian national treasury stored at Delos, it was decisively beaten by Orobius. The commanders included Lucius Valerius Flaccus and Gaius Flavius Fimbria. Significant battles included the Battle of Chaeronea and the Battle of Orchomenus in 86 BC; the war ended with a Roman victory, the Treaty of Dardanos in 85 BC. Second Mithridatic War. Roman armies commanded by Lucius Licinius Murena; the war ended inconclusively after a Roman defeat, withdrawal on Sulla's orders. Third Mithridatic War.

Roman armies led by Lucius Licinius Lucullus by Pompey. War ended with Roman victory and the death of Mithridates VI in 63 BC. Enough remains

Kashig

Kashig is a village in Mulshi taluka of Pune District in the state of Maharashtra, India. Talukas surrounding the village are Karjat taluka, Talegaon Dabhade Taluka, Mawal taluka and by Khalapur taluka. Districts closest to the village are Raigad district, Thane district, Mumbai City district and Mumbai Suburban district. Nearest railway stations around the village are Vadgaon railway station, Begdewadi railway station, Lonavala railway station, Talegaon railway station and Kamshet railway station. Villages in Mulshi taluka Villages in pune maharashtra

Timpanogos Cave Historic District

The Timpanogos Cave Historic District consists of support and administration buildings built in the 1920s and 1930s in Timpanogos Cave National Monument, Utah, USA. These structures are notable examples of the National Park Service Rustic style, designed to fit with their environment; the earliest trails and structures were built by Errol M. Halliday while the location was still under the administration of the U. S. Forest Service; the Old Cave Trail was built in 1921-22. The stone storage building was built in the 1920s, together with a frame custodian's residence that no longer exists. A stone confort station was built in 1928; the National Park Service took over the site in 1933. Park facilities were expanded using labor provided by the Works Progress Administration, with another comfort station in 1939; the American Fork River was diverted and a new bridge was built in the 1930s. The Superintendent's Residence was completed in 1941; the structures are scatted on a steep landscape. The most significant building is the superintendent's residence, of rubble stone construction with a log-framed roof, covered with green shingles.

The bridge is a single span built in 1935. The 1935 Comfort Station restroom is built on a ledge on the mountainside, has a nearly flat concrete roof faced with stone; the 1928 comfort station is larger and built with a shingled roof. It is no longer used as a restroom; the rubble storage building is covered with a flat concrete roof. There are two cold cellars on the site, both built about 1930; the trail climbs the cliffs for between one and 1.5 miles, its vertical climb of 1,065 feet supported by stone retaining walls. The Timpanogos Cave Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 13, 1982