The Hobbit, or There and Back Again is a children's fantasy novel by English author J. R. R. Tolkien, it was published on 21 September 1937 to wide critical acclaim, being nominated for the Carnegie Medal and awarded a prize from the New York Herald Tribune for best juvenile fiction. The book is recognized as a classic in children's literature; the Hobbit is set within Tolkien's fictional universe and follows the quest of home-loving hobbit Bilbo Baggins to win a share of the treasure guarded by Smaug the dragon. Bilbo's journey takes him from rural surroundings into more sinister territory; the story is told in the form of an episodic quest, most chapters introduce a specific creature or type of creature of Tolkien's geography. Bilbo gains a new level of maturity and wisdom by accepting the disreputable, romantic and adventurous sides of his nature and applying his wits and common sense; the story reaches its climax in the Battle of the Five Armies, where many of the characters and creatures from earlier chapters re-emerge to engage in conflict.
Personal growth and forms of heroism are central themes of the story, along with motifs of warfare. These themes have led critics to view Tolkien's own experiences during World War I as instrumental in shaping the story; the author's scholarly knowledge of Germanic philology and interest in mythology and fairy tales are noted as influences. The publisher was encouraged by the book's critical and financial success and, requested a sequel; as Tolkien's work progressed on the successor The Lord of the Rings, he made retrospective accommodations for it in The Hobbit. These few but significant changes were integrated into the second edition. Further editions followed with minor emendations, including those reflecting Tolkien's changing concept of the world into which Bilbo stumbled; the work has never been out of print. Its ongoing legacy encompasses many adaptations for stage, radio, board games, video games. Several of these adaptations have received critical recognition on their own merits. Bilbo Baggins, the titular protagonist, is a reserved hobbit.
During his adventure, Bilbo refers to the contents of his larder at home and wishes he had more food. Until he finds a magic ring, he is more baggage than help. Gandalf, an itinerant wizard, introduces Bilbo to a company of thirteen dwarves. During the journey the wizard disappears on side errands dimly hinted at, only to appear again at key moments in the story. Thorin Oakenshield, the proud, pompous head of the company of dwarves and heir to the destroyed dwarvish kingdom under the Lonely Mountain, makes many mistakes in his leadership, relying on Gandalf and Bilbo to get him out of trouble, but proves himself a mighty warrior. Smaug is a dragon who long ago pillaged the dwarvish kingdom of Thorin's grandfather and sleeps upon the vast treasure; the plot involves a host of other characters of varying importance, such as the twelve other dwarves of the company. Gandalf tricks Bilbo into hosting a party for Thorin and his band of dwarves, who sing of reclaiming the Lonely Mountain and its vast treasure from the dragon Smaug.
When the music ends, Gandalf unveils Thrór's map showing a secret door into the Mountain and proposes that the dumbfounded Bilbo serve as the expedition's "burglar". The dwarves ridicule the idea, but Bilbo, joins despite himself; the group travels into the wild, where Gandalf saves the company from trolls and leads them to Rivendell, where Elrond reveals more secrets from the map. Passing over the Misty Mountains, they are driven deep underground. Although Gandalf rescues them, Bilbo gets separated from the others. Lost in the goblin tunnels, he stumbles across a mysterious ring and encounters Gollum, who engages him in a game of riddles; as a reward for solving all riddles Gollum will show him the path out of the tunnels, but if Bilbo fails, his life will be forfeit. With the help of the ring, which confers invisibility, Bilbo escapes and rejoins the dwarves, improving his reputation with them; the goblins and Wargs give chase, but the company are saved by eagles before resting in the house of Beorn.
The company enters the black forest of Mirkwood without Gandalf. In Mirkwood, Bilbo first saves the dwarves from giant spiders and from the dungeons of the Wood-elves. Nearing the Lonely Mountain, the travellers are welcomed by the human inhabitants of Lake-town, who hope the dwarves will fulfil prophecies of Smaug's demise; the expedition finds the secret door. The enraged dragon, deducing that Lake-town has aided the intruder, sets out to destroy the town. A thrush had overheard Bilbo's report of Smaug's vulnerability and reports it to Lake-town defender Bard. Bard's arrow slays the dragon; when the dwarves take possession of the mountain, Bilbo finds the Arkenstone, an heirloom of Thorin's dynasty, hides it away. The Wood-elves and Lake-men besiege the mountain and request compensation for their aid, reparations for Lake-town's destruction, settlement of old claims on the treasure. Thorin refuses and, reinforces his position. Bilbo tries to ransom the A
J. R. R. Tolkien
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien, was an English writer, poet and academic, best known as the author of the classic high fantasy works The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion. He served as the Rawlinson and Bosworth Professor of Anglo-Saxon and Fellow of Pembroke College, from 1925 to 1945 and Merton Professor of English Language and Literature and Fellow of Merton College, from 1945 to 1959, he was at one time a close friend of C. S. Lewis—they were both members of the informal literary discussion group known as the Inklings. Tolkien was appointed a Commander of the Order of the British Empire by Queen Elizabeth II on 28 March 1972. After Tolkien's death, his son Christopher published a series of works based on his father's extensive notes and unpublished manuscripts, including The Silmarillion. These, together with The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, form a connected body of tales, fictional histories, invented languages, literary essays about a fantasy world called Arda and Middle-earth within it.
Between 1951 and 1955, Tolkien applied the term legendarium to the larger part of these writings. While many other authors had published works of fantasy before Tolkien, the great success of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings led directly to a popular resurgence of the genre; this has caused Tolkien to be popularly identified as the "father" of modern fantasy literature—or, more of high fantasy. In 2008, The Times ranked him sixth on a list of "The 50 greatest British writers since 1945". Forbes ranked him the 5th top-earning "dead celebrity" in 2009. Tolkien's immediate paternal ancestors were middle-class craftsmen who made and sold clocks and pianos in London and Birmingham; the Tolkien family originated in the East Prussian town Kreuzburg near Königsberg, where his first known paternal ancestor Michel Tolkien was born around 1620. Michel's son Christianus Tolkien was a wealthy miller in Kreuzburg, his son Christian Tolkien moved from Kreuzburg to nearby Danzig, his two sons Daniel Gottlieb Tolkien and Johann Benjamin Tolkien emigrated to London in the 1770s and became the ancestors of the English family.
In 1792 John Benjamin Tolkien and William Gravell took over the Erdley Norton manufacture in London, which from on sold clocks and watches under the name Gravell & Tolkien. Daniel Gottlieb obtained British citizenship in 1794, but John Benjamin never became a British citizen. Other German relatives joined the two brothers in London. Several people with the surname Tolkien or similar spelling, some of them members of the same family as J. R. R. Tolkien, live in northern Germany, but most of them are descendants of recent refugees from East Prussia who fled the Red Army invasion and subsequent ethnic cleansing. According to Ryszard Derdziński the Tolkien name is of Low Prussian origin and means "son/descendant of Tolk." Tolkien mistakenly believed his surname derived from the German word tollkühn, meaning "foolhardy", jokingly inserted himself as a "cameo" into The Notion Club Papers under the translated name Rashbold. However, Derdziński has demonstrated this to be a false etymology. While J. R. R. Tolkien was aware of the Tolkien family's German origin, his knowledge of the family's history was limited because he was "early isolated from the family of his prematurely deceased father".
John Ronald Reuel Tolkien was born on 3 January 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State to Arthur Reuel Tolkien, an English bank manager, his wife Mabel, née Suffield. The couple had left England when Arthur was promoted to head the Bloemfontein office of the British bank for which he worked. Tolkien had one sibling, his younger brother, Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, born on 17 February 1894; as a child, Tolkien was bitten by a large baboon spider in the garden, an event some think echoed in his stories, although he admitted no actual memory of the event and no special hatred of spiders as an adult. In another incident, a young family servant, who thought Tolkien a beautiful child, took the baby to his kraal to show him off, returning him the next morning; when he was three, he went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, died in South Africa of rheumatic fever before he could join them; this left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Kings Heath, Birmingham.
Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole a Worcestershire village annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Malvern Hills, which would inspire scenes in his books, along with nearby towns and villages such as Bromsgrove and Alvechurch and places such as his aunt Jane's farm of Bag End, the name of which he used in his fiction. Mabel Tolkien taught her two children at home. Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil, she taught him a great deal of botany and awakened in him the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees, but his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin early. Tolkien could write fluently soon afterwards, his mother allowed him to read many books. He disliked Treasure Island and The Pied Piper and thought Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by Lewis Carroll was "amusing but disturbing", he liked stories about "Red Indians" and the fantasy wor
Gandalf is a fictional character and a protagonist in J. R. R. Tolkien's novels The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, he is a wizard, member of the Istari order, as well as leader of the Fellowship of the Ring and the army of the West. In The Lord of the Rings, he is known as Gandalf the Grey, but returns from death as Gandalf the White. Although known as Gandalf, the character has a number of names in Tolkien's writings. Gandalf himself says, "Many are my names in many countries. Mithrandir among the Elves, Tharkûn to the Dwarves, Olórin I was in my youth in the West, forgotten, in the South Incánus, in the North Gandalf. In Norse the name means staff-elf; this is reflected in his name Tharkûn, "said to mean'Staff-man' " in Khuzdul, one of Tolkien's invented languages. In Middle-earth the colour of a Wizard's cloak distinguishes him from other Wizards. For most of his manifestation as a wizard, Gandalf's cloak is famously grey, from this derive a number of his appellations: hence Gandalf the Grey, Greyhame.
Mithrandir is a name in Sindarin, the translation of which gives rise to further names for Gandalf: the Grey Pilgrim and the Grey Wanderer. Midway through The Lord of the Rings, Gandalf is promoted to the head of the order of Wizards, is thus named Gandalf the White instead of Gandalf the Grey; this change in status introduces yet another name for the wizard: the White Rider. However after this transformation, characters who speak Elvish still refer to the wizard as Mithrandir. At times in The Lord of the Rings, other characters address Gandalf by nicknames disparaging: hence Stormcrow, Láthspell, Grey Fool. Láthspell means'Ill-news' in Old English. Tolkien discusses Gandalf in his essay on the Istari, he describes Gandalf as the last of the wizards to appear in Middle-earth, one who: "seemed the least, less tall than the others, in looks more aged, grey-haired and grey-clad, leaning on a staff". Yet the Elf Círdan who met him on arrival considered him "the greatest spirit and the wisest" and gave him the Elven Ring of Power called Narya, the Ring of Fire, containing a "red" stone for his aid and comfort.
Tolkien explicitly links Gandalf to the element fire in the same essay: Warm and eager was his spirit, for he was the Enemy of Sauron, opposing the fire that devours and wastes with the fire that kindles, succours in wanhope and distress. Merry he could be, kindly to the young and simple, yet quick at times to sharp speech and the rebuking of folly, he journeyed tirelessly on foot, leaning on a staff, so he was called among Men of the North Gandalf'the Elf of the Wand'. For they deemed him to be of Elven-kind, since he would at times work wonders among them, loving the beauty of fire, yet it is said that in the ending of the task for which he came he suffered and was slain, being sent back from death for a brief while was clothed in white, became a radiant flame. As one of the Maiar, Gandalf would have participated in the Music of the Ainur at the creation of the world; however he does not attain any prominence. In Valinor, Gandalf was known as Olórin; as recounted in the "Valaquenta" in The Silmarillion, he was one of the Maiar of Valinor of the people of the Vala Manwë.
He was closely associated with two other Valar: Irmo, in whose gardens he lived, Nienna, the patron of mercy, who gave him tutelage. When the Valar decided to send the order of the Wizards to Middle-earth in order to counsel and assist all those who opposed Sauron, Olórin was proposed by Manwë. Olórin begged to be excused as he feared Sauron and lacked the strength to face him, but Manwë replied that, all the more reason for him to go; as one of the Maiar, Gandalf was not a mortal Man but an angelic being. As one of those spirits, Olórin was in service to the Creator and the Creator's'Secret Fire'. Along with the other Maiar who entered into the world as the five Wizards, he took on the specific form of an aged old man as a sign of his humility; the role of the wizards was to advise and counsel but never to attempt to match Sauron's strength with his own, the kings and lords of Middle-earth would be more receptive to the advice of a humble old man than a more glorious form giving them direct commands.
The Istari arrived in Middle-earth separately, around T. A. 1000. He seemed the oldest and least in stature of them, but Círdan the Shipwright felt that he had the highest inner greatness on their first meeting in the Havens, gave him Narya, the Ring of Fire. Saruman, the chief Wizard learned of the gift and resented it. Gandalf hid the ring well, it was not known until he left with the other ring-bearers at the end of the Third Age that he, not Círdan, was the holder of the third of the Elven-rings. Gandalf's relationship with Saruman, the head of their Order, was strained; the Wizards were commanded to aid Men and Dwarves, but only through counsel.
Mouth of Sauron
The Mouth of Sauron is a fictional character in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, he appears in The Lord of the Rings — in the chapter "The Black Gate Opens" in the third volume, The Return of the King — as the chief emissary of Sauron. He belonged to the race of the Black Númenóreans and appeared in person when he haggled with the Army of the West in front of the Black Gate, trying to convince Aragorn and Gandalf to give up and let Sauron win the war for Middle-earth; when Gandalf turned his proposal down, the Mouth of Sauron sets all the armies of Mordor to attack them. Known as the Lieutenant of Barad-dûr, he had served Sauron for much of his life, learning great sorcery but forgetting his own name; as the Mouth of Sauron, "he entered the service of the Dark Tower when it first rose again". There is some dispute over the length of time. If it refers to Sauron's most recent return to Mordor, the Mouth of Sauron would have served Sauron for some 68 years when he encountered Aragorn and Gandalf.
But some have theorized that since Mordor "first rose again" during Sauron's return shortly after the destruction of Númenor, the Mouth of Sauron may be well over 3000 years old. This is unlikely since no mortal could live that long, Tolkien says explicitly that he was a living man and not a wraith; the Mouth uses "Sauron" as the name of his lord, although this is the name the enemies of the Dark lord give him because, as Aragorn states earlier in the second volume, The Two Towers, Sauron does not "use his right name, nor permit it to be spelt or spoken". The appearance and the arrogance of the Mouth of Sauron before the Army of the West has been described as showing Biblical influences; the character matches the description of the False Prophet in the Book of Revelation, speaking arrogant words and blasphemies, is reminiscent of Saint Paul's comments in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians where he describes his public humiliation by the enemy. War and analogies to World War II in particular are another theme, identified in the Mouth of Sauron.
Gandalf's refusal to negotiate with the Mouth, a mere emissary of Sauron, has been seen as an echo of Churchill's position in World War II, while the Mouth's offer of a peace in slavery has been compared to Vichy France under German occupation. The Mouth of Sauron is featured in the 1980 animated version of The Return of the King and was voiced by Don Messick, he rides out with a single companion and, unlike the book, makes no mention of Frodo informing Aragorn that his force is outnumbered. The Mouth of Sauron appears in the extended edition of The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King, where he is played by Bruce Spence. Director Peter Jackson cut the Mouth from the theatrical version, he had planned to cast Kate Winslet in the role to suggest temptation, but chose instead to make the character diseased and disfigured. Spence is unrecognizable: his helmet covers his entire face except the mouth, digitally increased to disproportionate size and disfigured by blackened, cracked lips and rotting teeth.
According to the DVD commentary, the idea behind this is that repeating Sauron's messages has such an evil effect that it has warped his body. Unlike the book, where he sought to secure Aragorn's surrender by claiming that Frodo was captive in Mordor, the Mouth in the film attempts to instill despair by claiming that Frodo died under torture. In another departure from the book, Aragorn decapitates the Mouth with his sword Andúril; the Mouth is featured in EA Games' The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King video game, Warner Brothers' The Lord of the Rings: Aragorn's Quest as a boss character the player must defeat. In both games, he appears in the level "The Black Gate", he is a playable villain in The Lord of the Rings: The Battle for Middle-earth II, The Lord of the Rings: The Third Age, The Lord of the Rings: Conquest, Lego The Lord of the Rings: The Video Game. Mouth of Sauron on IMDb Mouth of Sauron at The Lord of the Rings Wiki The Mouth of Sauron at Tolkien Gateway
Galadriel is a fictional character created by J. R. R. Tolkien, appearing in his Middle-earth legendarium, she appears in The Lord of the Rings, The Silmarillion, Unfinished Tales. She was a royal Elf of both the Noldor and the Teleri, being a grandchild of both King Finwë and King Olwë, was close kin of King Ingwë of the Vanyar through her grandmother Indis, she was one of the leaders in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor during the First Age, she was the only prominent Noldo to survive and return, at the end of the Third Age. Towards the end of her stay in Middle-earth she was co-ruler of Lothlórien with her husband, Lord Celeborn, was referred to variously as the Lady of Lórien, the Lady of the Galadhrim, the Lady of Light, or the Lady of the Golden Wood, her daughter Celebrían was the wife of Elrond and mother of Arwen and Elrohir. Tolkien describes Galadriel as "the mightiest and fairest of all the Elves that remained in Middle-earth" and the "greatest of elven women".
Stories of Galadriel's life prior to The Lord of the Rings appear in both The Silmarillion and Unfinished Tales. Galadriel was the only daughter and youngest child of Finarfin, prince of the Noldor, of Eärwen, cousin to Lúthien, her elder brothers were Finrod Felagund and Aegnor. She was born in Valinor during the Years of the Trees. Galadriel is described as having been "blessed with the ability to peer into the minds of others and she judged them so fairly, but in Fëanor, she only sees darkness". As one of the members of the royal house of Finwë and having the blood of the Vanyar from her paternal grandmother, she was called the fairest of all Elves, either in Aman or Middle-earth. According to the older account of her story, sketched by Tolkien in The Road Goes Ever On and used in The Silmarillion, Galadriel was an eager participant and leader in the rebellion of the Noldor and their flight from Valinor, she had, long since parted ways with Fëanor and his sons, did not participate in the Kinslaying at Alqualondë.
In Beleriand she lived with her brother Finrod Felagund at Nargothrond and at the court of Thingol and Melian in Doriath. In this account she met a kinsman of Thingol, in Doriath. After the War of Wrath, the Valar prohibited the leaders of the Exiles from returning to the Undying Lands, so as one of those leaders Galadriel remained an Exile in Middle-earth. At the end of the Third Age, when she refused the One Ring, she was allowed to return to Valinor. Unfinished Tales gathers many other accounts of Celeborn. One of these highlights a second version of, she lived with her mother's kindred in the Telerin port of Alqualondë and there met Celeborn, who would become her husband and co-ruler. Celeborn, by this account, was Olwë's grandson. Galadriel and Celeborn sailed from the West and came to Beleriand separately from the two main hosts of the Noldor. Galadriel was thus not directly involved in the revolt of the Noldorin princes in this version, indeed fought against them at Alqualondë during the kinslaying.
In Beleriand she and Celeborn were lived in Doriath. When the Noldor arrived in Beleriand, Galadriel re-established contact with her brothers. In this version of the story, she is offered a pardon by the Valar, but refused it out of pride and therefore remained under the Ban. In later accounts from Unfinished Tales, written not long before Tolkien died, Galadriel was not subject to the Ban, remained in Middle-earth of her own volition. In both versions Celeborn and Galadriel play no important role in the Battles of Beleriand, as they judge the War of the Jewels to be hopeless against Morgoth's strength. Little is told of their subsequent activities in the First Age, they leave Beleriand before the War of Wrath, they travelled first to Lindon, where they ruled over a group of Elves as a fiefdom under Gil-galad, the last High King of the Noldor. According to Concerning Galadriel and Celeborn, they removed to the shores of Lake Nenuial, were accounted the Lord and Lady of all the Elves of Eriador.
Around SA 700, they moved eastward and established the realm of Eregion or Hollin. At this time they made contact with a Nandorin settlement in the valley of the Anduin, which became Lothlórien. At some point Celeborn and Galadriel settled in Lothlórien. According to some accounts, they became rulers of Lothlórien for a time during the Second Age. Early in the Second Age, the Númenórean King Tar-Aldarion presented some Mallorn seeds to Gil-galad, High-King of the Noldor in Middle-earth, ruler of the Kingdom of Lindon, the westernmost realm in Middle-earth. "Under her power" the mellyrn had sprouted in the land of Lothlórien, but "they did not reach the height or girth of the groves of Númenor."Celeborn and Galadriel had a daughter, Celebrían, who married Elrond Half-elven of Rivendell, thus making Galadriel and her husband Celeborn the grandparents of the twins Elladan and Elrohir and their younger sister Arwen Undómiel, future Queen of the Reunited Kingdom of Gondor and Arnor. During the Second Age, when the Rings
Gimli is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, featured in The Lord of the Rings. A dwarf warrior, he is the son of Glóin. Gimli is chosen to represent the race of Dwarves in the Fellowship of the Ring; as such, he is one of the primary characters of the novel. In the course of the adventure, Gimli aids the Ring-bearer Frodo Baggins, participates in the War of the Ring, becomes close friends with Legolas, overcoming an ancient enmity of Dwarves and Elves. Gimli was a member of Durin's Folk who volunteered to accompany Frodo Baggins as a member of the Fellowship of the Ring on the quest to destroy the One Ring, he was an honourable and stalwart warrior. Gimli became enamoured upon meeting the elf-lady Galadriel, he forged a friendship with the elf Legolas despite his original hostility; these relationships helped rehabilitate the long-troubled relationship between Elves and Dwarves of Middle-earth. Gimli was born in the Ered Luin in the year 2879 of the Third Age.
His father was one of the former companions of the hobbit, Bilbo Baggins. Gimli had wanted to accompany his father and the others in the company of Thorin Oakenshield on their quest to reclaim Erebor in the year 2941, but at age 62 he was deemed too young, he was a remote descendant of Durin the Deathless, chief of the Seven Fathers of the Dwarves and ancestor to the Dwarven people to which Gimli belonged, the Longbeards. Gimli was of the royal line, but not close to the succession. Gimli was introduced in the first volume of The Lord of the Rings, The Fellowship of the Ring, at the Council of Elrond Half-elven. Gimli and his father were attending the Council to bring news of their home, to warn that the Dark Lord Sauron was searching for Bilbo. There they learned that Bilbo's kinsman Frodo now owned the Ring, a Ring of Power forged and lost by the Dark Lord Sauron; the Council decided to have it destroyed by casting it into the volcanic Mount Doom in Sauron's domain of Mordor. Frodo volunteered for the task, Elrond chose eight people of varying races to aid him in his task—including Gimli.
Thus, the Fellowship of the Ring was formed. Within the Fellowship there was friction between Gimli and the elf Legolas, for various reasons: their races bore an old grudge against each other over the ancient matter of the Necklace of the Dwarves and the destruction of Doriath, more Thranduil, Legolas' father, once imprisoned Gimli's father Glóin; when the company was forced to enter an ancient underground Dwarf-realm, the Mines of Moria, Gimli was at first enthusiastic and hoped to find a established colony of his people there, led by Balin. However, Moria was still inhabited by a huge number of Orcs and several Cave Trolls, as well as a Balrog, Balin and his folk were all dead; the Fellowship found his tomb in the Chamber of Records, together with a chronicle of events, but Orcs had discovered their presence and they had to fight their way out. After their leader Gandalf the Wizard fell into a chasm during a heated battle with the Balrog, the Fellowship escaped the Mines. Aragorn, a Ranger led them to the forest of Lothlórien, populated by Elves who were not friendly to Dwarves.
Gimli was told he had to be blindfolded if he was to enter the forest, his refusal nearly led to a violent situation, defused only when Aragorn proposed that the entire Fellowship be blindfolded, done. Gimli's opinion of Elves drastically changed when he met Galadriel, co-ruler of Lothlórien: her beauty and understanding impressed Gimli so much that, when given the opportunity to ask for whatever he wished, he responded that being able to see her and hear her gentle words was a gift enough; when pressed further, he admitted that he desired a single strand of her golden hair, so that he might treasure it and preserve it as an heirloom of his house, but that he could not ask for such a gift. Galadriel was so moved by his bold yet courteous request that she gave him not one, but three of her hairs, she subsequently gave Gimli the name "Lockbearer" as a result. By the end of the sojourn in Lothlórien, Gimli had formed his unlikely friendship with Legolas. At Amon Hen, the company was sundered, for Boromir, son of the Steward of Gondor, tried to take the Ring from Frodo and use it for Gondor and his own gain in their ongoing war against Sauron.
Frodo fled at this and went ahead, accompanied only by his gardener Samwise Gamgee. In the second volume, The Two Towers, the other members of the Fellowship were scattered while looking for Frodo, by ill-chance the two other hobbits of the party, Meriadoc Brandybuck and Peregrin Took, were captured by Orcs. Boromir was mortally wounded defending them, it fell to Gimli and Legolas to set him on a funeral boat, they decided to go after Pippin, for Frodo's mission was out of their hands. After running a great distance in a few days and thus entering the land of Rohan, they met Éomer, Third Marshal of the Riddermark and nephew of Théoden, King of Rohan, his Rohirrim riders, who had slain the Orc-band the Three Hunters were pursuing, leaving not a single one alive; when Éomer spoke ill of the name Galadriel, having been told false rumours about her, Gimli responded with overtly harsh words, leading to a hostile situation that again h
Balrogs are fictional creatures in J. R. R. Tolkien's Middle-earth legendarium, they first appeared in print in his novel The Lord of the Rings, where the Fellowship of the Ring encounter one known as Durin's Bane in the Mines of Moria. Balrogs appeared in Tolkien's earlier writings, published posthumously in The Silmarillion and books. Balrogs are tall and menacing beings who can shroud themselves in fire and shadow, they appeared armed with fiery whips "of many thongs", used long swords. In Tolkien's conception, they could not be vanquished—a certain stature was required by the would-be hero. Only dragons rivalled their capacity for ferocity and destruction, during the First Age of Middle-earth, they were among the most feared of Morgoth's forces. According to The Silmarillion, the evil Vala Melkor corrupted lesser Maiar to his service in the days of his splendor before the making of Arda; these became known as "Demons of Might": Valaraukar in Quenya, Belryg in Sindarin. Upon the awakening of the Elves, the Valar captured Melkor and destroyed his fortresses Utumno and Angband.
But they overlooked the deepest pits, with many of Melkor's other allies, the Balrogs fled into hiding. When Melkor returned to Middle-earth from Valinor, now bearing the epithet Morgoth, he was attacked by Ungoliant, a spider-like creature; when the Noldor arrived in Beleriand in pursuit of Morgoth, they won a swift victory over his Orcs in the Dagor-nuin-Giliath. Fëanor pressed on towards Angband, but the Balrogs came against him, Fëanor was mortally wounded by Gothmog, Lord of Balrogs. Fëanor's sons fought off the Balrogs. In The Lays of Beleriand, The Lay of Leithian mentions Balrog captains leading Orcs: "the Orcs went forth to rape and war, Balrog captains marched before". Tolkien tells of two Balrogs slain by Elves in the fall of Gondolin. During the assault on the city, Ecthelion of the Fountain fought Gothmog, "each slew the other." Glorfindel fought a Balrog. In the War of Wrath that ended the First Age, most of the Balrogs were destroyed, although some including the Balrog known as Durin's Bane, managed to escape and hide in "caverns at the roots of the earth".
In The Fellowship of the Ring, the Fellowship ventured through Moria and were attacked in the Chamber of Mazarbul by Orcs and the Balrog. Gandalf faced the Balrog at the Bridge of Khazad-dûm and broke the Bridge, but was dragged down by the Balrog, he slew the Balrog but perished himself at the same time—to be sent back as the more powerful Gandalf the White. Tolkien's conception of Balrogs changed over time. In all his early writing, they are numerous. A host of a thousand of them is mentioned in the Quenta Silmarillion, while at the storming of Gondolin Balrogs in the hundreds ride on the backs of the Dragons, they are of twice human size, were killed in battle by Elves and Men. They were fierce demons, associated with fire, armed with fiery whips of many thongs and claws like steel, Morgoth delighted in using them to torture his captives, they were loyal to Morgoth, once came out of hiding to save him from capture. In the published version of The Lord of the Rings, Balrogs became altogether more sinister and more powerful.
Christopher Tolkien notes the difference, saying that in earlier versions they were "less terrible and more destructible". He quotes a late margin note, not incorporated into the text saying "at most seven" existed. In writings they ceased to be creatures, but are instead Maiar, lesser Ainur like Gandalf or Sauron, spirits of fire whom Melkor had corrupted before the creation of the World. Power of the order of Gandalf's was necessary to destroy them, as Maiar, only their physical forms could be destroyed. Tolkien says of the Valar that they can change their shape at will, move unclad in the raiment of the world, meaning invisible and without form, but it seems that Morgoth and their associated Maiar could lose this ability: Morgoth, for example, was unable to heal his burns from the Silmarils or wounds from Fingolfin and Thorondor. Tolkien does not address this for Balrogs though at least in his conception they are Maiar. In "the Bridge of Khazad-dûm" in The Fellowship of the Ring, the Balrog appears "like a great shadow, in the middle of, a dark form, of man-shape maybe, yet greater".
Though the Balrog had entered the "large square chamber" of Mazarbul, at the Bridge of Khazad-dûm it "drew itself to a great height, its wings spread from wall to wall" in what was a vast hall. The Balrog's size and shape, are not given precisely; when Gandalf threw it from the peak of Zirakzigil, the Balrog "broke the mountain-side where he smote it in his ruin". Whether Balrogs have wings is unclear; this is due to Tolkien's changing conception of Balrogs, but to his imprecise but suggestive and figurative description of the Balrog that confronted Gandalf in Moria. The three key quotations: His enemy halted again, facing him, the shadow about it reached out like two vast wings. … it drew itself up to a great height, its wings were spread from wall to w