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Mixed-member proportional representation

Mixed-member proportional representation is a mixed electoral system in which voters get two votes: one to decide the representative for their single-seat constituency, one for a political party. Seats in the legislature are filled firstly by the successful constituency candidates, secondly, by party candidates based on the percentage of nationwide or region-wide votes that each party received; the constituency representatives are elected using first-past-the-post voting or another plurality/majoritarian system. The nationwide or region-wide party representatives are, in most jurisdictions, drawn from published party lists, similar to party-list proportional representation. To gain a nationwide representative, parties may be required to achieve a minimum number of constituency candidates, a minimum percentage of the nationwide party vote, or both. MMP differs from parallel voting in that the nationwide seats are allocated to political parties in a compensatory manner in order to achieve proportional election results.

Under MMP, two parties that each receive 25% of the votes may both end up with 25% of the seats if one party wins more constituencies than the other. MMP was used to elect representatives to the German Bundestag, has been adopted by Bolivia and New Zealand, it was used in Romania during its 2008 and 2012 legislative elections. In Germany, where it is used on the federal level and in most states, MMP is known as personalized proportional representation. In the United Kingdom such systems used in Scotland and the London Assembly are referred to as additional member systems. In the Canadian province of Quebec, where an MMP model was studied in 2007, it is called the compensatory mixed-member voting system. In most models, the voter casts two votes: one for a constituency representative and one for a party. In the original variant used in Germany, citizens gave only one vote, so that voting for a representative automatically meant voting for the representative's party. Most of Germany changed to the two-vote variant to make local members of parliament more accountable.

Voters can thus vote for the local person they prefer for local MP without regard for party affiliation, since the partisan make-up of the legislature is determined only by the party vote. In the 2017 New Zealand election, 27.33% of voters split their vote compared to 31.64% in 2014. In each constituency, the representative is chosen using a single winner method first-past-the-post. Most systems used closed party lists to elect the non-constituency MPs. In most jurisdictions, candidates may stand for both a constituency and on a party list, but in Wales are restricted to contend either for a constituency or for a party list, but not both. If a candidate is on the party list, but wins a constituency seat, they do not receive two seats. In Bavaria, the second vote is not for the party but for one of the candidates on the party's regional list: Bavaria uses seven regions for this purpose. A regional open-list method was recommended for the United Kingdom by the Jenkins Commission and for Canada by the Law Commission of Canada.

In contrast, the open-list method of MMP was chosen in November 2016 by voters in the 2016 Prince Edward Island electoral reform plebiscite. In Baden-Württemberg, there are no lists. At the regional or national level several different calculation methods have been used, but the basic characteristic of the MMP is that the total number of seats in the assembly, including the single-member seats and not only the party-list ones, are allocated to parties proportionally to the number of votes the party received in the party portion of the ballot; this can be done by the largest remainder method or either of two highest averages methods: the D'Hondt method or the Sainte-Laguë method. Subtracted from each party's allocation is the number of constituency seats that party won, so that the additional seats are compensatory. If a party wins more FPTP seats than the proportional quota received by the party-list vote, these surplus seats become overhang seats to work towards restoring a full proportionality.

In most German states, but not federally until the federal election of 2013, "balance seats" are added to compensate for the overhang seats and achieve complete proportionality. In one election in Scotland, the highest averages method resulted in a majority government for the Scottish National Party with only 44% of the party vote. However, Scotland uses the term Additional Member System which, like other MMP systems, is sometimes less than proportional; when a party wins more constituency seats than it would be entitled to from its proportion of votes, overhang seats can occur. Overhang seats add to the normal number of seats for the duration of the electoral period. In Germany's Bundestag and the New Zealand House of Representatives, all these constituency members keep their seats. For example, in New Zealand's 2008 General Election the Māori Party won 2.4% of the Party Vote, which would entitle them to 3 seats in the House, but won 5

Eaton Township, Michigan

Eaton Township is a civil township of Eaton County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 4,278 at the 2000 United States Census. Five Points Corner is a named populated place south of the city of Charlotte at 42°30′33″N 84°50′08″W; the community is at the junction of four townships, Walton to the southwest, Brookfield to the southeast, Eaton to the northeast, Carmel to the northwest. Packard is a former community, absorbed into the northeast portion of Charlotte. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 32.6 square miles, of which 32.6 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles is water. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 4,278 people, 1,531 households, 1,249 families in the township; the population density was 131.3 per square mile. There were 1,586 housing units at an average density of 48.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 96.31% White, 0.23% African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.89% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 1.10% from two or more races.

Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.57% of the population. There were 1,531 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.4% were married couples living together, 7.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.4% were non-families. 15.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.76 and the average family size was 3.04. In the township the population was spread out with 27.2% under the age of 18, 6.5% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 9.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.4 males. The median income for a household in the township was $55,518, the median income for a family was $57,870. Males had a median income of $45,171 versus $27,093 for females; the per capita income for the township was $23,379.

About 3.3% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.5% of those under age 18 and 7.5% of those age 65 or over

New Marston

New Marston is a suburb about 1.25 miles northeast of the centre of Oxford, England. New Marston is built on land, part of the manor of Headington, it was rural until the 19th century, when housing began to develop along Marston Road from St Clement's towards the village of Marston. The first residential development appears to have occurred in the area of William Street, Edgeway Road and Ferry Road; the 1886 - 1890 OS County Series map of Oxfordshire shows William Street sub-dividend in to a number of plots but only two significant buildings and a single dwelling on Edgeway Road. By the time of the 1899 edition of the same map Ferry Road has been extended in a Westerly direction to its modern extent and along with William Street, the southern side of Edgeway Road, adjoining parts of Marston Road, had seen significant development. Development of New Marston appears to have stalled between the turn of the century and the 1920s, the 1921 map shows little change from the 1899 edition save for the Northern side of Edgeway Road and the site of present-day Hugh Allen Crescent being designated as allotments, the addition of the Wadham College Cricket Ground to the North.

New Marston seems to have received a mains water supply by the end of the 1870s and mains drainage by the 1920s. New Marston's main development was in the 20th century, shortly after 216 acres of land were incorporated within the boundary of Oxford City in 1929, when the County Borough of Oxford developed estates of council houses around Marston Road and north of Headley Way; the County Borough had built 138 council houses at New Marston by 1938 and added another 70 after 1950. New Marston benefits from a cycle path linking Ferry Road to South Parks Road, the University Parks and the city centre; the cycle path is notable for its scenic nature passing through a SSSI, over the river Cherwell and along the Southern edge of the University Parks. A variety of wildlife can be seen from the cycle path including Deer and Grey Herons. Cowley Road Congregational Church opened a mission hall in New Marston in 1885; this was replaced by a new building opened in 1939. It is now Marston United Reformed Church.

In 1919 the Church of England parish of St Nicholas, Marston opened a mission hall in Ferry Road to serve the parts of New Marston, built by that time. Somewhat a campanile was added, its style and sand-lime brick suggesting that it is the work of the Oxford Diocesan Architect T. Lawrence Dale. In 1954-56 Saint Michael and All Angels parish church was built on Marston Road at the corner of Jack Straw's Lane as a chapel of ease for the parish of St Andrew, Headington. St Michael's was consecrated in September 1955 and superseded the Ferry Road mission hall, deconsecrated and sold for secular use. In 1963 the Diocese of Oxford constituted St Michael's as a parish church, with its new parish formed from parts of Headington, Marston and St Clement's parishes. St Michael's was designed by T. L. Dale in a "vaguely Italian renaissance style" that includes a slender campanile for its single bell, it has a statue of St Michael by a reredos painted by Leon Underwood. St Michael's is unusual for its tall, box-like chancel.

The Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh established the parish of Saint Nicholas the Wonderworker in Oxford in 2006. The congregation worshipped in rented premises until 2010, when it acquired the former Church of England mission hall in Ferry Road and restored it to use as a church; the Russian congregation has added a small onion dome and a small mosaic picture of St Nicholas to the south gable of the building. New Marston Church of England School in Marston Road opened in 1928 and became St Michael's Church of England Aided Primary School in 1955. Milham Ford School, a girls' secondary school, founded in Cowley Place in 1906, moved to newly built and larger premises in Marston Road in 1939; the school was closed in its premises sold to Oxford Brookes University. Infant and junior mixed schools were opened in Copse Lane north of Headley Way in 1948, they are now New Marston Primary School. Crossley, Alan. R.. J.. G.. A History of the County of Oxford, Volume 4. Victoria County History. CS1 maint: extra text: authors list Sherwood, Jennifer.

Oxfordshire. The Buildings of England. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books. Pp. 336–337. ISBN 0-14-071045-0

Jane Routley

Jane Routley is an Australian writer of fantasy fiction. Jane Routley was born in Australia, her first book Mage Heart was released in the U. S. in 1996. It is the first book in the Mage Heart series, she has since released two more novels in the series. In 2000 all three novels were published in Australia. Dutch and German editions have appeared. Jane had published a novel The Three Sisters in the U. S. under the pseudonym Rebecca Locksley. She has written a number of short stories including a contribution to Paul Collins' Fantastic Worlds anthology with City of Whirlwinds. Fire Angels and Aramaya both won the Aurealis Award for best fantasy novel in 1998 and 1999 respectively, she is a recipient of the Aurealis Award for best fantasy novel. Mage Heart Mage Heart Fire Angels Aramaya The Three Sisters "The Goddess Wakes" in She's Fantastical "The Empty Quarter" in Dream Weavers "Stealing the Seed" in Eidolon, Issue 24, Autumn 1997 "To Avalon" in Dreaming Down-Under "City of Whirlwinds" in Fantastic Worlds "Liars Brooch" in Spinouts "A New Creation" in Meanjin, Volume 61, Number 3 2002 "Celia" in Cicada, Vol 10, No 2, Nov/Dec 2007 1999 Nominated for a Ditmar award for To Avalon 1999 Nominated for the Aurealis Award for best fantasy short story for To Avalon 1999 Aurealis Award for Best Fantasy Novel for Aramaya 1998 Aurealis Award for Best Fantasy Novel for Fire Angels 1989 Won the Moonee Valley Library Short Story Competition with the story Red Roses Jane Routley at Voyager Online Jane Routley at Fantastic fiction

Margit Slachta

Margit Slachta was a Hungarian social activist and member of parliament of the Kingdom of Hungary. In 1920 she was the first woman to be elected to the Diet of Hungary, in 1923 she founded the Sisters of Social Service, a Roman Catholic religious institute of women. Born in Kassa, Hungary, in 1884, at a young age Margit and her parents left to live in the United States for a brief period. Upon their return to Hungary, Margit trained at a Catholic school in Budapest as a French and German language teacher. A champion of human rights, she formed the Union of Catholic Women, an organization to promote the female franchise in Hungary, in 1920 became the first woman to be elected to the Hungarian diet. In 1908 Slachta joined a religious community, the Society of the Social Mission. In 1923 she founded the Sisters of Social Service; the Social Sisters were well known throughout Hungary for nursing and orphanage services. The community opened professional schools for social work in Cluj; some students joined the religious community, others joined an affiliated lay association.

The first anti-Jewish laws were passed in Hungary in 1938, from that time on, Slachta published articles opposing anti-Jewish measures in her newspaper, Voice of the Spirit. In 1943 the government suppressed her newspaper, but Slachta continued to publish it "underground". Hungary joined the Axis Powers in 1940. In the autumn of 1940, Jewish families of Csíkszereda were deported arriving in Körösmezö in Carpathia-Ruthenia. Slachta responded to reports in 1940 of early displacement of Jews, she wrote to the parish priest at Körösmezö requesting him to inquire into their welfare. The removal process stopped on the evening of 9 December when a telegram from the Ministry of Defense ordered the release of the detainees, it was the same day as the dateline on her letter to the parish priest. The report reveals that the captain in charge had received a telegram at 7:00 p.m. that ordered him to release the Jews in his custody and to send them back to Csíkszereda. She coupled zeal for social justice religious convictions in relief efforts.

In the years following World War II, she raised awareness of the considerable contribution of Protestant churches in rescue efforts. Slachta sheltered the persecuted, protested forced labour and anti-semitic laws, went to Rome in 1943 to encourage papal action against the Jewish persecutions. Slachta told her sisters that the precepts of their faith demanded that they protect the Jews if it led to their own deaths; when in 1941, 20,000 were deported, Slachta protested to the wife of Admiral Horthy. The Nazis occupied Hungary in 1944, commenced widescale deportations of Jews. Slachta's sisters arranged baptisms in the hope it would spare people from deportation, sent food and supplies to the Jewish ghettos, sheltered people in their convents. One of Slachta's sisters, Sára Salkaházi was executed by the Arrow Cross, Slachta herself was beaten and only narrowly avoided execution; the sisters rescued more than 2000 Hungarian Jews. In 1985, Yad Vashem recognized Margit Slachta as Righteous Among the Nations.

She returned to Parliament following the 1945 elections, in which she was elected on the Civic Democratic Party list. However, she resigned from the party in January 1946 to sit as an independent. On January 31, 1946, she was the only member of Parliament to vote against the declaration of a republic and in her speech she defended not only the idea of monarchy, but the Habsburgs. Subsequently the Christian Women's League ran as a standalone party in the 1947 elections, winning four seats. Prior to the 1949 elections, several parties were forced to join the Communist-led Hungarian Independent People's Front, with the Front running a single list chosen by the Hungarian Working People's Party. Slachta was turned down. Mona, Ilona.. Slachta Margit Slachta Margit Biography Margit Slachta and the early rescue of Jewish families, 1939-42 Writings of Sister Margaret in Translation from Magyar to English

Robert C. Wickliffe

Robert Charles Wickliffe was Lieutenant Governor and the 15th Governor of Louisiana from 1856 to 1860. He was born in Kentucky at Wickland to Governor, Charles A. Wickliffe, his maternal grandfather was an Indian fighter in Kentucky. Wickliffe attended several schools including St. Joseph's College in Augusta College, he graduated from Centre College in Danville, Kentucky in 1840 and resided in Washington, DC during his father's tenure as Postmaster General in the Tyler Administration. He studied law under United States Attorney General Hugh Lagare and was admitted to the Kentucky bar. In 1843, Wickliffe married Anna Dawson, the daughter of Louisiana Congressman John Bennett Dawson and niece of Louisiana Governor Isaac Johnson. In 1846, the Wickliffes moved to St. Francisville, Louisiana so Robert could recover from pneumonia at his wife's family's plantation, Wyoming. Wickliffe won. Reelected in 1853, he is appointed Chairman of the Commission on Public Education, became President Pro Tempore of the Louisiana Senate when W. W. Farmer became Lieutenant Governor.

When Farmer died in office in 1854, Wickliffe, as President Pro Temp, became Lieutenant Governor. In 1855, Wickliffe was nominated as the Democratic candidate for Governor of Louisiana, he went on to defeat Charles Derbigny, son of former Governor Pierre Derbigny, running on the Know Nothing ticket. In winning, Wickliffe carried 31 of 48 parishes. In his inaugural address in Baton Rouge, Governor Wickliffe advocated a united Democratic South to protect state's rights and he championed the expansion of American power to the Caribbean, Mexico and Central America in order to protect slavery in the United States, his administration continued the trend of railroad building, but critics claimed he ignored public education. The Panic of 1857 caused unrest and depression throughout the country and Louisiana was hard hit. Governor Wickliffe blamed a loosely managed Board of Currency in Louisiana; as a consequence, he ordered banks to make weekly statements to the Board of Currency. The unrest changed to violence in New Orleans, under Know Nothing control, Wickliffe was forced to dispatch the militia to ensure the validity of the 1858 elections.

After his term as Governor ended, Wickliffe returned to planting and the practice of law in St. Francisville. In the Presidential election of 1860, Wickliffe joined Senator Pierre Soulé in backing Stephen A. Douglas; the other Louisiana Senator, John Slidell, backed former Vice President John C. Breckinridge from Kentucky. Wickliffe was selected to be a delegate for Douglas at the Democratic National Convention in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1861, Wickliffe did not support secession and during the Civil War he tried to act as an intermediary between the Confederacy and the Union. After the war was over, in 1865, Wickliffe was elected to the United States House of Representatives representing Louisiana's 3rd congressional district, he was not seated as Louisiana was deemed "not reconstructed." Wickliffe married his second wife, Anna Davis Anderson in 1870. He was elected a delegate to the Democratic National Convention supporting Samuel J. Tilden in 1876 and in 1884 was delegate supporting Grover Cleveland.

In 1892, he reentered electoral politics when he was nominated for Lieutenant Governor by the Louisiana Lottery faction of the Democratic Party. Wickliffe lost to anti-lottery Democrats led by Murphy James Foster. Wickliffe died while visiting relatives in Kentucky on April 18, 1895. State of Louisiana - Biography Cemetery Memorial by La-Cemeteries Allen, William B.. A History of Kentucky: Embracing Gleanings, Antiquities, Natural Curiosities and Biographical Sketches of Pioneers, Jurists, Statesmen, Mechanics, Farmers and Other Leading Men, of All Occupations and Pursuits. Bradley & Gilbert. Pp. 357–358. Retrieved 2008-11-10