Zoning describes the control by authority which designates legal areas in a municipality to permit and prohibit land uses. Zoning may specify a variety of outright and conditional uses of land and it may indicate the size and dimensions of land area as well as the form and scale of buildings. These guidelines are set in order to guide urban growth and development, areas of land are divided by appropriate authorities into zones within which various uses are permitted. Thus, zoning is a technique of land-use planning as a tool of urban planning used by governments in most developed countries. The word is derived from the practice of designating mapped zones which regulate the use, design, legally, a zoning plan is usually enacted as a by-law with the respective procedures. Canada or Germany, zoning plans must comply with upper-tier planning, similar urban planning methods have dictated the use of various areas for particular purposes in many cities from ancient times. The primary purpose of zoning is to segregate uses that are thought to be incompatible, in practice, zoning is used to prevent new development from interfering with existing uses and/or to preserve the character of a community.
However, it has not always been a method for achieving this goal. In Australia, land under the control of the Commonwealth government is not subject to state planning controls, the United States and other federal countries are similar. Zoning and urban planning in France and Germany are regulated by national or federal codes, in the case of Germany this code includes contents of zoning plans as well as the legal procedure. In Germany, zoning includes an assessment with very specific greenspace and compensation regulations. The details of how individual planning systems incorporate zoning into their regulatory regimes varies though the intention is always similar, most zoning systems have a procedure for granting variances, usually because of some perceived hardship caused by the particular nature of the property in question. The origins of zoning districts can be traced back to antiquity, the ancient walled city was the predecessor for classifying and regulating land based on use. Outside the city walls were the functions, which were usually based on noise and smell.
The space between the walls is where unsanitary and dangerous activities occurred such as butchering, waste disposal, within the wall were civic and religious places, and where the majority of people lived. Beyond the simple distinction between urban and non-urban land, most ancient cities further classified land type and use inside their walls. This was practiced in regions of the world – for example, in China during the Zhou Dynasty, in India during the Vedic Era. One legal form for enforcing this was the caste system and this meant that residential areas functioned as places of labour and commerce
Toronto is the most populous city in Canada and the provincial capital of Ontario. With a population of 2,731,571, it is the fourth most populous city in North America after Mexico City, New York City, and Los Angeles. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the area now known as Toronto for thousands of years, the city itself is situated on the southern terminus of an ancient Aboriginal trail leading north to Lake Simcoe, used by the Wyandot and the Mississauga. Permanent European settlement began in the 1790s, after the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase of 1787, the British established the town of York, and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York, York was renamed and incorporated as the city of Toronto in 1834, and became the capital of the province of Ontario during the Canadian Confederation in 1867. The city proper has since expanded past its original borders through amalgamation with surrounding municipalities at various times in its history to its current area of 630.2 km2.
While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, and television production, and is home to the headquarters of Canadas major national broadcast networks and media outlets. Toronto is known for its skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere. The name Toronto is likely derived from the Iroquois word tkaronto and this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, in the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagonon the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, French traders founded Fort Rouillé on the current Exhibition grounds in 1750, but abandoned it in 1759.
During the American Revolutionary War, the region saw an influx of British settlers as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario, the new province of Upper Canada was in the process of creation and needed a capital. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto, in 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, instead naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the towns natural harbour, sheltered by a long sandbar peninsula. The towns settlement formed at the end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the towns capture, the surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. US soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation, the sacking of York was a primary motivation for the Burning of Washington by British troops in the war
A public space is a social space that is generally open and accessible to people. Roads, public squares and beaches are considered public space. To a limited extent, government buildings which are open to the public, such as libraries are public spaces, although they tend to have restricted areas. Recently, the concept of Shared space has been advanced to enhance the experience of pedestrians in public space used by automobiles. Public space has become something of a touchstone for critical theory in relation to philosophy, visual art, cultural studies, social studies. The term public space is often misconstrued to mean other things such as gathering place. One of the earliest examples of spaces are commons. For example, no fees or paid tickets are required for entry, non-government-owned malls are examples of private space with the appearance of being public space. In Nordic countries like Norway and Finland, all areas are considered public space, due to a law. In the United States the right of the people to engage in speech, the government cannot usually limit ones speech beyond what is reasonable in a public space, which is considered to be a public forum.
This is not to say that the government can control what one says in their own home or to others, malls, waiting rooms, etc. may be closed at night. As this does not exclude any specific group, it is not considered a restriction on public use. Entry to public parks cannot be restricted based upon a users residence, in some cultures, there is no expectation of privacy in a public space, however civil inattention is a process whereby individuals are able to maintain their privacy within a crowd. Public space is shared and created for open usage throughout the community. The area is built for a range of types of recreation. The physical setting is socially constructed, which creates a behavior influence, limitations are imposed in the space to prevent certain actions from occurring--public behavior that is considered obnoxious or out of character --and are supported by law or ordinance. Police forces are involved in moving unwanted members of the public from public spaces. In fact, by not being provided suitable access, disabled people are excluded from some spaces
Portland is a port and the largest city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette, the city covers 145 square miles and had an estimated population of 632,309 in 2015, making it the 26th most populous city in the United States. Approximately 2,389,228 people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area and its Combined Statistical Area ranks 17th with a population of 3,022,178. Roughly 60% of Oregons population resides within the Portland metropolitan area, named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail. Its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, and the industry was a major force in the citys early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous cities in the world. After the citys economy experienced a boom during World War II. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its liberal political values, and the city has earned a reputation as a bastion of counterculture.
According to a 2009 Pew Research Center study, Portland ranks as the eighth most popular American city, the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its planning and investment in public transportation. Its climate is marked by warm, dry summers and cool and this climate is ideal for growing roses, and Portland has been called the City of Roses for over a century. Keep Portland Weird is a slogan for the city. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula and these massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. The Chinook people occupying the land which would become Portland were first documented by Meriwether Lewis, before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast.
Large numbers of settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail. In the early 1840s a new settlement began emerging ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River and this community was initially referred to as Stumptown and The Clearing because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file a land claim. For 25 cents Overton agreed to half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston
Edge city is an American term for a concentration of business and entertainment outside a traditional downtown in what had previously been a residential or rural area. The term was popularized by the 1991 book Edge City, Life on the New Frontier by Joel Garreau, Garreau argues that the edge city has become the standard form of urban growth worldwide, representing a 20th-century urban form unlike that of the 19th-century central downtown. Other terms for these areas include suburban activity centers, megacenters, in 1991, Garreau established five rules for a place to be considered an edge city, Has five million or more square feet of leasable office space. Has 600,000 square feet or more of leasable retail space, is perceived by the population as one place. Was nothing like a city as recently as 30 years ago, it was just bedrooms, if not cow pastures. Most edge cities develop at or near existing or planned freeway intersections and they often are not separate legal entities but are governed as part of surrounding counties.
They are numerous—almost 200 in the United States, compared to 45 downtowns of comparable size—and are large geographically because they are built at automobile scale. Spatially, edge cities primarily consist of office towers surrounded by massive surface parking lots and meticulously manicured lawns. Instead of a street grid, their street networks are hierarchical. There are certain factors that helped the emergence of edge cities and they are the advanced development of the automobile, which in turn led to the need for parking, the rise of communications and the entry of more individuals into the work place. The creation of the city includes political groups that aided in the creation of the edge city in a particular way. Within the edge city exists a privatized proto-government that is an alternative to normal politics and these “shadow governments can tax, legislate for, and police their communities, but they are rarely accountable, are responsive primarily to wealth, and subject to few constitutional constraints”.
Shadow governments form as private organizations come to edge cities, in most cases a ‘privatopia’ is formed within edge city residential areas. Private housing development is administered by homeowner associations, in 1964 there were less than 500 associations, “…by 1992, there were 150,000 associations privately governing approximately 32 million Americans”. Edge cities have had substantial investments placed in them, edge cities are being reconstructed as much as cities have been over a century and this concept has showcased the impact that national economies have on the edge city and the surrounding areas. Through Garreau, the edge city has provided information on how corporate players remain important to the strength of urban. Garreau describes that the city has a tendency to have a large service-orientated industry linked to the national economy. The edge city offers supplies to the area in the form of retail facilities
New Urbanism is an urban design movement which promotes environmentally friendly habits by creating walkable neighborhoods containing a wide range of housing and job types. It arose in the United States in the early 1980s, and has influenced many aspects of real estate development, urban planning. These ideas can all be circled back to two concepts, building a sense of community and the development of ecological practices, the organizing body for New Urbanism is the Congress for the New Urbanism, founded in 1993. They believe their strategies can reduce congestion by encouraging the population to ride bikes, walk. They hope that this set up will increase the supply of affordable housing, the Charter of the New Urbanism covers issues such as historic preservation, safe streets, green building, and the re-development of brownfield land. The ten Principles of Intelligent Urbanism phrase guidelines for new urbanist approaches, new urbanist developments are often accompanied by New Classical, postmodern, or vernacular styles, although that is not always the case.
Until the mid 20th century, cities were generally organized into, but with the advent of cheap automobiles and favorable government policies, attention began to shift away from cities and towards ways of growth more focused on the needs of the car. This new system of development, with its rigorous separation of uses, arose after World War II, the majority of U. S. citizens now live in suburban communities built in the last fifty years, and automobile use per capita has soared. Although New Urbanism as a movement would only arise later. Social philosopher and historian Lewis Mumford criticized the development of post-war America. The French architect François Spoerry has developed in the 60s the concept of architecture that he applied to Port Grimaud. The success of project had a considerable influence and led to many new projects of soft architecture like Port Liberté in New Jersey or Le Plessis Robisson in France. The term new urbanism itself started being used in context in the mid-1980s. Named the Ahwahnee Principles, the presented the principles to about one hundred government officials in the fall of 1991.
Calthorpe, Moule, Plater-Zyberk and Solomon founded the Chicago-based Congress for the New Urbanism in 1993, the CNU has grown to more than three thousand members, and is the leading international organization promoting New Urbanist design principles. It holds annual Congresses in various U. S. cities, the Canons are a set of operating principles for human settlement that reestablish the relationship between the art of building, the making of community, and the conservation of our natural world. They promote the use of heating and cooling solutions, the use of locally obtained materials, and in general. New Urbanism is a movement that spans a number of different disciplines
A company town is a place where practically all stores and housing are owned by the one company that is the main employer. Company towns are often planned with a suite of amenities such as stores, schools, the best examples of company towns have had high ideals, but many have been regarded as paternalistic or exploitative. Others developed more or less in unplanned fashion, such as Summit Hill, one of the oldest, traditional settings for company towns were where extractive industries — coal, metal mines, lumber — had established a monopoly franchise. Dam sites and war-industry camps founded other company towns, since company stores often had a monopoly in company towns, it was possible to pay in scrip through a truck system. In the Soviet Union there were cities of nuclear scientists known as atomgrad, particularly in Ukraine those were Pripyat, Varash. The company may donate a building to a local congregation, operate parks, host cultural events such as concerts. If the owning company cuts back or goes out of business, Company towns often become regular public cities and towns as they grow and attract other settlement, business enterprises, and pool transportation and services infrastructure.
Other times, a town may not officially be a company town, such dependencies extend to neighborhoods and regions of larger cities. Paternalism, a form of social engineering, refers to the control of workers by their employers who sought to force middle-class ideals upon their working-class employees. Accordingly, the town offered a unique opportunity to achieve such ends. Additionally, for-profit shops within company towns were owned by the company. Although economically successful, company towns sometimes failed politically due to a lack of elected officials, workers often had no say in local affairs and therefore, felt dictated. Ultimately, this political climate caused resentment amongst workers and resulted in many residents eventually losing long-term affection for their towns, such was the case at Pullman. The town, entirely company-owned, provided housing, markets, a library and entertainment for the 6,000 company employees, employees were required to live in Pullman, although cheaper rentals could be found in nearby communities.
The town operated successfully until the panic of 1893, when demands for the companys products declined. Despite this, the company refused to lower rents in the town or the price of goods at its shops, a national commission formed to investigate the causes of the strikes found that Pullmans paternalism was partly to blame and labelled it un-American. In 1898, the Illinois Supreme Court required Pullman to dissolve their ownership of the town, historian Linda Carlson argues that the managers of corporate towns in the early 20th century believed they could avoid the mistakes made by George Pullman in the 1880s. She says they, wanted to create a life for their employees, decent housing, good schools
Real estate development
Real estate developers are the people and companies who coordinate all of these activities, converting ideas from paper to real property. Real estate development is different from construction, although many developers manage the construction process, developers buy land, finance real estate deals, build or have builders build projects, imagine and orchestrate the process of development from the beginning to end. Developers usually take the greatest risk in the creation or renovation of real estate—and receive the greatest rewards, sometimes property developers will only undertake part of the process. For example, some developers source a property and get the plans and permits approved before selling the property with the plans and permits to a builder at a premium price. Developers work with different counterparts along each step of this process, including architects, city planners, surveyors, contractors, leasing agents. In the Town and Country Planning context in the United Kingdom, development is defined in the Town, there is no specific credential required, nor license necessary, for a person or company to call himself a real estate developer. A real estate developer is not a designation, there are no schools or associations who recognize or protect the term as a trademark.
Some real estate developers, often involved in marketing properties through traditional real estate channels. Licensed contractors who follow blueprints designed by licensed architects and licensed engineers and this definition is clarified by the remainder of s55 and the inclusion of the Generally Permitted Development Order 1995 and the Use Classes Order 1987. No single path leads automatically to success in real estate development, developers come from a variety of disciplines— construction, urban planning, architecture and accounting, among others. Recent specialized programs that award a Master of Real Estate Development degree are available, the graduate programs in real estate development are the most comprehensive education in the real estate industry. Other formal education includes a Master of Science in Real Estate, a development team can be put together in one of several ways. At one extreme, a company might include many services. At the other end of the spectrum, a development company might consist of one principal, assembling a team of professionals to address the environmental, private and political issues inherent in a complex development project is critical. A developers success depends on the ability to coordinate and lead the completion of a series of interrelated activities efficiently, the general contractor of the project hires subcontractors to put the architectural plans into action.
Purchasing unused land for a development is sometimes called speculative development. Subdivision of land is the mechanism by which communities are developed. Technically, subdivision describes the legal and physical steps a developer must take to convert raw land into developed land, after subdivision is complete, the developer usually markets the land to a home builder or other end user, for such uses as a warehouse or shopping center
A boarding house is a house in which lodgers rent one or more rooms for one or more nights, and sometimes for extended periods of weeks and years. The common parts of the house are maintained, and some services, such as laundry and cleaning and they normally provide room and board, that is, at least some meals as well as accommodation. A lodging house, known in the United States as a rooming house, lodgers legally only obtain a licence to use their rooms, and not exclusive possession, so the landlord retains the right of access. Formerly boarders would typically share washing and dining facilities, in recent years it has become common for room to have its own washing. Such boarding houses were found in English seaside towns and college towns. It was common for there to be one or two elderly long-term residents, Boarders can often arrange to stay bed-and-breakfast, half-board or full-board. Especially for families on holiday with children, boarding was an alternative and certainly much cheaper than staying in all.
However some B&B accommodation is available on a long-term basis to UK local authorities who are legally obliged to house persons. Such a boarding-house may well cease to be attractive to short-term lodgers, much old seaside accommodation is so used, since cheap flights have reduced demand for their original seasonal holiday use. Apart from the spread of the concept of the B&B. For example, in Japan, minshuku are an almost exact equivalent although the arrangement would be the equivalent of the English half-board. In Hawaii, where the cost of living is high and incomes barely keep pace, in the Indian subcontinent boarders are known as paying guests. Paying guests stay in a home and share a room with domestic facilities, rates are nominal and monthly charges are usually inclusive of food, table and a cupboard. The rent can go higher for a room in a locality with facilities like single occupancy, air conditioning. In the United States, zoning was used by neighborhoods to limit boarding houses, sherlock Holmes lived in a boarding house at 221B Baker Street, of which the landlady Mrs.
Hudson provided some domestic service. Mary Roberts Rinehart wrote the now classic boarding-house mystery, The Case of Jennie Brice, H. G. Wells satirized boarding houses of the Edwardian era in his novel The Dream. E. Phillips Oppenheim set his novel, The Strange Boarders of Palace Crescent in a London boarding house. Lynne Reid Bankss novel The L-Shaped Room is set in a boarding house
In some jurisdictions, corner stores are licensed to sell alcohol, typically beer and wine. Such stores may offer money order and wire transfer services and they differ from general stores and village shops in that they are not in a rural location and are used as a convenient supplement to larger stores. A convenience store may be part of a station, so customers can purchase goods conveniently while filling their vehicle with fuel. It may be located alongside a road, in an urban area, near a railway or railroad station. In some countries, convenience stores have long shopping hours, some remaining open 24 hours, convenience stores make up for this loss by having longer open hours, serving more locations, and having shorter cashier lines. A convenience store may be called a c-store, Cold Store, party store, small store, mini-market, mini-mart. Various types exist, for example, liquor stores, mini-markets, typically junk food, lottery tickets and magazines are sold although merchandise varies widely from store to store.
Unless the outlet is a store, the range of alcohol beverages is likely to be limited or non-existent. Most stores carry cigarettes and other tobacco products, varying degrees of food and grocery supplies are usually available, from household products, to prepackaged foods like sandwiches and frozen burritos. Automobile-related items such as oil and car kits may be sold. Often toiletries and other products are stocked, as well as feminine hygiene. Stores may carry apparel, home furnishings, and CDs and DVDs, some of these stores offer money orders and wire transfer services. Convenience stores that are near fishing destinations may carry live fishing bait as well as fishing equipment, Convenience stores may carry small appliances as well as other household items such as coolers and back packs. Convenience stores have known to carry candles, artwork. Many convenience stores offer food ready to eat, such as breakfast sandwiches, throughout Europe convenience stores now sell fresh French bread. A process of freezing parbaked bread allows easy shipment and baking in-store, some stores have a delicatessen counter, offering custom-made sandwiches and baguettes.
Others have racks offering fresh delivered or baked doughnuts from local doughnut shops, some stores have a self-service microwave oven for heating purchased food. In the United States, some fast food chains offer a counter in convenience stores, instead of cooking food in the store, these counters offer a limited menu of items delivered several times a day from a local branch of the restaurant
A business park or office park is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together. All of the work goes on is commercial, not large-scale industrial nor residential. The first office opened in Mountain Brook, Alabama, in the early 1950s to avoid racial tension in city centers. These are popular in suburban locations, where development is cheaper because of the lower land costs. Some businesses prefer the larger floorplates as more efficient, reducing time lost moving between floors and they are often located near motorways or main roads for easy access. The urbanized park originally sprang from the hybridization of the garden-city and Anglo-Saxon university campus models