Spanish conquest of Yucatán
The Spanish conquest of Yucatán was the campaign undertaken by the Spanish conquistadores against the Late Postclassic Maya states and polities in the Yucatán Peninsula, a vast limestone plain covering south-eastern Mexico, northern Guatemala, all of Belize. The Spanish conquest of the Yucatán Peninsula was hindered by its politically fragmented state; the Spanish engaged in a strategy of concentrating native populations in newly founded colonial towns. Native resistance to the new nucleated settlements took the form of the flight into inaccessible regions such as the forest or joining neighbouring Maya groups that had not yet submitted to the Spanish. Among the Maya, ambush was a favoured tactic. Spanish weaponry included broadswords, lances, halberds, crossbows and light artillery. Maya warriors fought with flint-tipped spears and arrows and stones, wore padded cotton armour to protect themselves; the Spanish introduced a number of Old World diseases unknown in the Americas, initiating devastating plagues that swept through the native populations.
The first encounter with the Yucatec Maya may have occurred in 1502, when the fourth voyage of Christopher Columbus came across a large trading canoe off Honduras. In 1511, Spanish survivors of the shipwrecked caravel called Santa María de la Barca sought refuge among native groups along the eastern coast of the peninsula. Hernán Cortés made contact with two survivors, Gerónimo de Aguilar and Gonzalo Guerrero, six years later. In 1517, Francisco Hernández de Córdoba made landfall on the tip of the peninsula, his expedition continued along the coast and suffered heavy losses in a pitched battle at Champotón, forcing a retreat to Cuba. Juan de Grijalva explored the coast in 1518, heard tales of the wealthy Aztec Empire further west; as a result of these rumours, Hernán Cortés set sail with another fleet. From Cozumel he continued around the peninsula to Tabasco. In 1524, Cortés led a sizeable expedition to Honduras, cutting across southern Campeche, through Petén in what is now northern Guatemala.
In 1527 Francisco de Montejo set sail from Spain with a small fleet. He left garrisons on the east coast, subjugated the northeast of the peninsula. Montejo returned to the east to find his garrisons had been eliminated. Montejo pacified Tabasco with the aid of his son named Francisco de Montejo. In 1531 the Spanish moved their base of operations to Campeche, where they repulsed a significant Maya attack. After this battle, the Spanish founded a town at Chichen Itza in the north. Montejo carved up the province amongst his soldiers. In mid-1533 the local Maya rebelled and laid siege to the small Spanish garrison, forced to flee. Towards the end of 1534, or the beginning of 1535, the Spanish retreated from Campeche to Veracruz. In 1535, peaceful attempts by the Franciscan Order to incorporate Yucatán into the Spanish Empire failed after a renewed Spanish military presence at Champotón forced the friars out. Champotón was by now the last Spanish outpost in Yucatán, isolated among a hostile population.
In 1541–42 the first permanent Spanish town councils in the entire peninsula were founded at Campeche and Mérida. When the powerful lord of Mani converted to the Roman Catholic religion, his submission to Spain and conversion to Christianity encouraged the lords of the western provinces to accept Spanish rule. In late 1546 an alliance of eastern provinces launched an unsuccessful uprising against the Spanish; the eastern Maya were defeated in a single battle, which marked the final conquest of the northern portion of the Yucatán Peninsula. The polities of Petén in the south remained independent and received many refugees fleeing from Spanish jurisdiction. In 1618 and in 1619 two unsuccessful Franciscan missions attempted the peaceful conversion of the still pagan Itza. In 1622 the Itza slaughtered two Spanish parties trying to reach their capital Nojpetén; these events ended all Spanish attempts to contact the Itza until 1695. Over the course of 1695 and 1696 a number of Spanish expeditions attempted to reach Nojpetén from the mutually independent Spanish colonies in Yucatán and Guatemala.
In early 1695 the Spanish began to build a road from Campeche south towards Petén and activity intensified, sometimes with significant losses on the part of the Spanish. Martín de Urzúa y Arizmendi, governor of Yucatán, launched an assault upon Nojpetén in March 1697. With the defeat of the Itza, the last independent and unconquered native kingdom in the Americas fell to the Spanish; the Yucatán Peninsula is bordered by the Caribbean Sea to the east and by the Gulf of Mexico to the north and west. It can be delimited by a line running from the Laguna de Términos on the Gulf coast through to the Gulf of Honduras on the Caribbean coast, it incorporates the modern Mexican states of Yucatán, Quintana Roo and Campeche, the eastern portion of the state of Tabasco, most of the Guatemalan department of Petén, all of Belize. Most of the peninsula is formed by a vast plain with few hills or mountains and a low coastline. A 15-kilometre stretch of high, rocky coast runs south from the city of Campeche on the Gulf Coast.
A number of bays are situated along the east coast of the peninsula, from north to south they are Ascensión Bay, Espíritu Santo Bay, Chetumal Bay and Amatique Bay. The north coast features a sandy littoral zone; the extreme north of the peninsula corresponding to Yucatán State, has underlying bedrock consisting of flat Cenozoic limestone. To the south of this the limestone rises to form the
The Yaqui Wars, were a series of armed conflicts between New Spain, the Mexican Republic, against the Yaqui Indians. The period began in 1533 and lasted until 1929; the Yaqui Wars, along with the Caste War against the Maya, were the last conflicts of the centuries long Mexican Indian Wars. Over the course of nearly 400 years, the Spanish and the Mexicans launched military campaigns into Yaqui territory which resulted in several serious battles and some infamous massacres; the cause of the conflicts was like many of the Indian Wars. In 1684, the Spanish colonists in the present day Mexican state of Sonora discovered silver in the Rio Yaqui Valley. Following this, the Spanish began settling on Yaqui land, by 1740, the natives were ready to resist; some minor conflicts from before dated back to 1533 but in 1740 the Yaqui united with the neighboring Mayo and Pima tribes and drove the colonists out by 1742. During the Mexican War of Independence from Spain the Yaqui did not participate on either side.
It was when Occidente passed a law in 1825 making the Yaqui its citizens and subjecting them to taxes that the Yaqui decided to go to war, since they had not been subjected to taxes. The first fighting was at Rahum; the movement was encouraged by Pedro Leyva, a Catholic priest and took the Virgin of Guadalupe as its symbol. The Yaqui coalesced around Juan Banderas as their leader. Juan Banderas was a noted Yaqui leader, who after receiving visions in 1825, attempted to unite the Yaqui and other nearby tribal groups, including the Opata, Lower Pima, Mayo, under the banner of the Virgin of Guadalupe. Banderas challenged Mexican rule in Sonora and Sinaloa between 1825 and 1832. Occidente was so affected by the war. In 1827 Banderas' forces were defeated by Mexicans in the vicinity of Hermosillo; this defeat was due to the Yaquis having bows and arrows, while the Mexicans had guns. After this defeat, Banderas negotiated a peace with Occidente, in which he was granted pardon, recognized as a captain-general of the Yaqui, was given a salary.
In 1828 the office of captain-general was abolished, Occidente government reasserted its right to tax the Yaqui, as well as proposing a plan for allotting the Yaqui lands. In 1832 Banderas renewed the war against the Mexican authorities, in cooperation with Dolores Gutiérrez, a chief of the Opata people. Mexican forces captured Banderas and other Indian leaders after the defeat of Banderas' forces at the battle of Soyopa, Sonora, in December, 1832. In 1833 Banderas and Gutiérrez, along with 10 others, were executed in January 1833. Banderas remained a admired symbol of Yaqui resistance to foreign domination; some warriors fled from their occupied pueblos along the Rio Yaqui and continued fighting in the Sierra Vakatetteve. In 1834 Yaquis at Torim tried to drive the Mexican settlers from that location; the Mexican forces in this fighting were led by Juan Ignacio Juscamea. Juscamea continued to cooperate with the Mexican government until 1840 when he was killed by anti-Mexican Yaquis in fighting at Horcasitas.
During the 1830s and 1840s the Yaqui allied with Manuel María Gándara, a former conservative governor of Sonora, in his struggle against José de Urrea for control of Sonora. In 1838 this led to Urrea capturing the coastal salt deposits of the Yaqui and transferring them to state control. In 1857 Gándara was removed from power by Ignacio Pesqueira; the Yaqui under the leadership of Mateo Marquin known as Jose Maria Barquin, were among the chief allies of Gándara in his attempt to regain control of Sonora. Most of the fighting was in the Guaymas River valley. However, in 1858 Cócorit became a point of violence; the Mayos joined the Yaqui in waging war against the Mexican government, destroyed Santa Cruz, Sonora. In August 1860, bands of Yaqui and Mayo insurgents, some 1,000 or 1,200 strong, marched towards Guaymas and leveling Mexican settlements as they advanced; the citizens of Guaymas fortified the town, declaring a state of siege, armed 350 men in its defense. The Prefect of Guaymas dispatched a courier to the Governor at Hermosillo.
The dispatch reached Hermosillo on the 31st of August. Governor Pesquiera, with a force of sixty horse and eighty infantry, promptly left Hermosillo, he intended to travel to El Cachora to gather an additional 300 troops, but the Yaqui ambushed him and his troops en route at Jacalitos, a small village about forty-two miles from Hermosillo. The inexperienced Mexican troops fled the battle, leaving Pesquiera and General Angel Trias of Chihuahua, who accompanied Pesquiera, with some eight or ten of the body guard to face 600 well armed Yaqui. Pesquiera and Angel Trias succeeded in escaping and joined the forces at El Cachora. Following this defeat, Pesqueira invaded Mayo and Yaqui territory in 1862, forced them to accept peace terms; the peace was negotiated at Sonora. The terms of the peace allowed a pardon to the leaders of the Yaqui, but required a military post to be established at Agua Caliente, for the Mexicans to control the actions of the Yaqui. After the French victory over Pesqueira at Guaymas in 1865, the Yaqui allied with the French in fighting the Mexicans.
Mateo Marquin publicly expressed support for the French. Refugio Tenori, a leader of the Opata allied with the French; these native allies of the French took control of Alamos and drove Pesquira from his base at Ures. In 1868, with the withdrawal of the French, Pesqueira appointed pro-Mexican Yaqui to administer the Yaqui towns, but in Bácum the Yaqui killed this official. Pesqueira appointed Garcia Morales to lead a campaign against the Ya
The Caxcan were a nomadic indigenous people of Mexico. Under their leader, the Caxcan were allied with the Zacatecos against the Spaniards during the Mixtón Rebellion in 1540-42. During the rebellion, they were described as "the heart and the center of the Indian Rebellion". After the rebellion, they were a constant target of the Zacatecos and Guachichiles due to their ceasefire agreement with the Spaniards, their principal religious and population centers were at Teul, Tlaltenango and Teocaltiche. Over time, the Caxcans lost their culture due to warfare and marriage to non-Caxcans. Most of the Caxcans were sent into slavery by the Spanish to work in silver mines. During the colonial period, many Spanish had intermarried, or had relations, with the Caxcans making many Caxcan descendants Mestizos; the allied tribes and Mestizos settled the Caxcan lands in Jalisco. Their language was part of the Uto-Aztecan language family, their elected rulers were called tlatoani. Caxcan society was divided up into several different city-states.
The Chichimeca War was a military conflict waged between Spanish colonizers and their Indian allies against a confederation of Chichimeca Indians. It was the longest and most expensive conflict between Spaniards and the indigenous peoples of New Spain in the history of the colony; the Chichimeca wars began eight years after the Mixtón Rebellion. It can be considered as a continuation of that rebellion as the fighting did not come to a halt in the intervening years. Unlike in the Mixtón rebellion, the Caxcanes were now allied with the Spanish; the war was fought in the Bajío region known as La Gran Chichimeca in the Mexican states of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes and San Luis Potosi. The Council of the Caxcan Indians was formed in the 1920s by Juana Belén Gutiérrez de Mendoza, a Caxcan from Durango, she published Alto!, a book which stressed Mexican Nationalism through indigenous roots and after the alleged extinction of the Caxcan people, is quoted as saying "We do not recognize the right of any race to impose its civilization upon us" as a way to promote indigeneity
Francisco Tenamaztle Tenamaxtlan, Tenamaxtli or Tenamaxtle, was a leader of the Caxcan Indians in Mexico during the Mixton War of 1540–1542. He was put on trial in Spain. With the support of Bartolomé de las Casas he defended the justice of his cause by appealing to King Carlos I; the first contact of the Caxcan and other indigenous peoples of northwestern Mexico with the Spanish, was in 1529 when Nuño Beltrán de Guzmán set forth from Mexico City with 300–400 Spaniards and 5,000 to 8,000 Aztec and Tlaxcaltec allies on a march through the future states of Nayarit, Durango and Zacatecas. Over a six-year period Guzman conducted frequent violent slave raids throughout Northern Mexico, enslaving thousands of Indians. Guzmán and his lieutenants founded towns and Spanish settlements in the region, called Nueva Galicia, including Guadalajara, the first temporary site of, at Tenamaztle’s home of Nochistlán, Zacatecas; the Spaniards encountered increased resistance as they moved further from the complex hierarchical societies of Central Mexico and attempted to force Indians into servitude through the encomienda system.
Tenamaztle was baptized a Catholic sometime after Guzman’s expedition and given the Christian name Francisco. He became "Lord Tlatoani of Nochistlan," an urban center and region in the southern part of Zacatecas; the Caxcan Indians are considered part of the Chichimeca, a generic term used by the Spaniards and Aztecs for all the nomadic and semi-nomadic Native Americans living in the deserts of northern Mexico. However, the Caxcanes seem to have been sedentary, depending upon agriculture for their livelihood and living in permanent towns and settlements, they were the most northerly of the agricultural, town-and-city dwelling peoples of interior Mexico. At the same time as his baptism, Tenamaztle swore allegiance to the Spanish crown and was confirmed in his position and any property he owned. Spanish rule, was oppressive and in mid-1540 the Caxcanes and their allies, the Zacatecos and other Chichimeca tribes, revolted; the command structure of the Caxcanes is unknown but the most prominent leader who emerged was Tenamaztle.
The spark which set off the Míxton War was the arrest of 18 rebellious Indian leaders and the hanging of nine of them in mid 1540. In the same year the Indians rose up to kill the encomendero Juan de Arze. Spanish authorities became aware that the Indians were participating in "devilish" dances. After killing two Catholic priests, many Indians fled the encomiendas and took refuge in the mountains on the hill fortress of Mixton. Acting Governor Cristobal de Oñate led a Indian force to quell the rebellion; the Caxcanes killed a peace delegation of ten Spanish soldiers. Oñate attempted to storm Mixtón. Oñate requested reinforcements from the capital, Mexico City; the Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza called upon the experienced conquistador Pedro de Alvarado to assist in putting down the revolt. Alvarado declined to await reinforcements and attacked Mixton in June 1541 with four hundred Spaniards and an unknown number of Indian allies, he was met there by an Indian army, estimated by the Spanish to number 15,000, under Tenamaztle and Don Diego, a Zacateco.
The first attack of the Spanish was repulsed with many Indian allies killed. Subsequent attacks by Alvarado were unsuccessful and on June 24 he was crushed when a horse fell on him, he subsequently died on July 4. Emboldened, the Indians were repulsed; the Indian army retired to other strongpoints. The Spanish authorities were now alarmed and feared that the revolt would spread, they assembled a force of 450 Spaniards and 30 to 60 thousand Aztec and other Indians and under Viceroy Mendoza invaded the land of the Caxcanes. With his overwhelming force, Mendoza reduced the Indian strongholds one-by-one in a war of no quarter. On November 9, 1541, he captured the city of Nochistlan and Tenamaztle—but the Indian leader escaped. In early 1542 the stronghold of Mixton fell to the Spaniards and the rebellion was over; the aftermath of the Caxcan's defeat was that "thousands were dragged off in chains to the mines, many of the survivors were transported from their homelands to work on Spanish farms and haciendas.
By the viceroy's order men and children were seized and executed, some by cannon fire, some torn apart by dogs, others stabbed. The reports of the excessive violence against civilian Indians caused the Council of the Indies to undertake a secret investigation into the conduct of the viceroy. With the defeat, Guaxicar, another leader, their followers, retreated into the mountains of Nayarit where they lived in hiding for nine years; this area occupied by the Cora people, did not come under the complete control of the Spanish until 1722, the last bastion of Indian opposition to Spanish rule in Nueva Galicia. In 1551, Tenamaztle voluntarily surrendered to the Bishop of Nueva Galicia who brought him to Mexico City. After an investigation, on August 12, 1552 Spanish authorities established his identity as the leader of the Caxcanes in the Mixton War and on November 17 he was ordered to be sent for trial to Spain. In Spain, Tenamaztle was imprisoned in Valladolid and took up residence in a Dominican monastery.
Here he met Bartolomé de las Casas. The wheels of justice rolled and it was July 1, 1555 before he had an opportunity to present his case to the King and the Council of the Indies. Tenamaztle’s strategy was to establish that he was the rightful tl
The Chichimeca War was a military conflict waged by Spain against the Chichimeca Confederation established in the lowlands of Mexico, called La Gran Chichimeca located in the West North-Central Mexican states. The region is now called the Bajío, it was recorded as the Spanish Empire's longest and most expensive war campaign against any indigenous people in the Americas. The result of the forty-year war was economic defeat; the Chichimeca War began eight years after the two year Mixtón War. It can be considered a continuation of the rebellion as the fighting did not come to a halt in the intervening years. Unlike in the Mixtón rebellion, the Caxcanes were now allied with the Spanish; the war was fought in the present-day Bajío region, known as La Gran Chichimeca in the Mexican states of Zacatecas, Aguascalientes, Jalisco and San Luis Potosí. On September 8, 1546 natives near the Cerro de la Bufa in what would become the city of Zacatecas showed the Spaniard Juan de Tolosa several pieces of silver-rich ore.
News of the silver strike soon spread across New Spain. The dream of quick wealth caused a large number of Spaniards to migrate from southern Mexico to the present-day city of Zacatecas in the heartland of La Gran Chichimeca. Soon the mines of San Martín, Avino, Fresnillo and Nieves were established; the Chichimeca nations resented the intrusions by the Spanish on their sovereign ancestral lands. Spanish soldiers soon began raiding native territory trying to acquire slaves for the mines. To supply and communicate with the mines in and near Zacatecas, new roads were built from Querétaro and Jalisco across Chichimeca lands; the caravans full of goods along the roads were economic targets for Chichimecan warriors. The Chichimecas were nomadic and semi-nomadic people who occupied the large desert basin stretching from present day Saltillo and Durango in the north to Querétaro and Guadalajara in the south. Within this area of about 160,000 square kilometres, the Chichimecas lived by hunting and gathering mesquite beans, the edible parts of the agave plants, the fruit and leaves of cactus.
In favored areas some of the Chichimeca grew other crops. Chichimeca population is hard to estimate, although based on the average density of nomadic cultures they numbered 30,000 to 60,000; the Chichimecas lived in rancherias of crude shelters or natural shelters such as caves moving from one area to another to take advantage of seasonal foods and hunting. The Chichimeca referred to themselves as "Children of the Wind", living religiously from the natural land; the characteristics most noted about them by the Spanish was that both women and men wore little clothing, grew their hair long, painted and tattooed their bodies. They were accused of cannibalism, although this accusation has been disputed, due to the Spanish attempt to smear natives as savages in order to justify forced conversion to Catholicism by Spain during the Mexican Inquisition; the Chichimecas Confederation consisted of four main nations: Guachichiles, Pames and Zacatecos. These nations had decentralized governments, were more of independent states.
Due to decentralized political unity, their territories overlapped and other Chichimecs joined one or another in raids. The Guachichiles' territory centered on the area around what would become the city of San Luis Potosí, they seem to have been the most numerous of the four ethnic groups and the de facto leaders of the Chichimecas. Their name meant "Red Colored Hair" from a pigment that they applied to their skin and clothing. Living in close proximity to the silver road between Querétaro and Zacatecas, they were the most feared of the native raiders; the Pames lived north of present-day Mexican state of Querétaro and south and east of the Guachichiles. They were militant of the Chichimecas, they had absorbed some of the cultural practices of the more urbanized native nations. The Guamares lived in present-day Mexican state of Guanajuato, they had more political unity than other Chichimecas and were considered by one writer as the most "treacherous and destructive of all the Chichimecas and the most astute."
The Guamares and the mestizo population of Dolores Hidalgo, on the silver road to San Miguel de Allende initiated the Mexican War for Independence shortly after sent a battalion of reinforcements to the Battle of Puebla during the French intervention in Mexico. The Zacatecos lived in the present-day Mexican states of Durango, they had participated in the earlier Mixtón War and thus were experienced fighters against the Spanish. Some of the Zacatecos grew maize; the nomadic culture of the Chichimecas made it difficult for the Spanish to defeat them. The bow was their principal weapon and one experienced observer said the Zacatecos were "the best archers in the world." Their bows were short less than four feet long, their arrows were long and thin and made of reed and tipped with obsidian, volcanic rock sharper than a modern-day razor. Despite the fragility of the obsidian arrows they had excellent penetrating qualities against Spanish armor, de rigueur for soldiers fighting the Chichimeca. Many-layered buckskin armor was preferred to chain mail as obsidian arrows penetrated the links of the mail.
The Chichimeca bow and arrow was expertly crafted allowing for penetration of Spanish armor. There are two Spanish accounts of the Chichimeca's archery skill that Powell writes in his book: On one occasion I saw them throw an orange into the air, they shot into it so many arrows that, having held it in the air for much time, it f
Guadalajara is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Jalisco, the seat of the municipality of Guadalajara. The city is in the central region of Jalisco in the Western-Pacific area of Mexico. With a population of 1,460,148 inhabitants, it is Mexico's second most populous municipality; the Guadalajara metropolitan area has a reported population of 5,002,466 inhabitants, making it the second most populous metropolitan area in Mexico, behind Mexico City. The municipality is the second most densely populated in Mexico, the first being Ciudad Nezahualcóyotl in the State of Mexico, it is a strong business and economic center in the Bajío region. Guadalajara is the 10th largest Latin American city in population, urban area and gross domestic product; the city is named after the Spanish city of Guadalajara, its economy is based on services and industry information technology, with a large number of international firms having regional offices and manufacturing facilities in the Guadalajara Metropolitan Area, several domestic IT companies headquartered in the city.
Other, more traditional industries, such as shoes and food processing are important contributing factors. Guadalajara is a cultural centre of Mexico, considered by most to be the home of mariachi music and host to a number of large-scale cultural events such as the Guadalajara International Film Festival, the Guadalajara International Book Fair, globally renowned cultural events which draw international crowds, it is home to the C. D. Guadalajara, one of the most popular football clubs in Mexico; this city was named the American Capital of Culture for 2005. Guadalajara hosted the 2011 Pan American Games; the city was established in five other places before moving to its current location. The first settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as Zacatecas; this site was settled by Cristóbal de Oñate as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán, with the purpose of securing recent conquests and defending them against the still-hostile natives. The settlement did not last long at this spot due to the lack of water.
Four years Guzmán ordered that the village be moved to Tlacotán. While the settlement was in Tlacotán, the Spanish king Charles I granted the coat of arms that the city still has today; this settlement was ferociously attacked during the Mixtón War in 1543 by Caxcan and Zacateco peoples under the command of Tenamaxtli. The war was initiated by the natives due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán, in particular the enslavement of captured natives. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza had to take control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements; the conflict ended after Mendoza made some concessions to the Indians such as freeing the Indian slaves and granting amnesty. The village of Guadalajara survived the war, the villagers attributed their survival to the Archangel Michael, who remains the patron of the city, it was decided to move the city once again, this time to Atemajac. The city has remained there to this day. In 1542, records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara and, in the same year, the status of city was granted by the king of Spain.
Guadalajara was founded on February 14, 1542 in the Valley of Atemajac. The settlement's name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño de Guzmán. In 1559, royal offices for the province of Nueva Galicia were moved from Compostela to Guadalajara, as well as the bishopric. Construction of the cathedral began in 1563. In 1575, religious orders such as the Augustinians and Dominicans arrived, which would make the city a center for evangelization efforts; the historic city center encompasses what was four centers of population, as the villages of Mezquitán, Analco and Mexicaltzingo were annexed to the Atemajac site in 1669. In 1791, the University of Guadalajara was established in the city, the capital of Nueva Galicia; the inauguration was held in 1792 at the site of the old Santo Tomas College. While the institution was founded during the 18th century, it would not be developed until the 20th century, starting in 1925. In 1794, the Hospital Real de San Miguel de Belén, or the Hospital de Belén, was opened.
Guadalajara's economy during the 18th century was based on agriculture and the production of non-durable goods such as textiles and food products. Guadalajara remained the capital of Nueva Galicia with some modifications until the Mexican War of Independence. After Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla decided not to attack Mexico City, despite early successes, he retreated to Guadalajara in late 1810, he and his army were welcome in the city, as living conditions had become difficult for workers and Hidalgo promised to lower taxes and put an end to slavery. However, violence by the rebel army to city residents royalists, soured the welcome. Hidalgo did sign a proclamation ending slavery, honored in the country since after the war. During this time, he founded the newspaper El Despertador Americano, dedicated to the insurgent cause. Royalist forces marched to Guadalajara. Insurgents Ignacio Allende and Mariano Abasolo wanted to concentrate their forces in the city and plan an escape route should they be defeated, but Hidalgo rejected this.
Their second choice was to make a stand at the Puente de Calderon just outside the city. Hidalgo had between 80,000 and 100,000 men and 95 cannons, but the better-trained royalists won, decimating the insurgent army, forcing Hidalgo to flee toward Aguascalientes. Guadalajara remained in royalist hands until nearly the end of the war. After the state of Jalisco was erect
Aguascalientes the Free and Sovereign State of Aguascalientes, is one of the 31 states which, with Mexico City, comprise the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. It is divided into 11 municipalities and its capital city is Aguascalientes, it is located in North-Central Mexico. It is bordered by the states of Zacatecas to Jalisco to the south, its name originated from the abundance of hot springs in the area. The demonym for the state's inhabitants is aguascalentense. Pre-Columbian era arrowheads and rock paintings in the caverns of the Sierra del Laurel and near the present village of Las Negritas testify to the presence of man in this territory for more than 20,000 years. In the colonial times, Pedro Almíndez Chirino was the first Spaniard who entered the territory by the end of 1530 or the beginning of 1531, following the instructions given by Nuño de Guzmán. Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the territory of what is now the State of Aguascalientes was inhabited by Chichimecas, who made the territory difficult to access.
In fact, the total occupation of the lands of El Bajío was a task that would take about two centuries. With respect to this, Viceroy Luis de Velasco offered municipal benefits to those who established settlements to confront the Chichimeca, and for his part, Viceroy Gastón de Peralta decided to confront them directly, which did not end with good results. It was in order to be in the territory, presently the state inhabited by Chichimecas, the so-called Guachichiles, that the conquistadors built several forts or presidios; this was a system devised by Martín Enríquez de Almanza following the strategy, developing in Spain throughout the Reconquista period. Therefore, in order to protect the Camino de la Plata, which stretched between Zacatecas and Mexico City, three presidios founded by the Indian fighter Juan Domínguez, were to be created, which were: the presidio at Las Bocas called Las Bocas de Gallardo, situated on the border of Aguascalientes, in what was the jurisdiction of the mayor of Teocaltiche, presently the border of Aguascalientes and Zacatecas.
The latter was located on what are now Moctezuma and Victoria Streets, although some historians place it on the Calle 5 de Mayo at Moctezuma, just in front of the Plaza de Armas. This was a fortress whose purpose was the protection of the Valle de los Romero and the road to Zacatecas, entering this way to secure the passage of convoys loaded with silver and other metals; the founding of Aguascalientes as a town came from the order that King Felipe II gave the judge of the court of Nueva Galicia, Don Gerónimo de Orozco, in which he stated that he should look for a rich man to settle in the territory with the purpose of expelling the Chichimecas and of assuring safe passage. Gerónimo de Orozco, following that order, looked for someone who would accept the king's order and found a man named Juan de Montoro in the city of Santa María de los Lagos, he accepted the assignment and, accompanied by eleven other people, headed to the territory and thus founded the town of Aguas Calientes on October 22, 1575.
It has been noted that it was called San Marcos changing its name on August 18, 1611, to the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. And from June 2, 1875, it was called the Villa of Our Lady of the Assumption of Aguas Calientes. In the act of its establishment, the Villa de San Marcos was awarded the highest mayoral jurisdiction under the Kingdom of New Galicia; as of December 4, 1786, on the occasion of the issuance of the "Ordinance of Mayors," it became a quartermaster sub-delegation. On April 24, 1789, by order of the Superior Board of Royal Property, the sub-delegation of Aguascalientes became a dependency of Zacatecas. In the Mexican War of Independence, in the territory, today the state of Aguascalientes, the fires of independence were stoked by illustrious and courageous men such as Valentin Gómez Farías, Rafael Iriarte, Rafael Vázquez, Pedro Parga. Confusion has arisen regarding the exact date when Aguascalientes formally separated from the territory of Zacatecas. By virtue of having, de facto, defeated the liberal government of Zacatecas by rising against the central government, president Antonio López de Santa Anna passed through Aguascalientes, where he was well received by the people who had wanted to separate from Zacatecas for some time.
Taking advantage of the independent souls of the Aguascalentenses, by way of punishing Zacatecas for supporting the Revolution against them, by Federal Decree of General López de Santa Anna dated May 23, 1835, in the third article. With respect to this, it must be mentioned that said order was not made official as it did not meet the legal requirements to take effect, since it was necessary that two thirds of each house, both Senators and Representatives, approved the order; the second requirement not being completed, the constitutional congress convened again to develop the centralized constitution that would be known as the Seven Laws. The constitution did not acknowledge Aguascalientes