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Mixtape

A mixtape is a compilation of music from multiple sources, recorded onto a medium. With origins in the 1980s, the term describes a homemade compilation of music onto a cassette tape, CD, or digital playlist; the songs are either ordered sequentially or made into a continuous program by beatmatching the songs and creating seamless transitions at their beginnings and endings with fades or abrupt edits. Essayist Geoffrey O'Brien described this definition of the mixtape as "perhaps the most practiced American art form". In hip hop and R&B culture, a mixtape describes a self-produced or independently released album issued free of charge to gain publicity or avoid possible copyright infringement. However, the term has been applied to a number of releases published for profit in the 2010s. Homemade mix tapes became common in the 1980s. Although the compact audio cassette by Philips appeared at the 1963 Berlin Radio Show, the sound quality of cassettes was not good enough to be considered for music recording until further advances in tape formulations, including the advent of chrome and metal tape.

Before the introduction of the audio cassette, the creation of a pop music compilation required specialized or cumbersome equipment, such as a reel-to-reel or 8 track recorder, inaccessible to the casual music fan. As cassette tapes and recorders grew in popularity and portability, these technological hurdles were lowered to the point where the only resources required to create a mix were a handful of cassettes and a cassette recorder connected to a source of pre-recorded music, such as a radio or LP player; the 8-track tape cartridge was more popular for music recording during much of the 1960s, as the cassette was only mono and intended for vocal recordings only, such as in office dictation machines. But improvements in fidelity allowed the cassette to become a major player; the ready availability of the cassette and higher quality home recording decks to serve the casual home user allowed the cassette to become the dominant tape format, to the point that the 8 track tape nearly disappeared shortly after the turn of the 1980s.

The growth of the mixtape was encouraged by improved quality and increased popularity of audio cassette players in car entertainment systems, by the introduction of the Sony Walkman in 1979. A distinction should be drawn between a private mixtape, intended for a specific listener or private social event, a public mixtape, or "party tape" consisting of a recording of a club performance by a DJ and intended to be sold to multiple individuals. In the 1970s, such DJs as Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, Afrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Force, Kool Herc and the Herculoids, DJ Hollywood would distribute recordings of their club performances via audio cassette, as well as customized recordings for individual tape purchasers; these recordings tended to be of higher technical ability than home-made mixtapes and incorporated techniques such as beatmatching and scratching. One 12 October 1974 article in Billboard Magazine reported, "Tapes were dubbed by jockeys to serve as standbys for times when they did not have disco turntables to hand.

The tapes represent each jockey's concept of programming and sequencing of record sides. The music is heard without interruption. One- to three-hour programs bring anywhere from $30 to $75 per tape reel-to-reel, but on cartridge and cassette." Club proprietors, as well as DJs, would prepare such tapes for sale. Throughout the 1980s, mixtapes were a visible element of youth culture. However, the increased availability of CD burners and MP3 players and the gradual disappearance of cassette players in cars and households have led to a decline in the popularity of the compact audio cassette as a medium for homemade mixes; the high point of traditional mixtape culture was arguably the publication of Nick Hornby's novel High Fidelity in 1995. Since mixtapes have been replaced by mix CDs and shared MP3 playlists, which are more durable, can hold more songs, require minutes to prepare, MP3 players take only seconds compared to CD-Rs. Today, websites concerned with electronic music provide; these consist of recorded DJ sets of live, beat-matched mixes of songs, which are used by DJs seeking to demonstrate their mixing skills to an online audience.

Some radio shows worldwide specialize in mix series, including The Breezeblock on BBC Radio 1, The Solid Steel Show, Eddy Temple-Morris/The Remix on Xfm. Additionally, DJs such as Grandmaster Flash, DJ QBert, DJ Spooky, DJ Z-Trip or DJ Shadow, The Avalanches, Rjd2 have gained fame for creating new songs by combining fragments of existing songs; the resulting remix or mash-up can be seen as an evolution of the mixtape, in that it appropriates existing songs to give them new meanings through their juxtaposition, but does so in a quicker, more integrated style. This practice is derived from the use of song loops as musical backdrops for an MC's rhymes in hip hop music, related to turntablism. Frank Creighton, a director of anti-copyright infringement efforts for the Recording Industry Association of America, considers that "money did not have to be involved for copying to be illegal". While the process of recording a mix onto an audio cassette from LPs or compact discs is technically straightforward, many music fans who create more than one mixtape are compelled to confront some of the practical a

1940 in aviation

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1940: The world's first high-performance, purpose-built night fighter, the British Bristol Beaufighter, enters combat. The Consolidated Aircraft Corporation absorbs the Hall Aluminum Aircraft Corporation. Transcontinental and Western Air inaugurates the world's first in-flight audio entertainment for airline passengers, who have individual receivers with which to listen to commercial radio broadcasts; the Soviets use observation balloons to pinpoint the locations of Finnish artillery emplacements and bunkers during the month, a static period of the Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland. The Soviet Air Force engages in continuous bombardment of Finnish ground positions; the German Luftwaffe's chief of intelligence, Colonel Josef "Beppo" Schmid, reports that the British Royal Air Force and French Air Force are "clearly inferior in strength and armament in comparison to the Luftwaffe," that an entry into World War II by the United States would not alone improve the status of Allied air power during 1940, that British fighters stood little chance in combat with the German Messerschmitt Bf 110 twin-engine fighter.

January 6 – Finnish Air Force Lieutenant Jorma Sarvanto shoots down six Soviet Ilyushin DB-3 bombers out of a formation of seven in four minutes. January 10 – A German Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 108 Taifun liaison aircraft carrying a copy of Case Yellow, the German plan for a proposed attack on neutral Belgium and the Netherlands, strays off course into Belgium and crash-lands near Mechelen-sur-Meuse; the Belgians communicate the plans to the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, although the resulting international crisis soon dies down. January 19 – The first flight from Dublin Airport in the Republic of Ireland takes place; the flight is to England. February 1 – The Soviets begin a new ground offensive in Finland, supported by about 500 bombers. February 28 – Germany begins the scrapping of the second Graf Zeppelin-class aircraft carrier, Flugzeugträger B, while she still is incomplete on the building ways. Scrapping is completed four months later. February 29 An attack by 40 Polikarpov I-153 and Polikarpov I-16 fighters on the Finnish Air Force airfield at Ruokalahti is the most successful Soviet Air Force strike of the Winter War.

Surprising the Finns on the ground, the Soviets shoot down three Gloster Gladiators as they try to get airborne and shoot down two more Gladiators and a Fokker D. XXI in an ensuring dogfight, losing only one I-16 in exchange; the Finnish government asks the United Kingdom and France to send 100 bombers with crews and bombs to Finland at once to assist in the war with the Soviet Union. The United States begins construction of a U. S. Navy seaplane base at Midway Atoll. March 2 – The United Kingdom and France promise to send 100 bombers with crews and bombs to assist Finland at once, but do not follow through on the promise. March 6 – France informs the Finnish government that it will dispatch an expeditionary force including 72 bombers to Finland on March 13, but the Winter War ends before the French force can begin its journey. March 13 – The Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland ends in the defeat of Finland. During the 3½-month war, the Finnish Air Force has grown from 96 to 287 aircraft, has lost 62 aircraft in air-to-air combat and 59 more damaged beyond repair, while the Soviet Union has lost between 700 and 900 – 725 confirmed destroyed and about 200 unconfirmed – of the 2,500 to 3,000 aircraft it has committed to the campaign, another 300 damaged.

The Soviet Air Force has dropped 150,000 bombs – about 7,500 tons of bombs – on Finnish territory, but has performed poorly. March 16 – The United Kingdom suffers its first civilian air-raid casualties of World War II during a raid by the Luftwaffe's Kampfgeschwader 26 on Scapa Flow. March 19–20 – Royal Air Force Bomber Command conducts its first attack of World War II against a land target, when 20 Hampdens and 30 Whitleys strike the German seaplane base at Hörnum on the island of Sylt. One Whitley is lost. March 25 – The United States Government grants permission to American aircraft manufacturers to sell advanced combat aircraft to countries fighting the Axis powers. For the second time, U. S. Army Air Corps bombers from Oahu bomb lava tubes to try to prevent lava from an eruption of Mauna Loa from reaching Hilo in the Territory of Hawaii; the bombing fails, although the lava stops before reaching Hilo. April 9 – Germany invades Denmark and Norway, making extensive use of paratroops. RAF Bomber Command is ordered to halt the German advance through southern Norway.

April 10 – German Dornier Do 17s and Heinkel He 111s attack British towns and shore facilities in the Scapa Flow area in the Orkney Islands. Defending Gloster Sea Gladiators of the Fleet Air Arm's No. 804 Squadron shoot down one He 111. April 10 – Sixteen Royal Navy Fleet Air Arm Blackburn Skua dive bombers sink the German light cruiser Königsberg at Bergen, Norway, it is the first time in history. One Skua is lost. April 11 – The first aerial torpedo attack of World War II and the first coordinated torpedo attack launched from an aircraft carrier in history takes place, as Fairey Swordfish torpedo bombers from the British aircraft carrier HMS Furious attack two German destroyers in Trondheimsfjord, Norway; the tor

Cardiff Tramways Company

Cardiff Tramways Company operated a horse tramway service in Cardiff between 1872 and 1902. The Provincial Tramways Company was floated in July 1872 by means of a prospectus inviting public subscription for shares in a new company; the published prospectus stated an intention to set up horse tramway companies in various towns including Cardiff. Within a year those in Plymouth and Cardiff were in operation as reported to the half yearly meeting of the company in 1873. Cardiff Tramways Company was a wholly owned subsidiary company of The Provincial Tramways Company and its first horse tramways were in operation by July 1872 from High Street in the city center to the Docks, 6 miles of route were operated. On 10 December 1877, the Council approved the operation of services on Christmas Day, subject to some improvements in the operation of the service in general and to the removal of the smell arising from the bad oil used in lighting the cars. In 1887 after a protracted trading war with the horse bus operations of Solomon Andrews in Cardiff and Portsmouth a settlement was reached whereby The Provincial Tramways Company bought the operations of Solomon Andrews in those towns, full details of the settlement were reported at the companies 30th AGM.1889 was a year marked by several industrial disputes between the tramway company and its staff reaching a climax at the end of June with serious disorder on the streets as strikers stopped the trams operating.

In 1898, Cardiff County Borough Council obtained Parliamentary powers to take over all the tramways in the area and go ahead with the new electric trams, owning them from 1902, under the revised name Cardiff Corporation Tramways. The company was operating 52 horse tramcars at the beginning of 1902 when most of the tramways was purchased by the council. From 1902 the Cardiff Tramways Company continued to operate its horse buses in Cardiff until 1908, from 1907 it had started to operate motor buses and developed a motor bus fleet of various types; this operation ended on 1 October 1922 when the business and assets of the company were sold to Cardiff Corporation. The company was put into voluntary liquidation and wound up in 1936; the first route opened in 1872 was from Bute Docks Pier Head northwards to the High Street. That year another route was opened from the High Street eastwards via The Hayes and Queen Street to Roath in 1879 extended a further half mile eastwards. In 1879 a route westwards from the High Street to Canton was constructed.

Another route was built from the High Street southwards to Clarence Road terminating near to the Pier Head line and a route was opened from the High Street north to Cathays via Salisbury Road. The complete network was operated by 52 open top double deck horse trams using 3 depots; the 1887 takeover of the operations of Solomon Andrews included the operating contract for the Cardiff District and Penarth Harbour Tramways which ran east to west across the city from Roath to Lower Grangetown but it never reached Penarth Harbour. This tramway remained with the Cardiff Tramways Company than the rest and was only taken over by the council in 1903